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I. Grande Acceptation 

II. The Book of the Law 17 

IIL Avignon 28 

IV. NoSugar 89 

Y. Kings and Emigrants 43 

VI. Brigands and Jal^s 57 

VII. Constitution will not march Q2 

Vm. The Jacobins 68 

IX. Minister Roland 74 

X. P6tion-National-Pique 80 

XI, The Hereditary Representative 83 

XII. Procession of the Black Breeches 88 


I. Executive that does not act 90 

II. Letus march 105 

III. Some Consolation to Mankind 109 

IV. Subterranean I15 

V. At Dinner II9 

VI. The Steeples at Midnight 125 

VIL The Swiss 188 

Vlil. Constitution burst in Pieces I4fi 






The Improvised Conmiuno 



September In Paris 

A Trilogy 

The Circular 

September In ATBonne.. 


I. The Deliberative 

II, TheEiecutive 

II. Diaeixiwned 

V. The Loser pays. 

V. StretchinB of Fonnulas 

VI. At the Bar 



L Cauae and Effect 301 

II. CulottloandSaDSCulotUo 810 

11. Growing BhriU S11 

V. Fatherland In Danger 838 

V. BaQBOulottlBm accoutred 831 

Ih The Traitor  B89 

II, InPlBht. 31S 

II. In Deaih-GiipB 81S 

IX BxUnat.<" ^^ 



I. Charlotte Corday 365 

n. InCivilWar 376 

IIL Retreat oif the Eleven 381 

IV. O Natui-e 387 

V. Sword of Sharpness 304 

VI. Risen agrainst Tyrants 399 

VII. Marie-Antoinette 404 

VIII. The Twenty-two 408 


I. Rushingrdown 414 

n. Death 420 

III. Destruction 429 

IV. Carmagnole complete 442 

V. Like a Thunder-Cloud 451 

VI. DothyDuty 456 

VIL ilame-Picture 466 


I. The Gods are nthlrst 473 * 

II. Danton, no Weakness 481 

ni. The Tumbrils.... 489 

IV. MumboJumbo '. 496 

V. The Prisons 501 

VI. To finish the Terror 506 

VIL Go down to 513 


I. Decadent 523 

n. IjSl Cabarus 628 

m. Qulberon 534 


IV. Lionnotdead 689 

V. Lion sprawlingr its last 644 

VI. Grilled Herrlngrs 553 

VII. The WWflfW Grapeshot 658 

Vni. Finis 666 

Chronologrical Summary 671 

Index 585 







' 1015. In the last nights ot September, when the 
autumnal equinox is past, and gray September fades 
into brown October, why are the Champs Elys^es 
illumihated ; why is Paris dancing, and flinging fire- 
works ? They are gala-nights, these last of Septem- 
ber; Paris may well dance,'and the Universe: the 
Edifice of the Constitution is completed ! Complete ; 
nay revised^ to see that there was nothing insuffi- 
cient in it, solemnly proffered to his Majesty ; sol- 
emnly accepted by him, to the sound of cannon- 
salvoes, on the 14th of the month; -And now by such 
illumination, jubilee, dancing and fire- working, do 
we joyously handsel the new Social Edifice, and first 
raise heat and reek there, in the name of JEiope. 

1016. The Revision, especially with a throne stand- 
ing on its vertex, has been a work of difficulty, of 
delicacy. In the way of propping and buttressing, 


so indispensable now, something could be done , and 
yet, as is feared, not enough. A repentant Bamave 
Triumvirate, our Rabauts, Duports, Thourets, and 
indeed all Constitutional Deputies did strain every 
nerve . but the Extreme Left v^as so noisy ; the Peo- 
ple were so suspicious, clamorous to have the work 
ended ; and then the loyal liight Side sat feeble-petu* 
lant all the while, and as it were pouting and pet' 
ting ; unable to help, had they even been willing^ 
The Two Hundred and Ninety had solemnly made 
scission, before that, and departed, shaking the dust 
off their feet. To ^ such transcendency of fret, and 
desperate hope that worsening of the bad might the 
sooner end it and bring back the good, had our nn- 
fortunate loyal Right Side now come!* 

1017. However, one finds that this and the other 
little prop has been added, where possibility allowed. 
Civil-list and Privy-purse were from of old well 
cared for. King's Constitutional Guard, Eighteen 
hundred loyal men from the Eighty-three Depart- 
ments, under a loyal Duke de Brissac; this, with 
trustworthy Swiss besides, is of itself something. 
The old loyal Body-guards are indeed dissolved, in 
name as well as in fact ; and gone mostly toward 
Coblentz. But now also those Sansculottic violent 
Gardes Franyaises, or Center Grenadiers, shall have 
their mittimus : they do ere long, in the Journals, 
not without a hoarse pathos, publish their farewell ; 
" wishing all aristocrats the graves in Paris which to 
us are denied."! They depart, these first Soldiers of 

* Touiongeon, ii. 56, 59. 

t "Histoire Parlementaire," xiii. 73. 



the Revolution ; they hover very dimly in the dis- 
tance for about another year ; till they can be re- 
modeled, new-named, and sent to fight the Austrians ; 
and then History beholds them no more. A most 
notable Corps of men ; which has its place in World- 
History ; — though to us, so is History written, they 
remain mere rubrics of men; nameless; a shaggy 
Grenadier Mass, crossed with buff-belts. And yet 
might we not ask : What Argonauts, what Leonidas 
Spartans had done such a work ? Think of their 
destiny : since that May morning, some three years 
ago, when they, unparticipating, trundled off D'Es- 
pr^m^nil to the Calypso Isles ; since that July even- 
ing, some two years ago, when they, participating 
and saercing with knit brows, poured a volley into 
BfisenvaPs Prince de Lambesc ! History waves them 
her mute adieu. 

1018. So that the Sovereign Power, these Sanscu- 
lottic Watch-dogs, more like wolves, being leashed 
and led away from his Tuileries, breathes freer. The 
Sovereign Power is guarded henceforth by a loyal 
Eighteen Hundred; — whom Contrivance, under 
various pretexts, may gradually swell to 6,000 ; who 
will hinder no journey to Saint-Cloud. The sad 
Varennes business has been soldered up ; cemented, 
even in the blood of the Champ-de-Mars,'*these two 
months and more ; and indeed ever since, as form- 
erly, Mi^jesty has had its privileges, its "choice of 
residence," though, for good reasons, the royal mind 
"prefers continuing in Paris." Poor royal mind, 
poor Paris ; that have to go mumming ; enveloped in 
speciosities, in falsehood which knows itself false ; 


and to enact mutually your sorrowful farce-tragedy ^ 
being bound to it ; and on the whole, to hope always, 
in spite of hope ! 

1019. Nay, now that his Msgesty has accepted the 
Constitution, to the sound of cannon-salvoes, who 
would not hope? Our good King was misguided, 
Iv but he meant well. Lafayette has moved for an 

Amnesty, for universal forgiving and forgetting of 
Revolutionary faults ; and now surely the glorious 
Revolution, cleared of its rubbish, is complete! 
^■.^ Strange enough, and touching in several ways, the 

old cry of Vive le Roi once more rises round King 
Louis the Hereditary Representative. Their Mi^jes- 
ties went to the Opera , gave money to the Poor ; 
the Queen herself, now when the Constitution Is ac- 
Ki cepted, hears voice of cheering. Bygone shall be 

k bygone ; the New Era shall begin ! To and fro, amid 

1^: those lamp-galaxies of the Elysian Fields, the Royal 

&' Carriage slowly wends and rolls; every where with 

^l vivats, from a multitude striving to be glad. Louis 

^ ' looks out, mainly on the variegated lamps and gay 

human groups, with satisfaction enough for the 
» hour. In her Majesty *s face, " under that kind grace- 

ful smile a deep sadness is legible."* Brilliancies of 
valor and of wit stroll here observant : a Dame de 
Stael, leaning most probably on the arm of her Nar- 
bonne. She meets Deputies; who have built this 
Constitution; who saunter here with vague com- 
munings, not without thoughts whether it will 
stand. But as yet melodious fiddle-strings twang 
and warble everywhere, with the rhythm of light 
* De Sta§l, ''Considerations," i. c. 23. 


t*-.-'' - 


fantagtic feet ; long lamp-galaxies fling their colored 
radiance; and brass-lunged Hawkers elbow and 
bawl, " Grande Acceptation, Constitution Monarch- 
ique:" it behooves the Son of Adam to hope. Have 
not Lafayette, Barnave, and all Constitutionalists set 
their shoulders handsomely to the inverted pyramid 
of a throne ? Feuillans, including almost the whol^ 
Constitutional Respectability of France, perorate 
nightly from their tribune ; correspond through all 
Post-offices : denouncing unquiet Jacobinism ; trust- 
ing well that its time is nigh done. Much is uncer- 
tain, questionable : if the Hereditary Representative 
be wise and lucky, may one not, with a sanguine 
Gaelic temper, hope that he will get in motion better 
or worse ; that what is wanting to him will gradually 
be gained and added ? 

1020. For the rest, as we must repeat, in this build- 
ing of the Constitutional Fabric, especially in this 
Revision of it, nothing that one could think of to 
give it new strength, especially to steady it, to give 
it permanence, and even eternity, has been forgotten- 
Biennial Parliament, to be called legislative, Assem- 
bl^e Legislative ; with 745 menbers, chosen in a judi- 
eious manner by the " active citizens " alone, and 
even by electing of electors still more active : this, 
with privileges of Parliament, shall meet, self-author- 
ized if need be, and self-dissolved ; shall grant 
money-supplies and talk ; watch over the adminis- 
tration and authorities ; discharge forever the func- 
tions of a Constitutional Great Council, Collective 
Wisdom and National Palaver — as the Heavens will 
enable. Our First biennial Parliament, which indeed 


has been a choosing since early in Angust, is now as 
good as chosen. Nay it has mostly got to Paris : it 
arrived gradually ; — not without pathetic greeting to 
its venerable Parent, the now moribund Constituent; 
and sat there in the Galleries, reverently listening ; 
ready to begin, the instant the ground were clear. 

1021. Then as to changes in the Constitution it- 
self? This, impossible for any Legislative orcomr 
mou biennial Parliament, and possible solely for some 
resuscitated Constituent or National Convention, is 
evidently one of the most ticklish points. The 
august moribund Assembly debated it for four en- 
tire days. Some thought a change, or at least a re- 
viewal and new approval, might be admissible in 
thirty years ; some even went lower, down to twenty, 
nay to fifteen. The august Assembly had once decided 
for thirty years; but it revoked that, on better 
thoughts ; and did not fix any date of time, but merely 
some vague outline of a posture of circumstances, and, 
on the whole, left the matter hanging.* Doubtless a 
National Convention can be assembled even within the 
thirty years : yet one may hope, not ; but that Legis- 
latives, biennial Parliaments of the common kind 
with their limited faculty, and perhaps quiet succes- 
sive additions thereto, may suffice for generations, oi 
indeed while computed Time runs. 

1022. Furthermore, be it noted that no member 
of this Constituent has been, or could be, elected to 
the new Legislative. So noble-minded were these 
Law-makers ! cry some : and Solon-like would ban- 
ish themselves. So splenetic ! cry more : each grudg. 

• "Choixde Rapports," etc. (Paris, 1826), vl. 289-«17. 



ipg the other, none daring to be outdone in self- 
denial by the other. So unwise in either case ! an- 
swer all practical men. But consider this other self- 
denying ordinance, That none of us can be King's 
Minister^ or accept the smallest Court Appointment, 
for the space of four, or at lowest (and on long de- 
bate and Revision) for the space of two years ! So 
moves the ineorruptible-fiea-green Robespierre : with 
cheap magnanimity he ; and none dare to be outdone 
by him. It was such a law, not superfluous theth 
thiEtt sent Mirabeau to the gardens of Saint-Cloudi 
under cloak of darkness, to that colloquy of the 
gods ; and thwarted many things. Happily and un- 
happily there is no Mirabeau now to thwart. 

1023. Welcomer meanwhile, welcome surely to all 
right hearts, is Lafayette's chivalrous Amnesty. Wel- 
come too is that hard- wrung Union of Avignon ; which 
has cost us, first and la«t, " thirty sessions of debate," 
and so much else; may it at length prove lucky ! 
Rousseau'sstatute is decreed : virtuoiis Jean- Jacques, 
Kvangelist of the Contrat Social. Not Drouet of Varen- 
nes; not worthy Lataille, master of the old world fa- 
mous Tennis-Court in Versailles, is forgotten ; but each 
hashis honorable mention, and due reward in money,* 
Whereupon, things being all so neatly winded up, and 
the Deputations, and Messages, and royal and other cer- 
emonials having rustled by: and the King having now 
affectionately perorated about peace and tranquilliza- 
tion, and members having answered *'Oui ! oui !" with 
effusion, even with tears,— President Thouret, he of the 
Law Reforms, rises, and, with a strong voice, utters 

* Monlteur (in '* Histoire Parlementalre," xl 473. ) 



these memorable last- words : '*The National Consti. 
tuent Assembly declares that it has finished its mis. 
sion; and that its sittings are all ended.'^ Incorrupt- 
ible Robespierre, virtnons Potion, are borne home on 
the shoulders of the people; with vivats heaven-high* 
The rest glide quietly to their respective places of 
abode. It is the last afternoon of Septemb^, 1791 ; 
on the morrow morning the new Legislative will 
begin. I 

1024. So, amid glitter of illuminated streets and 
Champs Elys^s, and crackle of fire«works and glad 
deray, has the first National Assembly vanished ; dU- 
solving, as they well say, into blank Time ; and is no 
more. National Assembly is gone, its work remain- 
ing; as all Bodies of men go, and as man himself 
goes : it had its beginning, and must likewise have 
its end. A Phantasm-Reality bom of Time, as the 
rest of us are ; flitting ever backward now on the tide 
of Time ; to . be long remembered of men. Very 
strange Assemblages, Sanhedrims, Amphictyonic, 
Trades-Unions, Ecumenic Councils, Parliaments 
and Congresses, have met together on this Planet, 
and dispersed again ; but a stranger Assemblage than 
this august Constituent, or with a stranger missioi^ 
perhaps never met there. Seen from the distance, 
this also will be a miracle. Twelve Hundred human 
individuals, with the Gospel of Jean- Jacques Rousseau 
in their pocket, congregating in the name of 25,000,000 
with full assurance of faith, to ^^make the Consti- 
tution:" such sight, the acme and main product of 
the Eighteenth Century, our World can witness once 
only. For Timeiarichinwonders,in monstrosities most 


ric^l and is observed never to repeat hhnself, or auy 
of. hi« Gospels : — surely least of all, this Gospel ac- 
cording to Jean-Jacques. Qnee it was right and iu- 
dkspensable« .since such had become the Belief of 
men ; but once also is enough. 

1035, They have made the Constitution, these 
Twelve Hundred Jean-Jaoques Evangelists; not 
without results. Near twenty-nine months they 
sat, with various capacity ; — always, we may say, in 
that capacity of car-borne Carroccio, and miraculous 
Standard of the Bevolt of Men, as a Thing high and 
lifted np; whereon whosoever looked might hope 
healing. They have seen much, cannons leveled on 
them; then suddenly, by interposition of the Powers, 
the cannons drawn back ; and a war-god Broglie van- 
ishing, in thunder TUtt his own, amid the dust and 
down*rushing of a Bastille and Old Feudal France. 
They have suffered somewhat; Royal Session, with 
rain and Oath of the Tennis-Court; Nights of Pente- 
cost ; Insurrections of Women. Also have they not 
done somewhat? Made the Constitution, and man- 
aged all things the while ; passed, in these twenty- 
nine months, "twenty-five hundred Decrees," which 
on the average is some three for each day, inclading 
Sundays ! Brevity, one finds, is possible, at times : 
had not Moreau de St. Mdry to give 3,000 orders be- 
fore rising from his seat? — There was valor (or value) 
in these men ; and a kind of faith were it only faith 
in this, That cobwebs are not cloth ; that a Constitu- 
tion could be made. Cobwebs and chimeras ought 
verily to disappear ; for a Reality there is. Let ibr- 
[ mnlas, soul-killing, and now grown body -killing, in- 




pMUble, begone, in the name of HeSTen and 
h '—Time, as we say, brongbt forth theae Twelve 
dred ; Eternity was before them, Eternity behind; 

worked, as we all do, in the eonflaence of Two 
oitiea; what iias given them. Say not that it - 
notiiing they did. Coneciouslj they did some- 
.i unconsciously how much! They had their 
M and their dwarfe, they aeeMnpliahed their 

and their evil ; they are gone, and return no 
. Shall they not go with onr blessing, in these 
mstances; with oar miid farewell ? 
i6. By post, by diligence, on saddle orsole; they 
{One : toward the four winds. Not a lew over 
tarches, to rank at Coblentz. Thithei wended 
J, amongothera; but in theend toward Rome, 
be clothed there in red Cardinal plush ; in false- 
as in ft garment; pet son (her losi bom?) of the 
et Woman. Talleyrand-Perigord, escommnni- 

Constitutlonal Bishop, wilt make his way to 
ou : to be Ambassador, spite of the Self-denying 

brisk young Marquis Chauvelin acting as Am- 
dor's-Cloak. In London too, one finds Potion 
irtuous; harangued and haranguing, pledging 
vine-cup with Coustitulional Reform-Clubs, in 
n tavern-dinner. Incorruptible Bobespiene 
9 for a little to native Arraa; seven short weeks 
et ; the last appointed him in the world. Pub- 
:cw3er in the Paris Department, aeknowedged 
priest of the Jacobins; the glass of incorrupti- 
lin Patriotiam, for his narrow emphasis is loved 
the narrow,— this man seema tobe rising, som^ 
et? He sella his small heritage at Amu ^ ac- 


eompanied by a Brother and a Sistet, he returns, 
scheming ottt with resolute timidity a small sure 
destiny for himself and them, to his old lodging, at 
the Cabinet-maker's, in the Rue St. Honor(5 : O reso- 
lute-tremulous incorruptible sea-green mail, toward 
what a destiny ! 

10^7. Lafayette, for his part, will lay down the 
command. He retires €incinnatus-like to his hearth 
and Istnn ; but soon leaves them again. Our National 
Guard, however, shall henceforth have no one Com- 
mandant ; but all Colonels shall command in succes- 
sion, month about. Other Deputies we have met, or 
Dame de Stael has met, "sauntering in a thought- 
ful manner ;" perhaps uncertain what to do. Some, 
as Barnave, the Lameths, and their Duport, will con- 
tinue here in Paris; watching the new biennial Leg- 
islative, Parliament the First ; teaching it to walk 
if so might be; and the Court to lead it. 

1028. Thus these : sauntering in a thoughtful man- 
ner ; traveling by post or diligence, — ^whither Fate 
I beckons. G4ent Mirabeau slumbers in the Pantheon 

I. of Great Men : and France? and Europe ? — thebrasa- 

lunged Hawkers sing: "Grand Acceptation, Mon- 
archic Constitution" through these gay crowds : the 
I Morrow, grandson of Yesterday, must be what it can 

as To-day its father is. Our new biennial Legislative 
begins to^constitute itself on^the 1st of October, 1791. 



"^ 1029. If the august Constituent Assenibly itself, 
Qxing the regards of the Universe, could, at the 

■:''i- :.' »• 






present distance of time and place, gain comparatiye- 
ly small attention from us, how much less can this 
poor Legislative ! It has its Right Side and its Left ; 
the less Patriotic and the more, for Aristocrats exist 
not here or now: it spouts and speaks; listens to 
Reports, reads Bills and Laws ; works in its vocation, 
for a season : but the History of France, one finds, is 
seldom or never there. Unhappy Legislative, what 
can History do with it ; if not drop a tear over it, al- 
most in silence? First of the two-year Parliaments 
of France which, if Paper Constitution and oft-re- 
peated National Oath could avail aught, were to fol- 
low in softly-strong indissoluble sequence while time 
ran, — ^it had to vanish dolefully within one year; 
and there came no second like it. Alas ! your bien- 
nial Parliaments in endless indissoluble sequence, 
they and all that Constitutional Fabric, built with 
such explosive Federation Oaths, and its top stone 
brought out with dancing and variegated radiance, 
went to pieces, like frail crockeiy, in the crash of 
things ; and already, in eleven short months, were in 
that Limbo near the Moon, with the ghosts of other 
Chimeras. There, except for rare specific purposes, 
let them rest, in melancholy peace. 

1030. On the whole, how unknown is a man to 
himself; or a public Body of men to itself! ^sop's 
fly sat on the chariot- wheel, exclaiming, What a 
dust I do raise! Great Governors, clad in purple 
with fasces and insignia, are governed by their valets, 
by the pouting of their women and children ; or, in 
Constitutional countries, by the paragraphs of their 
Able Editors. Say not, I am this or that ; I am do- 



ing this or that ! For thou knowest it not, thou 
knowest only' the name it as yet goes by. A purple 
Nebuchadnezzar rejoices to feel himself now verily 
Emperor of this great Babylon which he has buiided ; 
and M a nondescript biped-quadruped, on the eve of 
a seven-years' course of grazing ! These 745 elected 
individuals doubt not but they are the first biennial 
Parliament, come to govern France by parliamentary 
eloquence: and they are what? And they have 
come to do what ? Things foolish and not wise ! 

1031. It is much lamented by many that this First 
Biennial had no members of the old Constituent in it, 
with their experience of parties and parliamentary- 
tactics; that such was their foolish Self-denying 
Law. Most surely, old members of the Constituent 
had been welcome to us here. But, on the other 
hand, what old or what new members of any Consti- 
tuent under the Sun could have effectually profited? 
There are first biennial Parliaments so postured as to 
be, in a sense, beyond wisdom ; where wisdom and 
folly differ only in degree, and wreckage and dissolu- 
tion are the appointed issue for both. 

1032. Old-Constituents, your Barnaves, Lameths 
and the like, for whom a special Gallery has been set 
apart, where they may sit in honor and listen, are in 
the habit of sneering at these new Legislators ;* but 
let not us ! The ppor 745 sent together by the active 
citizens of France, are what they could be ; do what 
is fated them. That they are of Patriot temper we 
-an well understand. Aristocrat Noblesse had fled 
>ver the marches, or sat brooding silent in their un- 

« Dumourioz, 11. 150, eto. 





burnt Ch4*eausf; smftll prespect bad tbey in Primary 
Electoral Assemblies.: What with Flights to Va-, 
rennes, what with Days of Poniards, with *plot after 
plot, the People are left to themselves; the People 
must needs choose Defenders of the People, such as 
can be had. ChoosiDg, as they also will ever do, '4f 
not the ablest man, yet the man ablest to be chosen V^ 
Fervor of character, decided Patriot-Constitutional 
feeling; these are qualities: but free utterance, 
mastership in tongue-feuce ; this is the quality of 
qualities. Accordingly one finds, with little aston- 
ishment,- in this First Biennial, that as many as 400 
Members are of the Advocate or Attorney species. Men 
who can speak, if there be aught to speak: nay here 
are menralso who can think, and even act. Candor 
will say of this ill-fated First French Parliament, 
that it wanted not its modicum of talent, its modi- 
cum of honesty ; that it, neither in the one respect 
nor in the other, sank below the average of Parlia^ 
ments, but rose above the average. Let average Par- 
liaments, whom the world does not guillotine, and 
cast forth to long infamy, be thankful not to them- 
selves but to their stars ! 

1033. France, as we say, has once more done what 
it could : fervid men have come together from wide 
separation ; for strange issoies. Fiery Max Isnard is 
come, from the utmost South-east: fiery Claude Fan* 
chet, Te-Deum Fauchet Bishop of Calvadoes, from 
the utmost North-w*»^t. No Mirabeau now sits here 
who has swallowed formulas : our only Mirabeau now 
is Danton, working as yet out of doors ; whom some 
call "Mirabeau of the Sansculottes." 


1034. Nevertheless we have our gifts,— eapecially 
of speech and logic. An eloquent Vergniaud we 
have f most mellifluous yet most impetuous of public 
speakers; from the region named Gironde, of the 
Garonne: a man unfortunately of indolent habits; 
who will sit playing with your children when he 
ought to be scheming and perorating. Sharp bust- 
ling Guadet; considerate grave Gensonn^; kind- 
sparkling mirthful young Ducos ; Valaz6 doomed to 
a sad end : all these likewise are of that Gironde or 
Bourdeaux r^on: men of fervid Constitutional 
principles; of quick talent, irrefragable logic, clear 
respectability; who will have the Reign of 
Liberty establish itself, but only by respectable 
methods. Round whom others of like temper will 
gather ; known by and by as Girondins, to the sor- 
rowing wonder of the world. Of which sort- note 
Condorcet, Marquis and Philosopher; who has 
worked at much, at Paris Municipal Constitution,^ 
Differential Calculus, Newspaper Chroniqued« Paris, 
Biography, Philosophy ; and now sits here as two- 
years' Senator a notable Condorcet, with stoical Ro- 
man face and fiery heart: "volcano hid under snow ;" 
styled likewise, in irreverent language, "mouton ^n- 
rag^," peaceablest of creatures bitten rabid ! Or note 
lastly, Jean-Pierre Brissqt; whom Destiny, long 
working noisily with him, has hurled hither, say to 
have done with him. A biennial Senator he too; 
nay, for the present, the king of such. Restless, 
scheming, scribbling Brissot ; who took to himself the 
style Dfi Warvill€j heralds know not in the least 
why ;— unless it were that the father of him did, in 



an unexceptionable manner, perform Cookery and 
Vintnery in the Village of Owarville ? A man of the 
windmill species, that grinds always, turning toward 
all winds : not in the steadiest manner. 

1035. In all these men there is talent, faculty to 
work ; and they will do it : working and shaping, not 

?^ without effect, though alas not in marble, only in quick- 

sand ! — Butthe highest faculty of them all remains yet 
to be mentioned ; or indeed has yet to unfold itself for 
i mention: Captain Hippolyte Camot, sent hither 

" ^ from the Pas de Calais ; with his cold mathematical 

head, and silent stubbornness of will; iron Carnot, 
I. far-planning, imperturbable, unconquerable ; who, in 

t the hour of need, shall not be found wanting. His 

'l- hair is yet black : and it shall grow gray, under 

p many kinds of fortune, bright and troublous ; and 

;' with iron aspect this man shall face them all. 

1036. Nor is Cot6 Droit, and band of King's friends 
wanting: Vaublanc, Dumas, Jaucourt the honored 
Chevalier; who love Liberty, yet with Monarchy 
over it ; and speak fearlessly according to that faith ; 
— whom the thick-coming hurricanes will sweep 
away. With them let a new military Theodore 

fe Lameth be named ;— were it only for his two Broth- 

g- ers' sake, who look down on him, approvingly there, 

I from the Old Constituents' Gallery. Frothy profess- 

ing Pastorets, honey-mouthed conciliatory Lamour- 
ettes, and speechless nameless individuals sit plen- 
tiful, as Moderates in the middle. Still less is a 
Cot6 Gauche wanting: extreme left; sitting on the 
topmost benches, as if aloft on its speculatory Height 
or Mountain, which will become a practical fulmina- 




tory Height, and make the name of Mountain fa- 
mons-infamoxis to all times and lands. '* 

1037. Honor waits not on this mountain ; nor as 
yet even loud dishonor. Gifts it boasts not, nor 
graces, of speaking or of thinking ; solely this one 
gift of assured faith, of audacity that will defy the 
Earth and the Heavens. Foremost here are the 
Cordelier Trio: hot Merlin from Thionville, hot 
Bazaire, Attorneys both; Chabot, disfrocked Capu- 
chin, skillful in agio. Lawyer Lacroix, who wore 
once as subaltern the single epaulet, has loud lungs 
and a hungry heart. There too is Couthon, little 
dreaming what he is : — whom a sad chance has para- 
lyzed in the lower extremities. For, it seems, he 
sat once a whole night, not warm in his true-lovers 
bower (who indeed was by law another's), but sunken 
to the middle in a cold peat-bog, being hunted out 
from her: quaking for his life, in the cold quakiug 
morass;* and goes now on crutches to the end. 
Cambon likewise, in whom slumbers undeveloped 
such a finance-talent for printing of Assignats- 
Father of Paper-money ; who, in the hour of menace 
shall utter this stern sentence, "War to the Manor- 
house, peace to the Hut (Guerre aux Chateaux, paix 
aux Chaumi^res) !"t Lecointre, the intrepid Draper 
of Versailles, is welcome here ; known since the 
Opera-Repast and Insurrection of Women. Thuriot 
too ; Elector Thuriot, who stood in the embrasures 
of the Bastille, and saw Saint- An toine rising in mass ; 
who has many other things to see. Last and grim- 

• Dumouriez, 11. 370- 

t "Cboix de Rapports," xi.25. 


mest of all, note old Ruhl, with his brown dciflky 
face and long white hair; of Alsatian Lutheiran 
breed ; a man whom age and book-learmng have not 
taught ; who, haranguing the old men of Kheims, 
shall hold up the Sacred Ampulla (Heaven-sent, 
wherefrom Glovis and all Kings have been anointed) 
as a mere worthless oil-bottle, and dash it to sherds 
on the pavement there ; who, alas, shall dash much 
to sherds, and finally his own wild head by pistol- 
shot, and so end it. 

1038. Such lava welters red-hot in the bowels of 
this Mountain ; unknown to the w»)rld and to itself! 
A mere commonplace Mountain hitherto ; distin- 
guished from the Plain chiefly by its superior bar- 
rennesSj its baldness of look : at the utmost it may, 
to the most observant, perceptibly smoke. For as yet 
all lies so solid, peaceable ; and doubts not as was 
said, that it will endure while Time runs. Do not 
all love Liberty and the Constitution ? All heartily ; 
— and yet with degrees. Some, as Chevalier Jar- 
court and his Eight Side, may love Liberty less than 
Royalty, were the trial made ; others, as Brissot and 
his Left Side, may love it more than Royalty. Nay 
again, of these latter some may love Liberty more 
than Law itself: others not more. Parties will un- 
fold themselves; no mortal as yet knows how- 
Forces work within those men and without: dissidence 
grows opposition: ever widening: waxing into in- 
compatibility and internecine feud; till the strong 
is abolished by a stronger ; himself in his turn by a 
strongest! Who can help it? Jau court and his 
Monarchists, Feuillans, or Moderates ; Brissot and his 


BvLnotins, Jacobins, or Girondina; these with the 
Cordelier Trio, and all men, must work what is ap- 
pointed them, and in the way appointed them. 

1039, And to think what fate these poor Seven- 
Hundred and Forty-five are assembled, most unwit- 
tingly, to meet ! Let no heart be so hard as not to 
pity them. Their soul's wish was to live and work 
a& the First of the French Parliaments; and make 
the Constitution march. Did they not, at their very 
installment, go through the most afiecting Constitu- 
tional ceremony, almost with tears ? The Twelve 
eldest are sent solemnly to fetch the Constitution it- 
self, the printed Book of the Law. Archivist Ca- 
mus, an OM-Constituent appointed Archivist, he and 
the Ancient Twelve, amid blare of military pomp 
and clangor, enter, bearing the divine Book: and 
President and all Legislative Senators, laying their 
hand on the same, successively take the Oath, with 
cheers and heart-eflfusion, universal three-times* 
three.* In this manner they begin their Session. 
Unhappy mortals ^ For, that same day, his Majjesty 
having received their Deputation of Welcome, as 
seemed, rather drily, the Deputation cannot but feel 
alighted, cannot but lament such slight : and theror 
upon our cheering swearing First Parliament sees it- 
self, on the morrow, obliged to explode into fierce re- 
taliatory sputter of anti-royal Enactment as to how 
they, for their part, will receive Majesty ; and how 
M^esty shall not be called Sire any more, except 
they please : and then, on the following day, to recall 

* Moniteur, Seance du 4 Octobre* 1701. 


this enactment of tiieirs, as too hasty, and a mere 
sputter, though not unprovoked. 

1040. An effervescent well-intentioned set of Sen- 
ators; too combustible, where continual sparks are 
flying! Their History is a series of sputters and 
quarrels ; true desire to do their function, fatal im- 
possibility to do it. Denunciations, reprimandings 
of King's Ministers, of traitors supposed and real; 
hot rage and fnlmination against fulminating Emi- 
grants ; terror of Austrian Kaiser, of "Austrian Com- 
mittee" in the Tuileries itself; rage and haunting 
terror, haste and doubt and dim bewilderment! — 
Haste, we say ; and yet the CJonstitution had provid- 
ed against haste. No Bill can be passed till it have 
been printed, till it have been thrice read, with in- 
tervals of eight days ; — "unless the Assembly shall 
beforehand decree that there is urgency." Which 
accordingly the Assembly, scrupulous of the Consti- 
tution, never omits to do : Considering this, and also 
considering that, and then that other, the Assembly 
decrees always "qu'il y a urgence ;" and thereupon 
"the assembly, having decreed that there is urgence," 
is free to decree — what indispensable distracted thing 
seems best to it. Two thousand and odd decrees, as 
men reckon, within Eleven months !* The haste of 
the Constituent seemed great ; but this is treble-quick. 
For the time itself is rushing treble-quick ; and they 
have to keep pace with that. Unhappy Seven Hun- 
dred and Forty-five : true-patriotic, but so combusti- 
ble ; being fired, they must needs fling flre : Senate 
of touchwood and rockets, in a world of smoke- 

* Montgaillard. iii. 1, 237. 


storm, with sparks wind-driven continually flying! 
' 1041. Or think, on the other hand, looking forward 
some months, of that scene they call Baiser de L»- 
mourette ! The dangers of the country are now grown 
imminent, immeasurable ; National Assembly, hope 
of France, is divided against itself. In such extreme 
circumstances, honey-mouthed Abb€ Lamourette, 
new Bishop of Lyons, rises, whose name, I'amourette, 
signifies the sweetheart^ or Delilah doxy, — he rises, and 
with pathetic honeyed eloquence, calls on all august 
Senators to forget mutual griefs and grudges, to swear 
a niew oath, and unite as brothers. Whereupon they 
all, with vivats, embrace and swear ; Left Side con- 
founding itself with Right ; barren Mountain rushing 
down to fruitful Plain, Pastoret into the arms of Con- 
dorcet, ipjured to the breast of injurer, with tears : 
and all swearing that whosoever wishes either Feuil- 
lant Two-Chamber Monarchy or Extreme-Jacobin 
Republic, or anything but the Constitution and that 
only, shall be anathema maranatha.* Touching to 
behold f For, literally on the morrow morning, they 
must again quarrel, driven by Fate ; and their sub- 
lime reconcilement is called derisively the Baiser de 
L'amourette, or Delilah Kiss. 

1042. Like fated Eteocles-Polynices Brothers, em- 
bracing though in vain; weeping that they must not 
love, that they must hate only, and die by each 
other's hands ! Or say, like doomed Familiar Spirits ; 
ordered, by Art Magic under penalties, to do a harder 
than twist ropes of sand : " to make the Constitution 
march." If the Constitution would but march ! 

* Monir^ur. S6ance du 6 Juillet, 1792. 


la, the Conatitntion will not stir. It falls on its 
e; they tremblingly lift it on end again: march, 
lu gold Constitution! The Constitution will not 

jch.— "He shall march, by !" said kind Uncle 

by, and even swore. The Corporal answered 
inrnfnlly ; "He will never marth in this world," 
i043. A Constitution, aa we ofttn say, will march 
len it images, if not the old Habits and Beliefs of 
! Constitnttd, then accurately their Rights, or bet- 
indeed their Mights ; — for these two, well under- 
od, are they not one and the same? The old 
ibits of Prance are gone : her new Eights and 
ghta are not yet ascertained, except in Paper- 
N»rem ; nor can be, in any sort till she have tired. 
11 she have measured herself, in fell death-grip, 
3 were it in utmost preternatural spasm of mad- 
ss, with Principalities and Powers, with the upper 
Itbe under, internal and external; 'nithlbe Earth 
i Tophet and the very Heaven 1 Then will she 
ow. — Three tilings bode ill for the marching of this 
ench Constitution : the French People; the French 
ng; thirdly, the French Noblesse and an assembled 
ropean World. 


1044. But quitting generalities, what strange Fact 
this, in the far South-west, toward which the eyes 
all men do now, in the end of October, bend them- 
ves? A tragical combustion, long smoking and 
oldering unlurainous, has now burst into flame 

AVdGNON. 29 

1045. Hot is that Southern Provenjal blood; alas, 
ooUisions aj» was once said, must occur in a career of 
Freedom; different directions will produce such; 
nay different velocities In the same direction will ! To 
much that went on there, History, busied elsewhere, 
would not specially give heed : to troubles of Uzez, 
troubles of Nismes, Protestant and Catholic, Patriot 
and Aristocrat; to troubles of Marseilles, Montpel- 
Uer, Aries ; to Aristocrat Camp of Jales, that won- 
drous real-imaginary Entity, now fading pale-dim, 
then always again glowing forth deep-hued (in the 
imagination mainly) ; — ominous magical, " an Aris- 
tocrat pw/wre of war done naturally! " All this was 
a tragical deadly combustion, with jtlot and riot, tu- 
mult by night and by day ; but a dark combustion, 
not luminous, not noticed ; which now, however, one 
cannot help noticing. 

1046. Above all places, the unluminons combustion 
in Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin was fierce. 
Papal Avignon, with its Castle rising sheer over the 
Rhone-stream; beautifulest Town, with its purple 
vines and gold-orange groves; why must foolish old 
rhyming R6n6, the last Sovereign of Provence, be- 
queath it to the Pope and Gold Tiara, not rather to 
Louis Eleventh with^the Leaden Virgin in his hat- 
band ? For good and for evil ! Popes, Antipopes, 
with their pomp, have dwelt in that Castle of Avig- 
non rising sheer over the Rhone-stream ; there Laura 
de Sade went to hear mass ; her Petrarch twanging 
and singing by the Fountain of Vaucluse hard by, 
surely in a most melancholy manner. This was in 
the old days. 




1047. And now In these new days such issues do 
come from a sqrirt of the pen by some foolish rhym- 
ing Ren^, after centuries, — this is what we have: 
Jourdan Coupe-t^te, leading to siege and warfare an 
Army, from three to fifteen thousand strong, called 
the Brigands of Avignon ; which title they themselves 
accept, with the addition of an epithet, " The hrave 
Brigands of Avignon ! " It is even so. Jourdan the 
Headsman fled hither from that Chatelet Inquest, 
from that Insurrection of Women ; and began deal- 
ing in madder : but the scene was rife in other than 
dye-stuflfs; so Jourdan shut his madder-shop, and 
has risen, for he was the man to do it. The tile-beard 
of Jourdan is shaven ofl"; his fat visage has got cop- 
pered and studded with black carbuncles; the 
Silenus trunk is swollen with drink and high living : 
he wears blue National uniform with epaulets, " an 
enormous saber, two horse-pistols crossed in his belt, 
and two smaller sticking from his pockets ; " styles 
himself General, and is the tyrant of men.* Con- 
sider this one fact, O Reader ; and what sort of facts 
must have preceded it, must accompany it ! Such 
things come of old R6n<5 ; and of the question which 
has risen. Whether Avignon cannot now cease wholly 
to be Papal, and become French and free ? 

1048. For some twenty-five months the confusion 
has lasted. Say three months of arguing ; then seven 
of racing; then finally some fifteen months now of 
fighting, and even of hanging. For already in Feb- 
ruary, 1790, the Papal Aristocrats had set up four 
gibbets, for a sign ; but the people rose in June, in 
.  Dampmartin, ** Ev^emens, ' i. 267. 


retributive frenzy ; and, forcing the public Hangman 
to act, hanged four Aristocrats, on each Papal gibbet 
a Papal Haman. Then were Avignon Emigrations^ 
Papal Aristocrats emigrating over the Hhone River 5 
demission of Papal Consul, flight, victory: re-en- 
trance of Papal Legate, truce, and new onslaught ; 
and the various turns of war. Petitions there were 
to National Assembly; Congresses of Townships; 
three-score and odd Townships voting for French 
Reunion and the blessings of Liberty ; while some 
twelve of the smaller, manipulated by Aristocrats, 
gave vote the other way : with shrieks and discord ! 
Township against Township, Town against Town : 
Carpentras, long jealous of Avignon, is now turned 
out in open war with it ; — and, Jourdan Coupe-tete, 
your first General being killed in mutiny, closes his 
dye-shop; and does there visibly with siege-artillery, 
above all with bluster and tumult, with the " brave 
Brigands of Avignon," beleaguer the rival Town, for 
two months, in the face of the world. 

1049. Feats were done, doubt it not, far-famed in 
Parish History ; but to Universal History unknown. 
Gibbets we see rise, on one side and on theother ; and 
wretched carcasses swinging there, a dozen in the 
row ; wretched Mayor of Vaison buried before dead.* 
The fruitful seed-fields lie unreaped, the vineyards 
trampled down; there is red cruelty, madness of 
universal choler and gall. Havoc and anarchy every- 
where; a combustion most fierce, but mwIu cent, not to 
be noticed here ! — Finally, as we saw, on the 14th of 
September last, the National Constituent Assembly, 
* Barbaroux "Memolres," p. 28. 



— haYing sent Commissioners and heard them ;^ hav- 
ing heard Petitions, held Debates^ month after month 
ever since August, 1789 ; and on the whole " spent j 

thirty sittings " on this matter ,^did solemnly decree j 

that Avignon and the Comtat were incorporated \ 

with France, and his Holiness the Pope should have ' 

what indemnity was reasonable. ' 

1050. And so hereby all is amnestied and finished ? • 

Alas, when madness of choler has gone through the 
blood of men, and gibbets have swung on this side ' 

and on that, what will a Parchment Decree and La- 
fayette Amnesty do? Oblivious Lethe flows not above 1 
ground ! Papal Aristocrats and Patriot Brigands are | 
still an eye-sorrow to each other; suspected, suspi- 
cious, in what they do and forbear. The august Con- 
stituent Assembly is gone but a fortnight, when, on 
Sunday the Sixteenth moruiug of October, 1791, the 
unquenched combustion suddenly becomes luminous. 
For Anti-constitutional Placards are up, and the 
Statue of the Virgin is said to have shed tears, and i 
Krown red.f Wherefore, on that morning. Patriot 
I'Escuyer, one of our "six leading Patriots," having 
taken counsel with his brethren and General Jour- i 
dan, determines on going to Church, in company with 
a friend or two : not to hear mass, which he values • 
little ; but to meet all the Papalists there in a body, 
nay to meet that same weeping Virgin, for it is the 
Cordeliers Church; and give them a word of admoni- f 

* Lesc^ne Dosmaisons, **Compto rendu ft rAsRembl^e 
Nationalc, 10 September, 1791 (* Choix des Rapports,*' vil 


+ •* Proems-verbal delnCommnne d'Avignon," etc (in 
" Histoire Parlementaire," xil. 419-423.) y 




tion. Adventurous errand; which has the fktalest 
issue ! What L'Escuyer'6 word of admonition might 
he, no History records ; but the answer to it was a 
shrieking howl from the Aristocrat Papal worship- 
ers, many of them women. A thousand- voiced shriek 
and menace ; which, as L'Escuyer did not fly, became 
I a thousand-handed hustle and jostle, a thousand- 

' footed kick, With tumblings and tramplings, with 

the pricking of sempstress stilettoes, scissors and 
female pointed instruments. Horrible to behold; 
the ancient Bead, and Petrarchan Laura, sleeping 
I round it there :* high Altar and burning tapers look- 

) ing down on it ; the Virgin quite tearless, and of the 

natural stone-color ! — L'Escuyer's friend or two rush 
off, like Job's Messengers, for Jourdan and the Na- 
tional Force. But heavy Jourdan will seize the 
r Town-Gates first; does not run treble- fast, as he 

\ might : on arriving at the Cordeliers Church, the 

r Church is silent, vacant ; L'Escuyer, all alone, lies 

\ there, swimming in his blood, at the foot of the high 

Altar ; pricked with scissors, trodden, massacred ; — 
gives one dumb sob, and gasps out his miserable life 

1051. Sight to stir the heart of any man ; much 
more of many men, self-styled Brigands of Avignon! 
The corpse of L'Escuyer, stretched on a bier, the 
 ghastly head girt with laurel, is borne throuo:h the 

streets; with many-voiced unmelodious Nenia; 
funeral-wail still deeper than it is loud ! The cop- 
per-face of Jourdan, of bereft Patriotism, has grown 
black. Patriot Municipality dispatches official Nar- 
 Ugro F08C0I0, Essay on Petrarch," p,35. 


rative and tidings to Paris; orders nnmerons or. in- 
numerable arrestments for inquest and perquisition. 
Aristocrats male and female are haled to the Castle • 
lie crowded in subterranean dungeons there, be- 
moaned by the hoarse rushing of the Ehone ; cut out 
from all help. 

1052. So lie they : waiting inquest and perquisi- 
tion. Alas, with a Jourdan Headsman for Genera!^ 
issimo, with his copper-face grown black, and armed 
Brigand Patriots chanting their Nenia^ the inquest 
is likely to be brief. On the next day and the next, 
let Municipality consent or not, a Brigand Court- 
Martial establishes itself in the subterranean stories 
of the Castle of Avignon; Brigand Executioners, 

with naked saber, waiting at the door for » Brigand ^ 

verdict. Short judgment, no appeal! There is ^ 

Brigand wrath and vengeance ; not unrefreshed by 
brandy. Close by is the dungeon of the Glaci^re, or 
Ice-Tower : there may be deeds done— ? For which ^ 

language has no name ! — Darkness and the shadow 
of horrid cruelty envelops these Castle "Dungeons, 
that Glacier© Tower : clear only that many have en- 
tered, that few have returned. Jourdan and the 
Brigands, supreme now over Municipals, over all 
authorities Patriot or Papal, reign in Avignon, waited 
on by Terror and Silence. 

1053. The result of all which is, that, on the 15th 
of November, 1791, we behold friend Dampmartin, 
and subalterns beneath him, and General Choisi 
above him, with Infantry and Cavalry, and proper 
cannon-carriages rattling in front, with spread ban- 
ners, to the souBd of fife and drum wend, in a delib- 



«q|te formidable maimer, toward that sheer Castle 
Rock,' toward those broad gates of Avignon; three 
new National- Assembly Ck)mmissioners following at 
safe distance in the rear.* Avignon, summoned in 
the name of Assembly and Law, flings its Gates wide 
open : Choisi with the rest, Dampmartin and the 
** Bons Enfans (Good Boys) of Baufremont," — so they 
name these brave Constitutional Dragoons, known to 
tlieni of old, — ^do enter, amid shouts and scattered 
flowers. To the joy of all honest persons , to the 
terror only of Jourdan Headsman and the Brigands. 
Kay next we behold carbuncled^ swollen Jourdan 
himself show copper-face, with saber and four pis- 
tols; afiecting to talk high; engaging, meanwhile, 
to surrender the Castle that instant. So the Choisi 
Grenadiers enter with him there. Tliey siart and 
stop, passing that Glaciere, snuffing its horrible 
breath ; with wild 'yell, with cries of *' Cut the 
Butcher down !** — and Jourdan has to whisk himself 
through secret passages, and instantaneously vanish. 

1054. Bo the mystery of iniquity laid bare, then ! 
A Hundred and Thirty Corpses, of men, nay of 
wopien and even children ^for the trembling mother, 
hastily seized^ could not leave her infant), lie heaped 
in that Glaci^re ; putrid, under putridities: the hor- 
ror of the world. For three days there is mournful 
lifting out, and recognition ; amid the cries and 
movements of a passionate Southern people, now 
kneeling in prayer, now storming in wild pity and 
rage : lastly there ia solemn sepulture, with muffled 
drums, religious requiem, and all the people's wail 

* Dampmartin.! ^l-29i. 


and tears. I^eir Massacred rest now in holy groand ; 
buried in one grave. 

1055. And Jourdan Coupe-t4te ? Him also we be- 
hold again, after a day or two : in flight, through 
the most romantic Petrarchan hill-country ; vehe- 
mently spurring his nag; young Ligonnet, a brisk 
youth of Avignon, with Choisi Dragoons, close in his 
rear ! With such swollen mass of a rider no nag can 
run to advantage. The tired nag, spur-driven, does 
take the River Sorgue ; but sticks in the middle of 
it ; firm on that chiaro iondo di Sorga ; and will pro- 
ceed no further for spurring ! Young Ligonnet 
dashes up; the Copper- face menaces and bellows, 
draws pistol, perhaps even snaps it ; is nevertheless 
seized by the collar ; is tied firm, ankles under horse's 
belly, and ridden back to Avignon, hardly to be 
saved from massacre on the streets there.* 

1056. Such is the combustion of Avignon and the 
South-west, when it becomes luminous. Long loud 
debate is in the august Legislative, in the Mother 
Society, as to what now shall be done with it. Am- 
nesty, cry eloquent Vergniaud and all Patriots : let 
there be mutual pardon and repentance ; restoration, 
pacification, and, if so might anyhow be, an end ! 
Which vote ultimately prevails. So the South-west 
smolders and welters again in an ''Amnesty," or Non- 
remembrance, which, alas, cannot hut remember, no 
Lethe flowing above ground ! Jourdan himself re- 
mains unhsaiged ; gets loose again, as one not yet 
gallows-ripe; nay, as we transiently discern from 

* Dampmartio, ubi supra. 


the distance, is "carried in trium^ through the 
cities of the South."* What things men carry ! 

1057. With which transient glimpse, of a Copper- 
faced Portent faring in this manner through the 
cities of the South, we must quit these regions ; — 
and let them smolder. They want not their Aristo- 
crats ; proud old No'bles, not y^t emigrated. Aries 
has its "Chiffonne," so, in symbolical cant, they 
name that Aristocrat Secret- Association ; Aries has 
its pavements piled up, by and by, into Aristocrat 
barricades. Against which Rebecqui, the hot-clear 
Patriot, must lead MarseiUese with cannon. The 
Bar of Iron has not yet risen to the top in the Bay of 
Marseilles ; neither have these hot Sons of the Pho- 
ceans submitted to be slaves. By clear management 
and hot instance, Rebecqui dissipates that Chiffonnc, 
withotit bloodshed ; restores the pavement of Aries. 
He sails in Coast-barks, this Rebecqui, scrutinizing 
suspicious Martello-towers, with the keen eye of 
Patriotism ; marches overland with dispatch, singly, 
or in force , to City after City , dim scouring far and 
wide ;t — argues, and if it must be, fights. For there 
is much to do ; Jales itself is looking suspicion. So 
that Legislator Fauehet, after debate on it, has to . 
propose Commissioners and a Camp on the Plain of 
Beaucaire ; with or without result. 

1058. Of all which, and much else, let us note only 
this small consequence, that young Barbaroux, Ad- 

• '• Deux Amis •' (Paris, 1797), vit pp. 59-71. 

* BarbftrouXt p. 21; '* Histoire Parlementaire," xUi* 4)31- 



vocate, Town-Clerk of Marseilles, being charged to 
have these things remedied, arrives at Paris in the 
month of February, 179®. The beautiful and bra^'e: 
young Spartan, ripp in eaeigy, not ripe in wisdom ; 
over whose black doom there shall flit nevertheless a 
certain ruddy fervor, streaks of bright Southern tint, 
not wholly swallowed of Death I Note also that the 
Bolands of Lyons are again in Paris; for the second 
and final time. King^s Inspectorship is abrogated at 
Lyons, as elsewhere : Roland has his retiring-pensioa 
to claim, if attainable ; has Patriot friends to com* 
mune with ; at lowest, has a Book to publish. That 
young Barbaroux and the Rolands came together ; 
th^t elderly Spartan Roland liked, or even loved the 
young Spartan, and was loved by him, one can fancy; 

and Madame ? Breathe not, thou poison-breath,. 

Evil-speech \ Thai soul is tamtless, clear as the 
mirror-sea. And yet if they two did look into each 
other's eyes, and each, in silence, in tragical' renun- 
ciance, did find that the other was ail-too lovely? 
Honi soit! She calls hitn '^ beautiful as Antinons :' 
he * Vill speak elsewhereof that astonishing woman." 
— A Madame d'Udon (or some such name, for Du* 
montdoes not recollect quite clearly) gives copious 
breakfast to the Brissotin Deputies and us Friends ol 
Freedom, at her House in the Place ¥endome; with 
temporary celebrity, with fcraces and wreathed 
smiles, not without east. There, amid wide babble 
and jingle, our plan of Legislative Debate is settled 
for the day, and much counseling held. Strict Rq1« 
and is seen there, but does not go often.* 
 Dumont. "^Souvenirs, p 374 

NO SXmjJL 39 



270 SUQAS. 

1059. Snch are oar onward trouWes ; seen in the 
Cities of the South ; extant, seen or unseen, in all 
cities and districts, North as well as South. For in 
all are Aristocrats, more or less malignant ; watcl^ed 
by Patriotism ; wliich again, being of various shadeay 
fhnn light Fayettist-Feuillant down to d^^ep-somber 
Jacobin, has to watch «ven itself. 

1060. Directories of I>epartment8, what we call 
County Magistracieft, beingchosen by Citizens of a too 
"actire" class, are found to pull one way; Munici- 
palities, Town Magistracies, to pull the other way. 
In till places too are Dissident Priests; whom the 
Legislative will have to deal with : contumacious in- 
divfduals, working on that angriest of passions; 
plotting, enlisting for Coblentz; or suspected of 
plotting ' fuel of a universal unconstitutional heat. 
What to do with them ? They may be conscientious 
as well as contumacious : gently they should be dealt 
with, and yet it must be speedily. In luiilluminated 
La Vendue the simple are like to be seduced by 
them; many a simple peasant, a Cathelineau wool- 
dealer wayfaring meditative with his wool-packs, in 
these hamlets, dubiously shakes his head ! Two As« 
sembly Commissioners went thither last Autumn; 
considerate Gensonn^, not yet called to be a senator ; 
Grallois,.an editorial man. These Two, consulting 
with General Dumouriez, spake and worked softly, 

nth judgment ; they have hushed down the irrita- 
ion, and produced a soft Reportr— for tiie time. 


1061. TheGreneral himself doubts not in the least 
but he <^n keep peace there;, being an able man. 
He passes these frosty months among the pleasant 
people of Niort, occupies " tolerably handsome apart- 
ments in the Castle of Niort," and tempers the minds 
of men.* Why is there but one Dumouriez ? Else- 
where you find, South or North, nothing but untem- 
pered obscure jarring, which breaks forth ever and 
anon into open clangor of riot. Southern Perpignan 
has its tocsin, by torchlight ; with rushing and on- 
slaught : Northern Caen, not less, by daylight ; with 
Aristocrats ranged in arms at places of Worship; 
Departmental compromise proving impossible; break- 
ing into musketry and a plot discovered!! Add 
Hunger too : for bread, always dear, is getting dearer : 
not so much as Sugar can be had ; for good reasons. 
Poor Simoneau, Mayor of Etampes, in this Northern 
region, hanging out his Red Flag in some riot of 
grains, is trampled to death by a hungry exasperated 
People. What a trade this of Mayor, in these times ! 
Mayor ot Saint-Denis hung at the Lanterne, by Sus- 
picion and Dyspepsia, as he saw long since ; Mayor 
of Vaison, as we saw lately, buried before dead ; and 
now this poor Simoneau the Tanner, of Etampes, — 
whom legal Constitutionalism will not forget. 

1062. With factious, suspicions, want of bread and 
sugar, it is verily what they call dechir^, torn asun- 
der, this poor country : France and all that is French. 
For, over seas too come bad news. In black Saint- 
Domingo, before that variegated Glitter in the 

 Dumouriez, 11. 129. 

t *-Hi8lolreParlementaire/'xii.l31.141; xiil. 114,417. 


Champs Elys^s was lit for an accepted Constitution, 
there had risen, and was burning contemporary with 
it, quite another variegated Glitter and Nocturnal 
Fulgor, had we known it : of molasses and ardent- 
spirits; of sugar-boileries, plantations, furniture, cat- 
tle and men : sky-high ; the Plain of Cap Fran^ais 
one huge whirl of smoke and flame! 

1063. What a change here, in these two years; 
since that first "Box of Tricolor Cockades" got 
through the Custom-house, and atrabiliar Creoles too 
rejoiced that there was a leveling of Bastilles ! Level- 
ing is comtbrtable, as we often say : leveling, yet only 
down to oneself. Your pale-white Creoles have their 
grievances: — and your yellow Quarteroons? And 
your dark-yellow Mulattoes? And your Slaves soot- 
black? Quarteroon Og^, Friend of our Parisian- 
Brissofin Friends of Ihe Blacks^ felt, for his share too, 
that Insurrection was the most sacred of duties. So 
the tricolor Cockades had fluttered and swashed 
only some three months on the Creole hat, when 
Og6'8 signal-conflagration went aloft ; with the voice 
of rage and terror. Repressed, doomed to die, he took 
black powder or seed-grains in the hollow of his 
hand, this Og^ ; sprinkled a film of white ones on 
the top, and said to his Judges, "Behold they are 
white ;" then shook his hand, and said. " Where arc 
the whites (Otl sont Ics blancs) ?" 

1064. So now, in the Autumn of 1791, looking from 
the sky-windows of Cap Franjais, thick clouds of 
smoke girdle out horizon, smoke in the day, in the 
night fire; preceded by fugitive shrieking white 
women, by Terror and Rumor, Black demoni^e^ 


sqnadrotMi are masBacfing aii<d liarryisgr with name- 
less cmeltj. They figbt and fire '^ from behind 
thickets and eovertB," for the Black maa l&resthe 
Bush ; they msh to- the attaek, thoneands atroikgi 
with brandished cntlasses and fusilB, with caperings^ 
shoutings, and vociferation, — which, if the White 
Volunteer Company stands firm, dwindle into stag: 
gerings, into <^ttiek gabblemcnt, into panic flight at 
the first volley, perhaps before it.^ Poor Og4 could 
be broken on the wheel ; this fire^whirlwind too can 
be abated, drii^n up into the Momntaina : hat Saint* 
Domingo is shaken, as Og^'s seed-grains were : ehak- 
itts, writhitfg in long horrid death-throes, it is Black 
without remedy ; and remains, as African Hayti, a 
monition to the world. 

1065. O my Paiisian Friends, is not iki$t as well as 
Regraters and Feuillant Plotters, one cause' of the 
astonishing dearth of Suear ? The Grocer, palpitant, 
with drooping lip, sees his Sugar tax€ ; weighed out 
by female Patriotism, in instant retail, at the inade* 
quate rate of twenty-five sous, or thirteen pence a 
pound. " Abstain from it ?** Yes, ye Patriot Sec 
tions, all ye Jacobins, abstain ! Louvet and Collo1^- 
d'Herbois so advise; resolute to make the sacrifice; 
though " how shall literary men do without coffee ?" 
Abstain, with an oath ; that is the surest If 

1066. Also, for like reason, must not Brest and the 
Shipping Interest languish ? Po<m: Brest languishes, 
sorrowing, not without spleen ; denounces an Aristo- 

**« Deux Amis,** X. 157. 

t ^'B^atsdes JacQblQs,"etc. (*'Histoire Parlementalre,'* 
xlft. in, W-«»). 


emt Bertraud-MoleTillC) tfaitoroiis Aristocrat Marine- 
MittiBter. Do not her Bhips and King's 8hips lie 
tbttiilg piecemeal in harborf Naval Offieeirs mostly 
fledj and on fdriough too, with pay ? Littlts stirring 
there ; if it be not the Brest Galleys, whip-driven, 
With their GalleySlaves, — alas, with some Forty of 
onr hapless Swiss Soldiers of Chdteau-Vieux, among 
others ! These Forty Swiss, too mindful of Nanci, 
do now, in their red wool caps, tng sorrowfully at 
the oar } looking into^ the Atlantic brine, which re* 
flecta only their own sorrowful shaggy faoes ; and 
seem forgotten ofHope* 

106?. Bnt» on the whole, may we not say, in ftg* 
nratiTe langttag« that the French Constitution which 
shall march is very rheumatity Ml of shooting 
internal pains, in joint and muscle ; and will not 
aaaarch without difficulty ? 


1068. 'Extremely rheumatic Constitutions hare 
been known to march, and keep on Lheir feet ; though 
in a staggering sprawling manner, for long periods 
in virtue of one thing only : that the Head were 
healthy. But this head of the French Constitution ! 
What Kang Louis is and cannot help being, Readers 
already know. A King who cannot take the Con. 
stitution, nor reject the Constitution: nor do any- 
thing at all, but miserably ask. What shall I do? 
A King environed with endless oonfusiona; whose 


own mind is no germ of orderi Haughty lmpla<5* 
able remnants of Noblesse struggling with humiliated 
repentant Barnave-Lameths ; struggling in that ob* 
scure element of fetchers and carriers, of Half-pay 
braggarts from the Cafe Valois, of Chambermaids, 
whisperers, and subaltern ofl&cious persons; fierce 
Patriotism looking on all the while, more and more 
8usjpiciou8| from without: what, in such struggle 
can they do At best, camel one another, and pro- 
duce aero* Poor Iting I Barnave and your Senato* 
rial Jaucourts speak earnestly into this ear; Ber- 
trand-Moleville, and Messenger from Coblentz, speak 
earnestly into that : the poor Royal head turns to the 
one side and to the other side ; can turn itself fixedly 
to no side. Let Decency drop a veil over it : sorrier mis- 
ery was seldom enacted in the world. This one small 
fact, does it not throw the saddest light on much? The 
Queen is lamenting to Madame Campan : "What am 
1 to do ?" When they, these Barnaves. get us advised 
to any step which the noblesse do not like, th^n I 
am pouted at ; nobody comes to my card-table ; the 
King's Couchee is solitary.'** In such a case of 
dubiety, what is one to do ? Go inevitably to the 

1069. The King has accepted this Constitution* 
knowing beforehand that it will not serve : he stu- 
dies it, and executes it in the hope mainly that it 
will be found inexecu table. King's Ships lie rotting 
in harbor, their ofiicers gone; the Armies disor- 
ganized ; robbers scour the Highways which wear 
^ down unrepaired ; all Publie Service lies slack and 

• Campan, ii IT?, 808. 


wa^te, the Executive makes no effort, or an effort only 
to throw the blame on the Constitution. Shamming 
death, "faisant la mori!'* What Constitution, use it 
in this manner, can march ? "Grow to disgust the 
Nation," it will truly,* unless jfou first grow to dis- 
gust the Nation ! It is Bertrand de Moleville*s plan, 
and his Majesty's ; the best they can form. 

|1070. Or if^ after all, this best-plan proved too 
Blow ; proved a failure ? Provident of that too, the 
Queen, shrouded in deepest mystery, "writes all day> 
in cipher, day after day, to Coblenta," Engineer Go* 
gnelat, he of the Night of Spurs, whom the Lafayette 
Amnestic has delivered from Prison, rides and runs. 
Now and then* on fit occasion, a Royal familiar visit 
can l)e paid to that Salle de Manage, an affecting en- 
couraging Royal Speech (sincere, doubt it not, for 
the moment) can be delivered there, and the Sena- 
tors all cheer and almost weep ; — at the same time 
Mallet du Pan has visibly ceased editing, and invisi- 
bly bears abroad a King's Autograph, soliciting help 
from the Foreign Potentates.t Unhappy Louis, do 
this thing oi else that other,— if thou couldst ! 

1071. The thing which the King s Goverment did 
do was to stagger distractedly from contradiction to 
contradiction ; and weddmgFireto Water, envelop 
itself in hissing and ashy steam. Danton and needy 
corruptible Patriots are sopped with presents of cash : 
they accept the sop ; they rise refreshed by it, and trav- 
el their own way.J Nay, the King's Government did 

• • Bertrand-MoleVllle, i c 4. 
f Bortrand^Molevihe, 1. 370. 


likewise bite Haud-clappers, ot claqnetirs, pcr^mis to 
applaud. Subterrauean-Rivarol lias 1500 Men in 
King's pay, at the rate of some £10,000 sterling per 
month ; what he calls *'a staff of genius •** Paragraph- 
writers, Placard Journalists: **280 Applauders, at 
three shillings a day ;'' one of the strangest Staffs 
ever commanded by man. The muster rolls and 
lu^count-books of which still exist* Bertrand-Moie- 
i^Ule himself, in a way he thinks very dexterous, con- 
tri^ves to pack the Galleries of the LegislatiTes ; %t\B 
Sansculottes hired to go thither, and applaud at a 
signal given, they fancying it was Potion that hade 
them : a device which was not detected for almost a 
week., pexterons enough ; as if a man, finding the 
Day fast decline, should determine on altering th^ 
Clock-hand : that is a thing possible for him. 

1072. Here too let us note an unexpected appari- 
tion of Philippe d'Orl^ans, at court: hislastatthe Le- 
vee of any King. D'0rl6ans, some time in the winter 
months seemingly, has been appointed to that old 
first-coveted rank of Admiral,— though only over 
ships rotting in port. The wished-for comes too 
late! However, he waits on Bertrand-Moleville to 
give thanks : nay to state that he would willingly 
thank his Majesty in person ; that, in spite of all the 
horrible things men have said and sung, he is far from 
being his Majesty's enemy; at bottom, how far ! Ber- 
trand delivers the message, brings about the royal 
Interview, which does pass to the satisfaction of his 
Majesty ; D'Orl^ans seeming clearly repentant, deter-, 
mined to turn over a new Jeaf. And yet, next Sun- 
day, what do we see ? ^'Next Sunday," says Bertrand, 

 Montffaillard, lil 41. 



hff came to the King's Levee ; but the Courtier 
ignorant of what had passed, the Crowd of Royalists 
who were accustomed to resort thither on that day 
specially to pay their court, gave him the most humil- 
iating reception. They came pressing round him ; 
jnanaging, as if by mistake, to tread on his toes, to 
elbow him toward the door, and not let him enter 
again. He went down stairs to her Majesty's Apart- 
ments, .^where cover was laid ; so soon as he showed 
faee,;sotinds rose on all aides, *^ Messieurs, take care of 
f^c (fMe«,"as if he had carried poison in his pockets. 
The insults, which his presence everywhere excited, 
forced him to retire without having seen the Eoyal 
Family; the crowd ibllowed him to the Queen's 
staircase ; in descending, he received a spitting 
(crad&at) on the head, and some others on his clothes. 
Rage, and spite were seen visibly painted on his 
firce :"* as indeed how could they miss to he? He 
nnptites it all to the King and Queen, who know 
nothing <yf it, who are even much grieved at it ; and 
90 descends to his Chaos again. Bertrand was there 
at the Chltteau that day himself, and ah eye-witness 
to these things. 

1073. For the rest, Non-jnrant Priests, and the re- 
pression of them, will distract the King's conscience ; 
Emigrant Princes and Noblesse will force him to 
double-dealing: there must be veto on veto; amid 
the ever- waxing indignation of men. For Patriotism, 
as we said, looks on from without, more and more 
snspicious. -Waxing tempest, blast after blast, of 

^ BertrancVMolevilie, i. 177. 


Patriotic indignation, from without ; dim inorganic 
whirl of Intrignes, Fatuities, within! Inorganic, 
fatuous-; from which the eye turns away. I>e,Stael 
intrigues for her so gallant Narbonne, to get him 
made War- Minister ; and ceases not, having got him 
made. The King shall fly to Rouen ; shall there, 
with the gallant Narbonne, pioperly " modify the 
Constitution." This is the same brisk Narbonne, 
who, last year, cut out from their entanglement, by 
force of dragoons, those poor fugitive Royaf Aunts 5 
men say he is at bottom their Brother, or even morcy 
so scandalous is scandal. He drives now, with his 
De Stael, rapidly to the Armies, to the Frontier 
Towns ; produces rose-colored Reports, not too cred- 
ible ; perorates, gesticulates ; wavers poising himself 
on the top, for a moment, seen of men : then tumbles, 
dismissed, washed away by the Time-flood. 

1074. Also the fair Princess de Lamballe intrigues^ 
bosom-friend of her Majesty: to the angering of 
Patriotism. Beautiful Unfortunate," why did she 
ever return from England ? Her small silver-voice, 
what can it profit in that piping of the black World- 
tornado ? Which will whirl her, poor fragile Bird of 
Paradise, against grim rocks. Lamballe and De 
Stael intrigue visibly, apart or together : but who 
shall reckon how many others, and in what infinite 
ways, invisibly ! Is there not what one may call an 
*' Austrian Committee," sitting invisible in the Tuil- 
eries ; center of an invisible Anti-National Spider- 
web, which, for we sleep among m3^steries, stretches 
its threads to the ends of the Earth ? Journalist 
Carra has now the clearest certainty of it • to Brig- 


sotin Patriotism, aud France generally, it is groining 
more and more probable. 

1075. O Reader, hast thon no pity for this Consti- 
tution ? Rheumatic shooting pains in its members ; 
pressure of hydrocephale and hysteric vapors on its 
Brain : a Constitution divided against itself; which 
will never march, hardly even staggei ? "Why were 
not Drouet and Procureur Sausse in their beds, that 
unblessed Varennes Night ? "Why did they not» in 
the name of Heaven, let the Korflf Berline go whither 
it listed? Nameless incoherency, incompatibility, 
perhaps prodigies at which the world still shudders, 
had been spared. 

1076. But now comes the third thing that bodes 
ill for the marching of this French Constitution : be- 
sides the French People, and the French King, there 
is thirdly — the assembled European "World. It has 
become necessary now to look at that also. Fair 
France is so luminous : and round and round it, is 
troublous: Cimmerian Night. Calonnes, Breteuils 
hover dim, far-flown ; ovemetting Europe with in* 
trigues. From Turin to Vienna ; to Berlin, and ut- 
most Petersburg in the frozen North ! Great Burke 
has raised his great voice long ago ; eloquently de- 
monstrating that the end of an Epoch is come, to all 
appearance the end of Civilized Time. Him many 
answer: Camille Desmoulins, Clootz Speaker of 
Mankindj Paine the rebellious Ncedleman, and honor- 
able Gaelic Vindicators in that country and in this: 
but the great Burke remains unanswerable ; " the 
Age of Chivalry i» gone," and could not but go, hav^ 
ing now produced the still more indomitable Age of 


Bttttger. Attars enongh, of the ]>aboi8-Ro^n «or1^ 
changing to the Gobel-and-Talleyrand sort, are faring 
by rapid transmutations to — shall we say, the right 
Proprietor of them ? French Game and French Game- 
Preservers did alight on the Cliffs of Dover, with 
cries of distress. Who will say that the end of much 
is not come ? A set of mortals has risen, who believe 
that Trnth is not b printed Speculation, but a praeti- 
eal Fact ; that Freedom and Brotherhood are possible 
In this Earthy supposed always to be Belial^s, which 
" the Supreme Quack'' was to inherit ! Who will say 
that Church, State, Throne, Altar are not in danger ; 
that the sacred Strongbox itself, last Palladium of 
effete Humanity, may not be blasphemously blown 
upon, and its padlocks undone ? 

1077. The poor Constituent Assembly might act 
with what delicacy and diplomacy it would; declare 
that it abf ured meddling with its neighbors, foreign 
conquest, and so forth ; but from the first this thing 
was to be predicted : that old Europe and new France 
could not subsist together, A Glorious Bevolutlon, 
oversetting State-Prisons and Feudalism ; publishing, 
with outburst of Federative Cannon, in face of all 
the Earth, that Appearance is not Reality, how shall 
it subsist amid Governments which, if Appearance is 
not Reality, are — one knows not what? In death- 
feud, and internecine wrestle and battle, it shall 
subsist with them ; not otherwise. 

1078. Rights of Man, printed on Cotton Handker- 
chiefs, in various dialects of human speech, pass over 
to the Frankfort Fair»^ What say we, Frankfort 

* XoulOnreon, i. S;^6. 


Fair ? They have crossed Enphratcs, and the fahn- 
lotis Hydaspes ; wafted themselves beyond the Ural, 
Altaic Himalaya, struck off from wood stereotypes, 
in angnlar Picture-writing, they are jabbered and 
jingled of in China and Japan. Where will it stop? 
Kien-Lung smells mischief; not the remotest Dalai- 
lama shall knead his dough-pills in peace— Hateftil 
to us, as is the Kight ! Bestir yourselves, ye De- 
fenders of Order! They do bestir themselves: all 
Kings and Kinglets, wi^ their spiritual temporal 
array, are astir ; their brows clouded with menace* 
Diplomatic emissaries fly swift \ Ckmvcntions, privy 
Conclaves assemble ; and wise wigs wag, taking what 
council they can. 

1079. Also, as we sold, the Pamphleteer draws pen, 
on thin side and that : zealous fists beat the Pulpit- 
drum. Not without issue ! Did not iron Birming- 
ham, shouting ** Church and King," itself knew not 
why, burst out, last July, into rage, drunkenness and 
fire ; and your Priestlcys, and the like, dining there 
On tliat Bastille day, get the maddest singeing: 
$cahdal6us to consider ! In which same days, as we 
can remailt, High Potentates, Austrian and Prus- 
sian, with Emigrants, were faring toward Pilnitz in 
Saxony; there, on the 27th of August, they, keeping 
to themselves what farther *' secret Treaty" there 
might or might not be, did publish their hopes and 
their threatenings, their Declaration that it was, 
** the common cause of Kings." 

1080. Where a will to quarrel is, there is away. 
Our readers remember that Pentecost-Night, 4th of 
August, 1789, when Feudalism, fell in a iew hours ? 


The National Assembl j, in a1>oU8hing Feudalism^ 
j>romised that ^^compensation" should be given; 
and did endeavor to give it^ Nevertheless the Aus- 
trian Kaiser answers that his German Princes, for 
their part) cannot be unfeudalized, that they have 
Possessions in French Alsace, and Fepdal Rights 
secured to them, for whicli no conceivable compensa- 
tion will suffice. So this of the Possessioued pjinces, 
^' Princes^ Possession's/' is bandied from Court to 
Court ; covers acres of diplomatic paper at this day : 
a weariness to the world. ^ Kaunitz argues from 
Vienna ; Deleasart responds from Paris, though per- 
haps not sharply enough. The Kaiser and his Pos- 
sessioned Princes, will too evidently come and take 
compensation, — so much as they can get. Nay might 
one not purtiti9n France, as we have done Poland, and 
are doing ; and so pacify it with a vengeance ? 

1081 From South to North ! For actually it is 
"the common cause of Kings." Swedish Gustav, 
sworn Knight of the Queen of France, will lead Coal- 
esced Armies; — had not Ankarstrom treasonously 
shot him ; for indeed there were griefs nearer home.* 
Austria and Prussia spoak at Pilnite; all men in- 
tensely listening. Imperial Rescripts have gone out 
from Turin; there will be secret Convention at 
Vienna. Catherine of Russia beckons approvingly ; 
will help, were she ready. Spanish Bourbon stirs 
amid his pillows ; from him too, even from him shall 
there come help. Lean Pitt, "the Minister of Pre- 
paratives," looks out from his watch-tower in Saint 
James's, in a suspicious manner. Councilors plotting, 

* 30th >farch. 1793 ("Annual Kegister,* p ii). 


Calonnes ftim-hovering ; — alaa, Sergeants rab-a-dub- 
bing openly through all manner of German market 
towns, collecting ragged TtUorl* Look where you 
will, immeasurable Obscurantism is girdling this 
fair France; which, agttinj will not be girdled by it. 
Europe is in travail } pang after pang ; what a shriek 
was that of Pilnitz ! The birth will be War. 

1082. Nay, 'the worst feature of the business is thifi 
last, dtill to be named *, the Emigrants at Coblentz. 
So many thousands ranking there, in bitter hate and 
menace: King's Brothers, all Princes of the Blood ex- 
cept wicked D'OrK^ans; your dueling De Castries, 
youf eloquent Cazales ; bull-headed Malseigne^ a war- 
god Broglie ; Distaff Seigneurs, insulted Officers, all 
that have ridden across the Khine-stream ; — D'Artois 
welcominfg Abb6 Hauty with akiss^and clasping him 
publicly to his own royal heart ! Emigration^ flow- 
ing over the Frontiers ; now in drops, now in streams^ 
in various humors of fear, of petulance, rage and hope, 
ever since those Bastille days when D'Artois went, 
** to shame the citizens of Paris," — has swollen to the 
size of a PhenomeUon for the worlds Coblentz is 
become a small extra-national Versailles ; a Versailles 
in partibus ; briguing, intriguing, favoritism, strum- 
petocracy itself, they say, goes on there ; all the old 
activities, on a small scale, quickened by hunger Re- 

10S3. Enthusiasm, of loyality, of hatred and hope, 
has risen to a high pitch ; as, in any Coblentz tavern 
you may hear, in speech and in singing. Maury as- 
sists in the interior Council ; much is decided on : 

• Itoulbngdon, ii. lOOrllt 



for one thing, tbey keep llstB of the dates of yotir «tiii« 
igrating; a month fioonef, or a mcmth later, detef 
mines yonr greater or ymir less right to the coming 
Division of the Spoil. Oamlds himself, because he 
had occasionally spoken with a Constitntional tone* 
was lodged x>n coldly at first: «o pnre are our prinei* 
pies.* And arms are a-hammering at Liege ; ** 3,000 
horses^' amhling hitherward IVom the Fairs of Ger- 
many t Caitalry enrolling; likewise Foot«€oldienif 
*' in bine coat, red waistcoat and nankeen trotisets.'*t 
They hare their secret domestic correspondences, as 
their open foreign : with disaffected Crypto-Aristo- 
crats, with contnmackras PHests, with Austrian Com* 
mittee In the Tnileries. Deserters are spirited over 
by assidnouB crimps ; Royal- Allemand is gone almost 
wholly. Their ronte of march, toward France and 
the DiTision of the Spoil, is marked ont, were the 
Kaiser once ready. ** tt is said they mean to poison 
the souroes; bnt,** adds Patriotism making report of 
it, "they will not poison the sonrce of Liberty;** 
whereat fm appkmdii (we cannot but applaud). Also 
they have manai%M!tories of False Assignats; and 
men that circulate in the interior, distributing and 
disbursing the same ; one of these we denounce now 
to Legislative Patriotism: *"« man Lebrun by name ; 
about thirty yearn of age, with blonde hair and in 
quantity ; has," only for the time being surely, ** a 
black-eye (ceil poch6) ; goes in a wiski with a black 
horse," J always keeping his Gig! 

• Montfraillardjil. 6-17: Toulottsreon. ubi supra, 
t See '*Hi8toireParlementalre.*'xlli. 11-88, 41-61. 856, etc. 
% Moniteur, Stance du 2 Novembre, 1791 iHistoire Par* 
lementaire,' xir 218). 


1084. Unhappy Emigrants, it was their lot, and 
the lot of France V They are ignorant of much that 
th«y should know t of themselves, of what is around 
thtm. A PoUticai Party that knows not when it ia 
htaiemj may become one of the fatalest of things, to 
itself, and to All. Nothing will convince these men 
that they eansot scatter the French He volution at 
tJie Hr^tbiast of their war-trnntpet ; that the French 
Bcsir^itioB^^ ot^r than a blustering Effervescence, 
of brawlers and s^ntersr, which, at the flash of chiv- 
idsons broadswords, at the mstle of gallaws>ropes, 
will bttrrow itself, in den» the deeper the weieomen 
Bat, alas, what iian does know and measure himself, 
and the things that are round him ;^— elsewhere were 
the need of jAysical fighting at all ? Never, till they 
are cleft, astinder, can these heads believe that a Sans* 
ralottic arm has any vigor in it . cleft asunder, it wiU 
be i<^ late to believe. 

1085^ One may say, without spleen against his 
|f0or erring brothers ol* any side, that above all other 
aiifl^ieib, this of the Emigrant Nobles acted fatally 
on France. Could they have knowfi, could they have 
nMerstood 1 In the beginning of 1789, a splendor 
and a terror still surrounded them * the Confiagra- 
tion of their Ch&teaus, kindled by months of obsti* 
nacy^went out after the 4th of August ; and might 
have contlaued out, had they at all known what to 
defend, what to relinguish as indefensible. They 
were still a graduated Hierarchy of Authorities, or 
the accredited similitude of such ; they sat there, 
uiriitlng King^ with Commonah'ty ,* transmitting and 
trnaalatiag ffroAudll^f iVorn degree to degree, the eote^ 


mand of the one into the obedience of the otl-erj 
rendering command and obedience still possible. Had 
they understood their place, and what to do in Tt, 
this French Revolution, -which wpnt forth explosively 
in years and in months, might have spread itself over 
geperations; and not a torture-death but a quiet 
euthanasia have been provided for many things. 

1086. But they were proud and high, these men ; 
they were not wise to consider. They spurned all 
from them in disdainful hate, they drew the sword 
and flung away the scabbard. France has not only 
no Hierarchy of Authorities, to translate command 
into obedience ; its Hierarchy of Authorities has fled 
to the enemies of France ; calls loudly on the ene- 
mies of France to interfere armed, who want but a 
pretext to do that. Jealous Kings and Kaisers 
might have looked on long, meditating interference, 
yet afraid and ashamed to interfere : but now do not 
the King's Brothers, and all French Nobles, Digni- 
taries and Authorities that are free to speak, which 
the King himself is not, — passionately invite us, in 
the name of Bight and of Might ? Ranked at Cob- 
lentz, from 15,000 to 20,000 stand now brandishing 
their weapons, with the cry : On, on ! Yes, Mes- 
sieurs, you shall on ; — and divide the spoil according 
to your dates of emigrating. 

1087. Of all which things a poor Legislative As- 
sembly, and Patriot France, is informed : by denun- 
ciant friend, by triumphant foe. Sulleau's Pamphlets, 
of the Rivarol Staff of Genius, circulate ; heralding 
supreme hope. Durosoy's Placards tapestry the 
walls ; Chant du Coq crows day, pecked at by Tal- 


lien's. Ami des Citoyens. King's-friend Royou,Aini 
du Roi, can name, in exact arithmetical ciphers, the 
contingents of the various Invading Potentates ; in 
all, 419,000 Foreign fighting men, with 15,000 Emi- 
grants. Not to reckon these your daily and hourly 
desertions, which an Editor must daily record, of 
whole Companies, and even regiments, crying Vive 
le Roi, Vive le Reine, and marching ovei* with ban- 
ners spread :* — lies all, and wind : yet to Patriotism 
not wind ; n6r, alas, one day, to Royou ! Patriotism, 
therefore, may brawl and babble yet a little while ; 
but its hours are numbered : Europe is coming with 
419,00^ and the Chivalry of France; the gallows, one 
may hope, will get its own. 



1088. We shall have War, then; and on what 
terms! With an Executive *" pretending," really 
with less and less deceptiveness now, " to be dead ; " 
casting even a wishful eye toward the enemy: on 
such terms we shall have War. 

1089. Public Functionary in vigorous action there 
is none ; if it be not Rivarol with his Staff of Genius 
and 280 Applauders. The Public service lies waste ; 
the very Tax-gatherer has forgotten his cunning: in 
this and the other Provincial Board of Management 
(Directoire de D<^partment) it is found advisable to 

* Ami du Roi newspaper (in ^ Histoire Parlementaire," 


retain what Taxes you can gather, to pay your own 
ineyi table expenditares. Our Revenue is Assi gnats; 
emission on emission of Paper-money. And the 
Army ; our Three grand Armies, of Rochambeau, of 
Ltickner, of Lafayette? Lean, disconsolate hover 
these Three grand Armies, watching the frontiers 
there ; three Flights of long-necked Cranes in molt- 
ing-time ; — wrecked, disobedient, disorganized ; who 
never saw fire ; the old Generals and Officers gone 
across the Rhine. War-Minister Narbonne, he of the 
rose-colored Reports, solicits recruitment, equip- 
ments, money, always money ; threatens, since he can 
get none, to " take his sword," which belongs tQ him- 
self, and go serve his country with that.* 

1090. The question of questions is: What shall be 
done? 'shall we, with a desperate defiance which 
Fortune sometimes favors, draw the sword at once, 
in the face of this inrushing world of Emigration 
and Obseurantism; or wait, and temporize and diplo- 
matize, till, if possible, our resources mature them- 
selves a little ? And .yet again, are our resources 
growing toward maturity ; or growing the oiker way ? 
Bubious: the ablest Patriots are divided ; Brissot and 
his Brissotins, or Girondins, in the Legislative, cry 
aloud for the former defiant plan; Robespierre, in 
the Jacobins, pleads as loud for the latter dilatory one : 
with responses, even with mutual reprimands ; dis- 
tracting the Mother of Patriotism. Consider also 
what agitated Breakfasts there may be at Madame 
d'Udon's in the Place Vendome ! The alarm of all 

* Moniteur, Seance du 23 Janvier, 1792; '' Biofirrapbiedes 
Ministres," 6 Narbonne. 


m&Ek la great. Help, ye PatriatB ; and O at least 
agree ; for the hour pxesses. Frost was not yet gonei 
wheu in that ^' tolerahly handsoiae apartment of the 
Castle of Niort," there arrived a Letter: General 
Dumouriea must to Paris, It is War-Minister Nar- 
bonne that writes; the General shall give counsel 
about many things.^ In the month of February, 
1792> Brissotin friends welcome their Dumouriez 
Polymetis, — comparable really to an antique Ulysses 
in modem costume; quick, ela&tie, shifty, insuppres- 
aible, a " many-counseled man." 

109L Let the Header fancy this fair France with 
a whole Cimmerian Europe girdling her, rolling in 
on her, black, to burst in red thunder of War ; fair 
France herself hand-shackled and foot-shackled in 
the weltering comple^cities of this Social Clothing, 
or Constitution, which they have made for her; a 
France that, in such Constitution, cannot march! 
^nd Hunger too ; and plotting Aristocrats, and ex- 
communicating Dissident Priests : *' the man Lebrun 
by name" urging his black wiski^ visible to the 
eye ; and still more terrible in his invisibility, En- 
gineer Goguelatt with Queen^s cipheC] riding and 

1092. The excommunicatory Priests give new 
trouble in the Maine and Loire ; La Vendue, nor 
Cathelineau the^ wool-dealer, has not ceased grumb^ 
ling and rumbling. Nay behold Jales itself once 
more: how often does that real- imaginary Camp of 
the Fiend require to be extinguished! For near 
two years now, it has waned faint and again waxed 

* Pumouriez^ U c. 6. 


bright, in the bewildered soul of Patriotism : actually, 
if Patriotism knew it, one of the most surprising 
products of Nature working with Art. Royalist 
Seigneurs, under this or the other pretext, assemble 
the simple people of these Cevennes Mountains, 
men not unused to revolt, and with heart for fight- 
ing, could their -poor heads be got persuaded. The 
Koyalist Seigneur harangues; harping mainly on 
the religious string; ** True Priests maltreated, false 
Priests intruded, Protestants (once dragooned) now 
triumphing, things sacred given to the dogs ;" and 
so produces, from the pious Mountaineer throat, 
rough growlings : — " Shall we not testify, then, ye 
brave hearts of the Cevennes; march to the rescue? 
Holy Religion ; duty to God and the King ?"— " Si 
fait, si fait (Just so, just so)," answer the brave 
hearts always : " Mais il y a de bien bonnes choses 
dans la Revolution (But there are main good things 
in the Revolution too) '." — And so the matter, cajole* 
as we may, will only turn on its axis, not stir from 
the spot, and remains theatrical merely * 

1093. Nevertheless deepen your cajolery, harp 
quick and quicker, ye Royalist Seigneurs; with a 
dead-lift effort you may bring it to that. In the 
month of June next, this Camp of JaUs will step 
forth as a theatricality suddenly become rea ; 2,000 
Strong, and with the boast that it is 70,000 : most 
strange to see; with flags flying, bayonets fixed; 
with Proclamation, and d'Artois Commission of civil 
war ! Let some Rebecqui, or other the like hot-clear 
Patriot; let some "Lieutenant-Colonel Aabry," if 
 Dampmartin. I 201. 


Bebecqui is busy elsewhere, raise instantaneotis 
Kational Guards, and disperse and dissolve it : and 
blow the Old Castle asunder * that so, if possible, we 
bear of it Dp mere ! 

1094. In the Months of Febraary and March, it is 
recorded, the terror, especially of roral France, had 
risen even to the transcendental pitch : not far from 
madness. In Town and Hamlet is rumor, of war, 
massacre : that Austrians, Aristocrats, abo'^e all, that 
7^ Brigands are close by. Men quit their houses 
and huts; rush fugitive, shrieking, with wife and 
child, they know not whither. Siich a terror, the 
eye-witnesses say, never fell on a Nation; nor 
shall again fall, even in Reigns of Terror expressly 
so-called. The countries of the Loire, all the Cen- 
tral and South-east regions start up distracted, 
" Simultaneously as by an electric shock ;" — for in- 
deed grain too gets scarcer and scarcer. " The peo- 
ple barricade the entrances of Towns, pile stones in 
the upper stories, the women prepare boiling water ; 
fix>m moment to moment, expecting the attack. In 
the Country, the alarm-bell rings incessant ; troops 
of peasants, gathered by it, scour the highways, seek- 
ing an imaginary enemy. They are armed mostly 
with scythes stuck in wood ; and, arriving in wild 
troops at the barricaded Towns, are themselves some- 
times taken for Brigands."! 

1095. So rushes old France: old France is rushing 
flown. What the end will be is known to no mortal ; 
that the end is near all mortals may know. 

• Moniteur Stance du 15 JiiiMet, 179S. 
t Newspaper, etc (in •* Histoire Parlementaire," xlii. 




1096. To all which our poor Legislative, tied up by 
an unmacching Constitution^ can oppose nothing, by 
way ot remedy, but mere bursts of parliamentary 
eloquence ! They go on» debating, denouncing, ob- 
jurgating: loud weltering Chaos, which devours 

= 1097. But their 2,000 and odd Decrees? Reader, 
these happily concern not thee, nor me. Mere Occa- 
sional-Decrees, foolish and not foolish \ sufficient for 
that day was its own evil 1 Of the whole 2,000 there 
are not now half a score, and those mostly blighted 
in the bud by royal Veto^ that will profit or disprofit 
us. On the 17th of January, the Legislative, for one 
thing, got its High Court, its Haute Cour, set up at 
Orleans. The theory had been given by the Consti- 
tuent, in May last, but this is the reality : a Court for 
the trial of Political Offenses; a Court that cannot 
want work. To this it was decreed that there need- 
ed no royal Acceptance, therefore that there could 
be no Feto. Also Priests can now be married ; ever 
since last October. A Patriotic adventurous Priest 
bad made bold to marry himself then; and not 
thinkiiiK this enough, came to the bar with his new 
spouse ; that the whole world might hold honeymoon 
with him, and a Law be obtained. 

1098. Less joyful are the Laws again Refractory 
Priests ; and yet not less needful ! Decrees on Priests 
and decrees on Emigrants; these are the two brief 
Series of Decrees, worked out with endless debate, 


and then canceled by Feito/wbidilaaijily concerns us 
here. "Soj^ an august National Assembly must needs 
conquer these Refractories, Clerical or Laic, and 
thumbscrew them into obedience: yet, behold, al- 
ways as you turn your legislative thumbscrew, and 
will press and even crush till Refractories give way, 
3— King's J'ie^o steps in with magical paralysis; and 
your thumbscrew, hardly squeezing, much less crush- 
ing, do^s not act ! 

1099. Truly a melancholy Set of Decrees, a pair of 
Seta; paralyzed by Veto! First, under date the28tk 
of October, 1791, we have. legislative proclamation, 
issued by herald and bill-sticker ; inviting Monsieur, 
the King's Brother, to return within two months, 
under penalties. To which invitation Monsieur re- 
plies nothing ; or indeed replies by Newspaper Paro- 
dy, inviting the august Legislative "to return to 
common sense within two months,^' under penalties. 
Whereupon the Legislative must take stronger meas- 
ures. So, on the 9th of November, we declare all 
Emigrants '^suspect of conspiracy; and, in 
brief, to be "outlawed," if they have not returned 
at New-year's day -.—Will the King say V^to t That 
**triple impost'' shall be levied on these men's Pro* 
per ties, or even their Properties be "put in sequestra* 
tion," one can understand. But farther, on New- 
year's day itself, not tu individual liaving "returned," 
we declare, and with fresh emphasis some fortnight 
later s^ain declare, That Monsieur is d^chu, forfeited 
of his eventful Heirship to the Crown : nay morei 
that Conde, Calonne, and a considerable List of 
others are accnsed of high treason; and shall be 


judged by our High Court of Orleans : Veto ! — Then 
again as to Non>jurant Priests: it was decreed Ib 
November last, that they should forfeit what Pensions 
they had ; be " put under inspection, under surveil- 
lance,^' and, if need were, be banished : Veto ! A still 
sharper turn is coming ; but to this also the answers 
will be, Veto. 

nOO. Fie^o after Veto; your thumbscrew paralyzed! 
Gods aind men may see that the Legislative is in a 
false position. As, alas, who is in a true one? 
Voices already murmur for a "National Convention."* 
This poor Legislative, spurred and stung into action 
by a whole France and a whole Europe, cannot act; 
can only objurgate and perorate ; with stormy "mo- 
tions," and motion in which is no wapy with efferves- 
cence, with noise and fuliginous fury ! 

1101. What scenes in that National Hall ! Presi- 
dent jingling his inaudible bell ; or, as utmost signal 
of distress, clapping on his hat ; "the tumult subsid- 
ing in twenty minutes," and this or the other indis- 
creet Member sent to the Abbaye Prison for three 
days ! Suspected Persons must be summoned and 
questioned : old M. de Sombreuil of the Invalides has 
to give account of himself, and why he leaves his 
Gates open. Unusual smoke rose from the Sevres 
Pottery ,^ indicating conspiracy ; the Potters explained 
that it was Necklace-LamottC'S Memoires, bought 
up by her Majesty, which they were endeavoring to 
suppress by fire.f — which nevertheless he that runs 
may still read. 

* Decembre, 1791 ("Histoire Parlementare,**xil. 257). 
t Moniteur, Stance du 28 Mai, 1702; Campan, li. 196. 


1102.- Again, it would seem, Duke de Brissac and 
tl^e King's Constitntional- Guard are '^making car- 
tridges secretly in the cellars:" a set of Royalists 
pure and impure ; black cut-throats many of them, 
picked out of gaming-houses and sinks; in all 6,000 
instead of Eighteen hundred ; who evidently gloom 
on us every time we enter the Chateau.* Wherefore, 
with infinite debate, let Brissac and King's Guard be 
disbanded. Disbanded accordingly they are; after 
only two months of existence, for they did not get 
on foot till March of this same year. So ends briefly 
the King^ new Constitutional Maison Militaire; he 
must now be guarded by mere Swiss and blue Nation- 
als again. It seems the lot of Constitutional things. 
New Constitutional Maison Civile he would never 
even establish, much as Barnave urged it ; old resi- 
dent Duchesses sniffed at it, and held aloof; on the 
whole her Majesty thought it not worth while, the 
Noblesse would so soon be back triumphant.t 

1103. Or, looking still into this National Hall and 
its scenes, behold Bishop Torn6, a Constitutional 
Prelate, not of severe morals, demanding that **relig- 
ious costumes and such caricatures" be abolished. 
Bishop Tom<5 warms, catches fire ; finishes by unty- 
ing, and indignantly flinging on the table, as if for 
gage or bet, his own pontifical cross. Which cross, 
at any rate, is instantly covered by the cross or Te- 
Deum Fauchet, then by other crosses and insignia, 
till all are stripped ; this clerical Senator clutching 

* Dumourieztii. 168. 
t Camp«n. li- c 1& 




offbiB «kcil1«oap, that otiier his frill eollari— lest 
Fanaticism ffetnwi on us.* 

1104. Quick is the moveinftnt here ! And then 
so confused, iinsiibstantial, you might call it almost 
spectral: pallid, dim, inane, like the Kingdom's of 
Bis ! Unruly Liiiguet, shrunk to a kind of specter 
for us, pleads here some cause that he lias : amid 
rtimorand interruption, yrhich excel human patience^ 
be ^* tears hiB papers, and withdraws," the irascible 
adust little man. iNay iioiiora2>ie Members will tear 
^eir papers, being effervescent : Merlin of Thionville 
tears his papers, crying: " So, the People cannot be 
Saved by yo» .'" .Not are Deputations wanting : "De- 
fmtations of ISeetions; generally with complaint and 
tlenouncement, always with Patriot fervw of senti- 
ment; Deputation of Women, pleading that they 
also may be allowed to take Pikes, and exercise in 
the Champ-de Mars. Why not, ye Amazons, if it be 
in you? Then occasionally, having done our message 
and got answer, we " defile through the Hall singing 
pa-ira ;" or rather roll and whirl through it, " dancing 
our ronde patriotiqne the while,"— <mr new Carmag- 
nole, or Pyrrtiic war-danee and liberty-dance. Patriot 
Huguenin, Ex- Advocate, Ex-Carbineer, JEx-Clerk of 
the Barriers, comes ciepnted, with Saint-Antoine at 
his heels ; denouncing Anti-patriotfem, Famine, Fore- 
stallment and Man-eaters ; asks «n august Legisla- 
tive: " Is there not a toesin in your hearts against 
these mangcuTs d'hommes !"t 

* Monlteur. du 7 Avril, 1793; •• Deux Amis," vll . 111. 
t See Moniteur Stances (in '^Hlstoire PaTlementalre,* 
xiii. xiv.) 


H05C- Bat above- all tilings, for this is a eoatini^ 
bosiiiess, the Legislative has to reprimand the KingV 
Ministers. Of his Majesty's Ministers we have said 
hitherto, and say, next to nothing. Still more spec* 
tsal these! SorrowfVil ; o£ no permanency any of 
them, nond at least since Montmorin vanished : the^ 
^'ddeatof' the KingV Conneil" is.- Qccasiottally: not- 
ion days old:* Feoillant Constitutional as. your 
xfespectable Cafaier de GerviUe, as your respectable 
nnlbrtuaate Belessarts; or- Boyalists-Constitutional, 
as Montmorin last Friend of Necker^or Aristocrat, 
as Bertrand-MoleTille : they flit there phantom- 
like^ in the huge shnmeringconfasion; poor shad- 
ows, daahed iii the racking winds j powerlesa, 
withont meaning ; — whom the hnman memory need 
not charge itself with^ 

1106. Bui' how often, we say, are these poor Maj- 
esty's Ministers summoned over ; to be questioned, 
tutored ; nay threatened, almost bullied ! They 
answer what, with adroitest simulation and casuis- 
fepy, they can : of which a poor Legislative knows 
n»t what to make. One tMng only is clear. That 
Oimmerian Europe is girdling us in; that France 
(not actually diead,.3iirely ?) cannot march. Have a 
care, ye Ministers! Sharp Guadet transfixes you 
with cross-questions, with sudden Advocate-conclu- 
sions ; the sleeping tempest that is in Vergniaud can 
be awakened. Restless Brissot brings up Repoits, 
Accusations, endless thin Logic ; it is the man's 
highday even now. Condorcet redacts, with his firm 
pen, our " Address of the Legislative Assembly to 
*' Onmooriez, i\, 137. 



the French Nation."* Fiery Max Isnard, who, for 
the rest, will " carry not fire and Sword " on those 
Cimmerian Enemies, *'but Liberty," — is for declar- 
ing ^' that we hold Ministers responsible ; and that 
by responsibility we mean death (nous entendons la 

1107. Forverily it grows serious : the timepresseSf 
and traitors there are. Bertrand-Moleville has a 
smooth tongue, the known Aristocrat; gall in his 
heart. How his answers and explanations flowjready ; 
Jesuitic, plausible to the ear ! But perhaps the not^ 
hblest is this, which befell once when Bertrand had 
done answeiing and was withdrawn. Scarcely had 
the august Assembly begun considering what was to 
be done with him, when the Hall fills with em^ke. 
Thick sour smoke : no oratory, only wheezing and 
barking ; irremediable ; so that the august Assembly 
has to adjourn If A miracle ? Typical miracle ? 
One knows not : only this one seems to know, that 
** the Keeper of the Stoves was appointed by Bertrand " 
or by some underling of his ! — O fuliginous etmfnsed 
Kingdom of Dis, with thy Tantahis-Ixion toils, with 
thy angry Fire-floods, and Streams named of Lamen- 
tation, why hast thou not thy Lethe too, that so one 
migjiit finish f 



1108. Nevertheless let not Patriotism despair. 
Have we not, in Paris at least, a virtuous P6tion, a 

* 16th February, 1792C*ChQix des Rapports.' Tiii.37&- 

t Courrier de Paris.U Janvier, n93(Qor8as'8 newspaper), 
in *' Uistoire Pariementaire, " xiii • 8li- 


wholly Patriotic Municipality? Virtuous Potion, 
ever since November, is Mayor of Paris : in our 
Municipality, the Public, for the Public is now ad- 
mitted too, may behold an energetic Danton ; farther 
an epigrammatic slow-sure Manuel ;. a resolute unre- 
pentant Billaud-Varennes, of Jesuit breeding; Tallien 
able-editor, and nothing but Patriots, better or worse. 
So ran the November Elections : to the joy of most 
citizens ; nay the very Court supported Potion rather 
than Lafayette. And so Bailly and his Feuillants, 
long waning like the Moon, had to withdraw then, 
making some sorrowful obeisance,^ into extinction. : 
— or indeed into worsoj into lurid half-light, grimmed 
by the shadow of that Bed Flag of theirs, and bitter 
memory of the Champ-de-Mars. How swift is the 
progress of things and men ! Not now does Lafay- 
ette, as on that Federation-day, when his noon was, 
** press his sword firmly on the Fatherland's Altar," 
and swear in sight of France : ah no ; he, waning 
and setting ever [^since that hour, hangs now, disas^ 
trous, on the edge of the horizon ; commanding one 
of those Three molting Crane-flights of Armies, in a 
most suspected, unfruithful, uncomfortable manner. 
1109. But, at worst, cannot Patriotism, so many 
thousand strong in this Metropolis of the Universe, 
help itself? Has it not right-hands, pikes? Ham- 
mering of Pikes, which was not to be prohibited 
by Mayor Bailly, has been sanctioned by Mayor 
Petion ; sanctioned by Legislative Assembly. How 
not, when the King's so-called Constitutional Guard 

* "Discours de Bailly, RSponse de Potion" (Moniteur 
du 20 Novembre, 1791). 


laking cartridges in secret?" Chnngcs are 
y for the Nationnl Gnard itself; this whole 
t-Aristocrflt Staff of Ihe Guard must be dis- 
Likenise, citizens without uniform may 
mk in the Guard, tlie pike beside Ihe mu£- 
meh h time: the"aGtii'e" citizen and the 
vho can flght for us, are they not both wel- 

my Patriot friends, indubitably Yes ! Nay 

1 is, Patriotism throughout, were it ne^'er so 
illed. logical, respectable, must cither lean 
irtily ou SauBcnlottism, the black, bottom- 
else vanish, in the frigfatfuleat tray, to 

Thus some, with Dptnmed nwe, will alto- 
□iff and disdain Sanscnlotlisra ; othera will 
rtily on it ; nay others again will lean what 
tearttcsaly on it: three sorts; each sort with 
' cofresponding. 

[n such point of view,howeTer, have we not 
present a Volunteier Ally, stronger than all 
; namely, Hunger? Hunger; and what 
of Panic Terror this and the som-totnlof 
r miseries may bring! For Sanscnloltism 

what all other things die of. Stupid Peter 
Imost made an epigram, though nncon- 
and with the Patriot world laughing not at 
him, when he wrote : '■ Tout va bien iei, le 
ique (All goes well here, food is not to be 

Teither, if yon knew it, is Patriotism with- 
'onstitution that can march : her not impo- 
iament; or call it'Ecumenic Council, and 
rouii.p. B4. 


G^^eial Assembly of the Jean-Jjacqctes ChiLrcheB: 
like ^lOTHEB SociJEitY, namely' Mother Society 
with her three hundred fuU-^owa Banghters , with 
what we can call little Grand-daughters trying to 
walk, in every village of France, numerable, as 
Burke thinks, by the hundred thousand. This is 
the true Constitution ; made not by Twelve hundred 
august Senators, but by Nature herself, and has 
grown, unconsciously, out of the wants and the 
efforts of these 25,000,000 of men. They are "Lords 
of the Article^" our Jacobins ; they originate debates 
for the Legislative; discuss Peace and War , settle 
beforehand what the Legislative is to do. Greatly 
to the scandal of philosophical men, and of most 
Historians; — who do in that judge naturally, and 
yet not wisely. A Governing Power must exist; 
your other powers here are simulacra this power is 

lllSJ: Great is the Mother Society she has had 
the honor to be denounced by Austrian Kaunitz -* 
and is all the dearer to Patriotism. By fortune and 
valor she has extinguished Feuillantism itself, at 
kast the Feoillant Club. This latter, high as it 
<mce carried its head, she, on the 18th of February, 
has tl» satisfaction "to see shut, extinct Patriots 
having gone thither, with tumult, to hiss it out of 
pain. The Mother Society has enlarged her locality, 
stretches now over the whole nave of the Church. 
Let xa glance in, with the worthy Toulongeon, our 
old Ex-Constituent Friend, who happily has eyes to 
to see. " The nave <^f the Jacobins Church," says he, 

* Moniteur d^ance du 29 Mars. 1790 


3ged into a vast Circus, the seals of nbicb 
ip circalarlf like nn amphitheater to tlie 
in of the domed roof. A high Pyramid of 
arble, built against one of the walls, which 
Bierly a funeral luonnment, has alone been 
tiling; it serves now as baek to the Office- 
Biirean. Here on an eievatect Platform ?it 
it and Secretaries, behind and above them 
e Eusts of Miral>eau, of Frojiklia, ;iad various 
any finally of Marat. Facing this is the 
, raised tilt it is midway between floor and 
the dome, so that the speaker's voice may 
e center. From that point (bunder the voices 
lake all Europe : down below, in silence, are 
the thunderbolts and the fire-brands. Pene- 
into this hu^e circuit, where all is out of 
. gigantic, the mind uannot repress some 
nt of terror and wonder; the imagination 
hose dread temples nbicii Poetry,of old, had 
ited to the Avenging Deities."* 
Scenes too are in this Jacobii Amphitheater, 
[istory time for them. Flags of the "Tiirea 
oples of the Universe." tiinal brotherly flags 
»nd, America, France, have been waved here 
ert; by London Depntation, of Whigs or 
ind their Club, on this bond, nad by young 
Citoyennes on that; beautiful sweet-tongued 
Citizens, who solemnly sent over salatdtioQ 
therhood, also Tricolor stitched by their own 
md finally Ears of Wheat, while the dome 
fvs with Vivent les trois peaples libres ! flrom 
angeon,ii 1£1. 


all throats — a most dramatic scene. Demoiselle 
Th^roigne recites, from that Tribune in mid-air, her 
persecutions in Austria ; comes leaning on the arm 
of Joseph Chenier, Poet Ch^nier, to demand Liberty 
for the hapless Swiss of Chateau- Vieux.* Be of 
hope, ye forty Swiss : tugging there, in the Brest 
waters , not forgotten ! 

1114. Deputy Brissot perorates from that Tribune ; 
Desmoulins, our wicked Camille, interjecting audibly 
from below, " Coquin !" Here though oftener in the 
Cordeliers, reverberates the lion-voice of Danton; 
grim Billaud-Varennes is here, Collot d'Herbois 
pleading for the forty Swiss, tearing a passion to 
rags, Apophthegmatic Manuel winds up in this pithy 
way : " A Minister must perish !"— to which the Am- 
phitheater responds . " Tons, Tous(All, All) '" But 
Chief Priest and Speaker of this place, as we said, is 
Robespierre, the long-winded incorruptible man. 
What spirit of Patriotism dwelt in men in those 
times, this one fact, it seems to us, will evince : that 
1,500 human creatures, not bound to it, sat quiet 
under the oratory of Robespierre; nay listened 
nightly^ hour after hour, applausive ; and gaped as 
for the word of life. More insupportable individual, 
one would say, seldom opened his mouth in any 
Tribune. Acrid, implacable-impotent; dull-drawl- 
ing, barren as the Harmattan wind. He pleads, in 
endless earnest-shallow speech, against immediate 
War, against Woolen Caps or Bonnets Rouges, against 
many things; and is the Trismegistus and Dalai- 

^''Debatsdes Jacobins ' (**Ui8toire Parlementaire," 
xiil. 2^, et&j 



Lstma of Patriot men. Whom neyerthelesa a shrill- 
voiced little man, yet with fine eyes and a hroad 
beautifully sloping brow, rises respectfully to con- 
trovert ; he is, say the Newspaper Reporters, " M. 
Louvet, Author of the charming Romance of Fau- 
blas." Steady, ye Patriots' Pull not yet two ways ; 
with a France rushing panic-stricken in the rural 
districts, and a Cimmerian Europe storming iii on 



1115. About the vernal equinox, however, one un- 
expected gleam of hope does burst forth on Patriot- 
ism : the appointment of a thoroughly Patriot Min- 
istry. This also his Majesty, among his innumerable 
experiments of wedding fire to water, will try. 
Quod bonum sit. Madame d 'Udon's Break fasts have 
jingled with a new significance ; not even Genevese 
Dumont but had a word in it. Finally, on the 15th 
and Onward to the 23d day of March, 1792, when all 
is negotiated,— this is the blessed issue ; this Patriot 
Ministry that we see. 

1116. General Dumouriez, with the Foreign Port- 
folio, shall ply Kaunitz and the Kaiser, in another 
style than did poor Delessarts; whom indeed we 
have sent to our High Court of Orleans for his slug- 
gishness. War-Minister Narbonne is washed away 
by the Time-flood : poor Chevalier de Grave, chosen 
by the Court, is fast washing away ; then shall aus- 
tere Servan, able Engineer-Of&cer, mount suddenly 


to the Wat Department. Gcnevesc Clavl^resees an 
omen tealixed: passiug the f^inance Hotel) long 
yeats a^O) m a poor Geuevese exile, it was borne 
^ondrouely on his mind that f^e was to be Finance- 
Minister; and now he is it; — and his poor Wife, 
given up by the Doctors, rises and walks, not the vic- 
tim of nerves but their vanquisher.* And above all, 
our MiniBtef of the Interior? Roland de la Plat* 
ti^lte, he of Lyons ! Mohave the Brisaotins, public 
ot private Opinion, 'and Breakfasts in the Plaee Ven* 
dome, decided it. Strict Roland, compared to a 
Qual«er*endimanch<5, or Sunday Quaker, goes to kiss 
hands at the Tuileries, in found hat and sleek hair, 
hi» shoes tied with mere ribbon or ferrat. The Su- 
preme Usher twitches Dumourie55 aside i" Quoi, Mon- 
sieur ! No buckles to his shoes ? ''— *' Ah, Monsieur,'* 
=an»wierB Dumouriess, glancing toward the ferrat ; " All 
is lost (Tout est perdu."t 

1117. And BO our fair Roland removes from her 
upper-floor in the Rue Saint -Jacques, to the sumptu* 
<ius saloons OHce occupied by Madame Necker. Nay 
still earlier, it was Calonne that did all this gilding ; 
it was be who ground these lusters, Venetian mir- 
rors ;^who polished this inlaying, this veneering and 
nrmoulu ; and made it, hy rubbing of the proper 
tamp^ an Aladdin*s Palace:— aud now behold, he 
wanders dim-flitting over Europe , half-drowned in 
the Rhine-stream, scarcely saving his Papers! Vos 
non vobis— The fair Roland, equal to either fortune, 
has her public Dinner on Fridays, the Ministers all 

* t)uwiout,c. 20, 21. 



' y -  

78 pjjtLUMmr riMsT. 

there in a body: she withdraws to her desk (the 
cloth once removed), and seems busy writing ; never- 
theless loses no word : if, for example, Deputy Bris- 
BOt and Minister ClaVi^re get too hot in argument, 
she, not without timidity, yet with a cunning grace- 
3; fulness, will interpose. Deputy Brissot's head, they 

Bay, is getting giddy, in this sudden height; as feeble 
heads do. 

1118. Envious meninsinnate that the Wife Holand 
is Minister, and not the Husband : it is happily the 
Worse they have to charge her with. For the rest 
let whose head soever be getting giddy, it is not this 

- brave woman's. 8erene and queenly here, as she was 
of old in her own hired garret of the Ursulines Con- 
vent ! She who has quietly shelled French-beans 
for her diuner ; being led to that, as a young maiden, 
by quiet insight and computation ; and knowing what 
that was, and what she was : such a one will also 
look quietly on ormoulu and veneering, not ignorant 
of these either. Calonne did the veneering . he gave 
dinners here, old Besenval diplomatically whisper- 
ing to him ] and was great i yet Calonne we saw at 
last " walk with long strides." Necker next ; and 
where now is Necker ? Up also a swift change has 
brought hither ; a swift change will send us hence. 
Not a Palace but a Caravansary I 

1119. So wags and wavers this unrestful World, 
day after day, month after month. The streets of 
Paris, and all Cities, roll daily their oscillatory flood 
of men ; which flood does nightly disappear, and lie 
hidden horizontal in beds and truckle-beds; and 
awake&on the morrow to new perpendiculnrijty and 


mov^inent* Men go their toads, Ibolish or wise ;— 
Engineer Goguelat to and fro^ bearing Queen^ ciphen 
A Madame deStaei is busy \ cannot clutch her Nar« 
bonne from the Time-flood : a Princess de Lamballe 
is bnsy \ cannot help her Qneen. Barnave, seeing 
tlie Feuiliants dispersed, ond Coblentz so brisk, begs 
by way of final recompense to kiss her Majesty's 
hand; "angurs not well of her new course;" and 
retires home to Grenoble, to wed an heiress there. 
The Caf6 Valois and M^ot the Restaurateur's hear 
daily gasconade; loud babble of Half-pay Royalists, 
with or without poniards* Remnants of Aristocrat 
saloons call the new Ministry Ministere-Sausculotte. 
A Louret, of ib^ Romance Faublas, is busy in the 
Jacobins. A Casotte, of the Romance Diable Amou^ 
xenz, is busiy elsewhere : better wert thou quiet, old 
Calotte ; it is a world, this, of magic become real! 
All men are busy; doing they only half guess what : 
— ^flinging seeds, of tares mostly, into the *' Seed-field 
of Time \ " this, by and by, will declare wholly 

1120. But Social Explosions have in them some^ 
thing dread, and as it were mad and magical ; which 
indeed Life always secretly has: thus the dumb 
Earth (says Fable), if you pull her mandrake-roots, 
will give a demonic mad-making ntoau. These Ex- 
plosions and Revolts ripen, break forth like dumb 
dread Forces of Nature; and yet they are Men's 
forces; and yet we are part of them : the Daemonic 
that i^in*^ man's life has burst out on us, will sweep 
us too away ! — One day here is like another, and yet 
it is not like but diffcsient. How much is growing, 


silently iresis^css, at all tnomettts! ^Thdtigbte ^are 
gnrwing; foriAsaf 8ptech are growing, ttRdCttstonis 
and even Costaitt€8; still more Tisibly "are ac^tioBs 
and transactions growing, and that dooined Strife of 
France with herself and with the vboleiNrorld. 

1121. The word Ltftertyis^^irer ixsmed »ow Except 
in conjunction ^th ianotber; MhertymiA Eqv^lit^. 
J3bi like manner, whstf in a ireign dfrXibert^ mSi 
^nsality, can Hbesemot^ **«ir,** ^*X»i^fent Ber- 
^^t,** ^* Jfanor 1» W'^Mid^MiJ^ iTat- 
,tesffjaMj&bi«s-<>f old Fendality^; -wbif^b, twie» it jq»)^ 
.iiitbe.Brammatical |Hwvin«e, owgbt to he rwot^^'oot'! 
!rbe:ii{other Society has Ibi^ iifti&tge'had propinsalB 1S6 
that effect : these abe could 3Mt entertain ; iaot,%tth'e 
moment. Note too bow the. Ja<Jobin Brethren «» 
Snonnting new Symbolical headgear: tbe Woolen 
Cap or Kigbt-Gap, bonnet de laine, better known as 
bon&et ronge, the 'Cblo>r being !?«?. A thing onewea<« 
not only by way of Phrygian GapHDif-X«iberty, but also 
for couvenience-sake, and then also in compliment to 
the Lower-class Patriots and Bastille Heroes ; for the 
lied Night-cap combines all three properties. Nay 
icockades themselves begin to be made of wool, of tri- 
color yarn : the ribbon-cockade, as a symptom of 
Feuillant Upper«-cla68 temper, is becoming suspidous. 
Signs of the times. 

1122. Still more, note the tzay«il**tbroes «f£u»>pet 
or rather note the^birth die brings ; for the successit^ 
throes and shrieks, of Austrian and Prussian Alli- 
ance, of Kaunitz Anti-Jacobin Dispatch, of Frendi 
Amba88adtM»;ca8t:.out,:apd so fortb^ :if«^erelQag 4ie iK>ti^ 


or Cbbenl^I, in another style than Deleasarts^ did. 
Strict becomes stricter; categorical answer, as to this 
Coblentz work and much else, shall be given. Fail- 
ing which ? Failing which, on the 20th day of April, 
1792, King and Ministers step Over to the Salle de 
Menege; promulgate how the matter stands; and 
poor Loois, " with tears in his eyes," propose that the 
AssemWy do now decree -War. After due eloquence, • 
War.isKdecreed thatnight. 

_ jL123L War, indeed.! Paris came all crowding, full 
of exp^ectancy, to the morninj^, and still jnore to the 
eyemng^ session. D'Orl^ans with his two sons is 
there; looks on widcreye, from the opposite gallery.* 
fhou. canst look, O Philippe : it is a War big with 
^sues, for thee and for all men. Cimmerian Obscur- 
antism and this thrice-glorious Revolution shall 
wrestle for it, then : some Four-and-Twenty years ; 
yok immaasorabla Briareus wrestle ;, trampling and 
tearing ; before they can come to any, not agreement, 
but oompromise, and approximate ascertainment eaich 
of what is in the other* 

1124. Let oar Thre^e Generals on the Frontieia look 
tet it,. therefore: and poor Chevalier de. Grave, the 
Wac-Mini&ter, consider what ^o will do. What is in 
tiie three Generals and Armies we may guess. As fan 
poor Chevalier de Grave, he, in this whirl of things 
all coming to a press and pinch upon him, loses head, 
and merely whirls with them, in a totally distracted 
manner; signing himself at last/^De Grave, Mayior 
^Faris^;^ whereupon he demits, returns over the 
Channel, to walk in Kensington Gardens jj- and 

* '• Daox Amis." viL X4ft-1«A. 
" t Dhmont, c. 19, 21. 


erran. the able Engineer-Officer, is elevated 
ead. To the poet of Honoi ? To that of 
', at least. 


Lud yet, how, on dark bottomless Cataracts 
ys the foolishest fantastic-colored spray and 
hiding the Abyss under vapory rainbows! 
e of this discussion, as to Anstrian-Pnissian 

re goes on not less but more vehemenll; a 
0, Whether the Forty or Two-and-forty 
Chdteaiiz-Vieux shall be liberated fttiTa the 
■leys? And then, Whether, being liberated, 
ill have a pnblic Festival, or only private 

rh^roigne, as -we saw, spoke ; and CoUot 
^he tale. Has not Bonill^'s final display of 
,Q that final Night of Spurs, stamped your 
"Revolt of Nanci" into a "Massacre of 
for all Patriot judgments? Hatefal is that 
; hateful the Lafayette- Feu il Ian t "public 
given for iti For indeed. Jacobin Patriot- 
dispersed Feuillantism are now at death- 
id do fight with all weapons, even with 
0W9. The walls of Paris, accordingly, are 
with Placard and Counter-Placard, on the 
f Forty Swiss blockheads. Journal responds 
jal; Player Collot to Poetaster Boucher r 
h€nier the Jacobin, squire of Tli^roigne, to 
er Andr£ the Feuillant ; Mayor Potion to 


Dnpont de Nemours: and for the space of two 
months, there is nowhere peace for th<i thoaght of 
man, — till this thing be settled. 

1127. Gloria in excelsis ! The Forty Swiss are at 
last got "amnestied," Rejoice, ye Forty; doflfyour 
greasy wool Bonnets, Which shall become Caps of 
Liberty. The Brest Daughter Society welcomes 
yon from on board, with kisses on each cheek : your 
iron Hand-cnffs are disputed as Relics of Saints ; the 
Brest Society indeed can have one portion, which it 
will be^t into Pikes, a sort of Sacred Pikes : but the 
other portion must belong to Paris, and be suspended 
from the dome there, along with the Flags of the 
Three Free Peoples! Such a goose is man; and 
cacklto over plush>velv«t Grand Monarques and 
woolen Galley-slaves; over everything and over 
nothing, — and will cackle with his whole soul, 
merely if others cackle I 

1128. On the 9th morning of April, these Forty 
Swiss blockheads arrive. From Versailles; with 
vivats heaven-high; with affluence of men and 
women. To the Town-hall we conduct them; nay 
to tliC Legislative itself, though not without diffi- 
culty. They are harangued, bedinnered, begifted, — 
the very Court, not for conscience-sake, contributing 
something ; and their Public Festival shall be next 
Sunday. Next Sunday accordingly it is.* They are 
mounted into a "triumphal Car resembling a ship ;" 
are carted over Paris, with the clang of cymbals and 
drums, all mortals assisting applausive; carted to 

 Newspapers of February, March, April, 1792; lambe 
d'Andr^ Chenier ''Sur la Fgte des Suisses;" etc.. etc.. On 
" Histoire Pariemiintaire/* xiii. xiv ). 


aia»iI>-d»-Mai« and Patherland's AUar; BKd 
f ranted, IbrTime ai'tttyt briogs deliverance,— 

Dvisibility forever more. 

9, Whereupon dispersed Feaillantism, or Ihat 
which loves Liberty yet not more than Mon- 
, will likewise hare its Festival: Festival of 
lean, nnfortuiiate Mayor <tf £tampea,'who died 
eLaw; most surely ibr the Low, thonghJncob- 
dispiites; being trampled down" withhls Bed 
ID the riot abont grains. At which FeiitiTftl th« 
c again assists, uft&pplausive: not we. 
0. On the whole, Festivala are not wanting; 
iful rainbow-spray when all is now rushing 
^quick toward its Niagara FalL National Re- 
there are; cwintenaaced by Mayor P€tioir; 
Antoiae, and the Strong Ones of the Holies 
ig through Jacrfjin Club, "their felicity," ac^ 
\g to Santerre, "not perfect otherwise ;" singing 
-voiced their (a-ira, dancing their ronde pa- 
jue. Among whom one isglad todiaoemSaint- 
ge, Mpreasly "in white hn.t," the Saitit-Christo- 
5f the Carmagnole. Nay a certain Tambonr, or 
nal Drummer, having just been prearated with 
e daughter, determinesto have the new Prench- 
,n christened, on Fatherland's Altar, then and 
Repast once over, be accordingly has her 
ened ; Fanchet the Te-Deum Bishop acting in 
Thuriot and honorable persons standinggos- 
by the name P^tion-National-Pique 1* Does 
remarkable Citizeness, now past the roeridisn 

trIote-EVancalse (Brlsaar»newipaiwr},m lUstoirB 
neataire," afilL ifil. 


o£lile, still walk the Bartta ? Or did she die perlia]« 
of tcetliiuig ? UmTersal History U not indifitoent. 



1X31. And yet it ra not by carmaguole^dances, and 
ringing Of ya-ira, that tlie Mrock can be dime. J)uk« 
Brunswick is iH>t dancing cwrmagnoles, but bliB Jue 
drlll-s^eaBts hxissy, 

113^? On the Frontiers, our Armies, be it ts^lflffli^ 
not, behare in the worst way. Troo{iii b^lycommaiidedt 
shall we say? X>r troops intrinsically bad? Unap- 
pointed,undi8ci|>lined, mutinous ; that, in a thirty >y ears 
peace, have never seen fire ? In any case, Lafayette's 
and Rochambeau's little clutch, which they made ,at 
Austrian Flanders, has prospered its liadly as clutch 
need do? soldiers starting at their own shadow . s»ad- 
denly shrieking, 'On nous trahit," and dying o£f m 
wild panic, at or before the first ahot ; — managing 
only to hang some two or three prisoners they had 
picked up, and massacre their own Commander, poor 
Theobald Dillon, driven into a graniary by them in 
the town of Lille. 

1133. And poor Gouvion : he who sat shiftless in 
that Insurrection of Women! Gouvion cj[uitted the 
Legislative Hall and Parliamentary duties in disgust 
and despair, when those Galley-slaves of Chateau- 
Vieux were admitted there. He said, "Between the 
Anstrians and the Jacobins there is nothing but a 
soldier's death for it ;'^ and so/'in the dark atonny 

*'Toulongeon, il. 110. 



night," he has flung' himself into the throat of the 
Austrian cannon, and perished in the skittnish at 
Maubeitge On the 9th of June. Whom Legislative 
Patriotism shall mourn, with black mort-cloths and 
melody in the Champ-de-Mars; many a PatWdt 
shiftier, ttuef none. Lafayette himself is looking 
altogether dubious : in place of beating the Aus* 

m^ - trians, is about writing to denounce the Jacobins. 

^ Rochambeau, all disconsolate) quits the service : there 

remains only Liickner, the babbling old Prussian 
. Grenadier* • 

1134. Without Armies, without Generals t And 
the Cimmerian Night Ims gathered itself. Brunswick 
preparing his proclamation; just about to march! 
Let a Patriot ministry and Legislative say. what in 

|;;' these circumstances it will do? Suppress eternal 

enemies, for one thing, answers the Patriot Legisla- 
tive ; and proposes, on the 24th of May, its Decree 
for the Banishment of Priests. Collects also some 
nucleus of determined internal friends, adds War- 
Minister Servan ; and proposes, on the 7th of June, 
his Camp of 20,000. Twenty thousand National 
Volunteers ; Five out of each Canton^ picked Pa- 
triots, for Roland has charge of the Interior : they 
shall assemble here in Paris; and be for a defense, 
cunningly devised, against foreign Austrians and 
domestic Austrian Committee alike. So much can a 
Patriot Ministry and Legislative do. 

1136. Reasonably and cunningly devised as such 
Camp may, to Servan and Patriotism appear, it ap- 
pears not so to Feuillantism ; to that Feuillant- Aris- 
tocrat Staff of the Pans Guurd ; a Staff one would say 


again, which will need to be diesolt)ed. Thede men 
seC) in this proposed Camp of Servants, an oflfeuse; 
and even, as ihey pretend to say. an insult. Peti- 
tions there Oome, in consequence, from blue Feuil* 
Jants in ^aulets; HI received. Nay, in the end, 
there comes one petition call "of the 8,000 National 
Guards ," so many names are on it, including women 
and children. Which famed petition of the 8,000 is 
indeed received . and the Petitioners, all under arms^ 
are admitted to the honors of the sitting,— if honors 
or even if sitting there be, for the instant their 
bayonets appear at the one door, the Assembly "ad* 
journal' and begins to flow out at the door * 

1136. Also, in these same days, it is lamentable to 
see how National Guards, escorting F6te-Dieu or 
Corpus-Christi ceremonial, do collar and smite down 
any Patriot that does not uncover as the Hostie 
passes. They clap their bayonets to the breast of 
Cattle-butcher Legendre, a known Patriot ever bincd 
the Bastille days; and threaten to butcher him. 
though he sat (|uite respectfully, he says^ in his Gig, 
at a distance of fifty paces* waiting till the thing were 
by. Nay orthodox females were shrieking to have 
down the Lanterne on him.t 

1137. To such height has Fenillantism gone m his 
Corps. For, indeed^ are not their offlcers creatures 
of the chief Feuillant, Lafayette ? The Court too has 
very naturally, been tampering with them ; caress- 
ing them, ever since that dissolution of the so-called 

* Moniteur, Stance dulO Juin 1798. 

-^ " t>6bats d68jfiux>bins" (in*' Histoirs Parlamentaire/* 
xiv, i2Q). 

dtntiffnal Otund. Borne Battalions «re -^ItagOii' 
?enia fkiteaded fnll}" of FeniUantism, mere 
oCTBts 9t bottom ftiT iDfltaace. (he BattalwHi of 
'ines-Sawt-Theiiuw, made op of your lianliers, 
:-brokers, anil other Fnll-purgeg if the line Vi- 
le, Our Worthy old Friend WeUer. Queen'.! 
ipbwthei' Webot, carries a tUuAket in that But- 
1,— onemarjBdgewitli vhat degnec of fatiiat'. 

I8. H«e41aaaf all which, orrBtharfaudfalofAU 
1. the Legislative, bached by PatriM France 
he Aeling -ttf NeoctsitT, decrees Uiis Ceiap of 
}. Decieire thoogh couditiMial Baiuehmeiitflf 
^ Prints itbasalteady decreed. 
9. It vril) now beseen, therefore, Whether lb« 
litiiiT ReprewntatiTB is for ns or against vaf 
Jier or not, to all otir other woes, ihia IntoJer' 
tone istobe«dded: nhicb rendets ua not k 
eed Nation in eztmne jeopardy and need, but ft 
ftic BolecisBof a Nation, sitting wrapped as 
ad MremenlA, of n Constitational- Vesture that 
no other than a winding^ect . our tight liand 
. to onr kfc , to wait there, writhing and wri(f 
,nliable to stir from the spot till in Prussian rope 
ount to the gallows? Let the Hereditary Ee- 
Dtative considet it well: The Decreeof Priests* 
Jamp of 30.000 ? — By Heaven, he answers, Veto! 
— Strict Roland tiands-in his Lefler 'o llie Einq; 
her it was Madnme's Letter, who wrotr- it all at 
ing ; one of the piainest-spoken Letters ever 
id-ia to any Eiog. This plain-spoken Letter 
Louis has the benefit of Tending ovcrni^^t. He 


risads, inw&rdly digestif; and liesrt mortoingi the 
whole Patriot Ministry finds- itself ttimed cftit. It is 
the I3th of June, 1799 * 

1140. Dumouriez the many-counseled, he, with 
one Duranthon, called Minister of Justice, does in- 
deed linger for a day or twoj in rather suspicious 
circumstances; speaks with the QueeUy almosts 
weej^s with her; but in the end, he too sets off for 
the Army ; leaving what Un-Patriot or Semi-Patriot 
Mmistry and Ministries can now accept the helm to 
accept it. Name them not; new quick-changing 
Phantasms, which shift like magic-lantern figures ; 
more spectral than ever. 

1141. Unhappy Queen, unhappy Louis ! The two 
Vetoi were so natural : are not the Priests martyrs ; 
also fiiends ? This Camp of 20,000, could it be other 
than of stormfulest Sansculottes ? Natural : and yet 
to France, unendurable. Priests that co-operate 
With Coblentz must go elsewhither with their mar- 
tyrdom: stormful Sansculottes, these and no other 
kind of creatures will drive back the Austrians. If 
thou prefer the Austrians, then, for the love of 
Heaven, go join them. If not, join frankly with 
What will oppose them to the death. Middle course 
is none. 

1 142. Or, alas, what extreme course was there left 
now for a man like Louis? Underhand Royalists, 
Ex-Minister Bertrand-Moleville, Ex-Constituent Ma- 
Ibnet, and all manner of unhelpful individuals, advise 
and advise. With face of hope turned now on the 
Legislative Assembly, and now on Austi^ia and Cob* 

«" Madame Rbland, If. 116. 


lentz, and round generally on the Chapter of Chances 
an ancient Kingship) is reeling and spinning, one 
knows not whitherward, on the flood of things. 



1143. Bnt is there a thinking man in France who, 
in these circumstances, can persuade himself that the 
Constitution will march ? Brunswick is stirring ; 
he^ in few days now, will march. Shall France sit 
still, wrapped in dead cerements and grave-clothes 
its right hand glued to its left, till the Brunswick 
Saint-Bartholomew arrive ; till France be as Poland, 
and its Hights of Man become a Prussian Gibbet ? 

1144. Verily it is a moment frightful for all men. 
National Death ; or else some preternatural convul- 
sive outburst of National Life ; — that same demonic 
outburst ! Patriots whose audacity has limits had, 
in truth, better retire like Barnave; court private 
felicity at Grenoble. Patriots whose audacity has no 
limits must sink down into the obscure ; and, daring 
and defying all things, seek salvation in stratagem, 
in Plot of Insurrection. Roland and young Barba- 
roux have spread out the Map of France before them, 
Barbaroux says " with tears : " they consider what 
Rivers, what Mountain-ranges are in it : they will 
retire behind this Loire-stream, defend these Au- 
vergne stone-labyrinths; save some little sacred Ter- 
ritory of the Free ; die at least in their last ditch. 
Lafayette indites his emphatic Letter to the LegislA* 



tive against Jacobinism;^ which emphatic Letter 
will not heal the unhealable. 

1145. Forward, ye Patriots whose audacity has no 
limits ; it is you now that must either do' or die I The 
sections of Paris sit in deep counsel ; send out De- 
putation after Deputation to the Salle de Manage, to 
petition and denounce. Great is their ire against 
tyrannous Veio^ Austrian Committee^ and the com- 
bined Cimmerian Kings. What boots it ? Legisla- 
tive listens to the " tocsin in our hearts ; " grants us 
honors of the sitting, sees us defile with jingle and 
fanfaronade ; but the Camp of 20,000, the Priest-De- 
cree, be- vetoed by Majesty, are become impossible for 
Legislative. Fiery Isnard says, "We will have 
Equality, should we descend for it to the tomb." 
Vergniaud utters, hypothetically, his stem Ezekiel- 
visions of the fate of Anti-national Kings. But the 
question is: Will hypothetic prophecies, will jingle 
and fanfaronade demolish the Veto ; or will the Veto, 
secure in its Tuileries Chateau, remain undemolish- 
able by these ? Barbaroux, dashing away his tears, 
wx;ite8 to the Marseilles Municipality, that they must 
send him " 600 men who know how to die (qui savant 
mourir)."t ^o wet-eyed message this, but a fire- 
eyed one ; — which will be obeyed ! 

1146. Meanwhile the 20th of June is nigh, anni- 
versary of the world-famous Oath of the Tennis- 
Court : on which day, it is said, certain citizens have 
in view to plant a Mai or Tree of Liberty in the 
Tuileries Terrace of the Feuillants ; perhaps also to 

* Monlteur. Seance du 18 Juin 1792. 
t Barbaroux, p. 40. 


petition the Legislative and Hereditary Representa- 
tive about these Vetoes ;— with such demonstration, 
jingle and evolution, as may seem profitable and 
practicable. \ Sections have gone singly, and jingled 
and evolved : but if they all went, or great part of 
them, and there, planting their Mai in these alarming 
circumstances, sounded the tocsin in their hearts. 

1147. Among ICing's Friends there can be but one 
opinion as to such a step ; among Nation's FrienJs 
there may be two. Qn the one hand, might it not 
by possibility scare away these unblessed Vetos? 
, Private Patriots and even Legislative Deputies may 
have each his own opinion, or own no-opinion: but 
the hardest task falls evidently on Mayor Potion and 
the Municipals, at once Patriots and Guardians of 
the public Tranquillity. Hushing the matter down 
with the one hand ; tickling it up with the other ! 
Mayor Potion and Municipality may lean this way ; 
Department-Directory with Procureur-Synrlic Rced- 
erer, having a Feuillant tendency, may lean that. 
On the whole, each man must act according to his 
own opinion or to his two opinions; and all manner 
of influences, official representations cross one another 
in the fooljshest way. Perhaps after all, the Proj ect, 
desirable and yet not desirable, will dissipate itself, 
being run athwart by so many complexities; and 
come to nothing ? 

1148. Not so; on the Twentieth morning of June, 
a large Tree of Liberty, Lombardy Poplar by kind, 
lies visibly tied on its car, in the Suburb Saint-An- 
toine. Suburb Saint-Marceau too, in the uttermost 
Southeast, and all that i emote Oriental region. Pike- 



} men and Pikewomen, National Guards, and the nn- 

I armed curious are gathering, — with the peaceablest 

intentions in the world. A tricolor Municipal 
arrives ; speaks. Tush, it is all peaceable, we tell 
thee, in the way of Law : are not Petitions allowa- 
ble, and the Patriotism of Mais? The tricolor Muni- 
cipal returns without effect: your Sansculottic rills 
continue flowing, combining into brooks: toward 
noontide, led by tall Santene in blue uniform, by 
tall Saint-Huruge m white hat, It moves westward, a 
respectable river, oi complication of still-s welling 

1149 What Pisocessions have we not seen; Corpus- 
Christi and Legendre waiting in his Gig ; Bones of 
Voltaire with bullock-chariots, and goadsmen in Ro- 
man Costume; Feasts of Chateau-Vieux and Si- 
moneau , Gouvion. Funerals, Housseaii Sham- funeral, 
and the Baptism of Petion-National- Pike! Never- 
theless this Pix)cession has a character of its own. 
Tricolor ribbons streaming aloft from Pike-heads; 
iron-sliod batons * and emblems not a few , among 
which see specially these two, of the tragic and the 
nnlragic sort: a Bull's Heart transfixed with iron, bear^ 
ing this epigraph, * Cceur d'Aristocrate (Aristocrats 
heart); " and, more striking still, properly the stand- 
ard of the host, a pair of old Black Breeches (silk, 
they say), extended on cross-staff, high overhead, 
with these memorable words " Tiemblez, tvrans 
voilii les Sansculottes (Trembling, tenants; here are 
the Sans-indi8pensables)i " Also, the Procession 
trails two cannons. 

1150. Scarfed-tricoloi Municipals do now again 


: it^ in the Quoi Saint- Bernard, and plead ear- 
j, having called iinlt. Peaceable, ye virtuous 
ior Municipals, peaceable are ire as the stiekiug 
. Behold om Tcnms-Conit Mvi. Pelition ib 
, and as for arms, did not iin august Legislative 
ve the so-called 8,000 in arms, Feuillants though 

ivere? Our Pikes, are lliey not of National 
? Law is oni father and mother, whom we will 
[ishonor ^ but Patriotism is our own soul, Peaee- 

ye virtuous Municipals ; — and on the whole, 
ed as to time ! Slop we cannot ; march ye with 
The Black Breeches agitate themselves, im- 
nt ; the cannon- viheeis grumble . the many- 
d Host tramps on, 

il Howit reached thi' Salle de Manage, like an 
waxing river ; got admittance after debate ; 
its Address, and defiled, dancing and (a-ira-ing, 
y tall sonorona Sauterre and tall sonomus Saint' 
ige- how it flowed, not now a wnxing river but 
It Caspian lake round nil Precincts of Ihe Tuil- 
, the front Patriot sijueezed by the reanvard 
St baned iron Grates, like to have Ihe Iilb 
:zed out 01 him, and looking too into the dread 
t of cannOn. foi national Battalions Mand 
k1 within : how tricolor Municipals ran as.'^idu- 
ind Boyalists with Tickets of Entry , and both 
Sties sat iu the interior surrounded by men in 
: . all this the human mind shall fancy for itself, 
ad in old newspapers, and Syndic Ecederer's 
oniele of Fifty Days,'** 

13. Our Mai is planted ; if not in the FeuillauU 
i^erer etc etc l\a Hlslolre Parlementalre" xv. 


Terrace, whither is no ingate, then in the Garden of 
the Capuchins, as near as we could get. National 
Assembly has adjourned till the Evening Session : 
perhaps this shut lake, finding no ingate, will retire 
to its sources again ; and disappear in peace ? Alas, 
not yet rearward still presses on > rearward knows 
little what pressure is ir the front. One would wish, 
at all events, were it possible, to have a word with 
his Majesty first? 

1153. The shadows fall longer, eastward : it is four 
o'clock -. will his Majesty not come out 'r Hardly 
he! in that case. Commandant Santerre, Cattle* 
butcher Legendre, Patriot Huguenin with the tocsin 
in his heart, they, and others of authority, will enter 
in. Petition and request to wearied uncertain Na- 
tional Guard ; louder and louder petition : backed by 
the rattle of our two cannons ! The reluctant Grate 
opens: endless Sansculottic multitudes flood the 
stairs ; knock at the wooden guardian of your pri- 
vacy. Knocks, in such case, grow strokes, grow 
smashings: the wooden guardian flies in shivers. 
And now ensues a Scene over which the world has 
long wailed ; and not unjustly ; for a sorrier specta- 
cle, ot Incongruity fronting Incongruity, and as it 
were recognizing themselves incongruous, and star- 
ing stupidly m each other^s face, the world seldom 

1154. King Louis, his door being beaten on, opens 
it ; stands with free bosom : asking, *' What do you 
want ?*' The Sansculottic flood recoils awe-struck ; 
retnrns however, the rear pressing on the front, with 
cries of ' Veto ! Patriot Ministers i Remove Veto !» 


*-*whioh things^ Loots Taliantly answens, thia is. 
liot tbe time to do, nor this the way to aak. bim to 
dOi Honor what virtue is in. a man. Louis does 
not want courage, be has even tbe higher kind 
called moral-courage : though only the passive half 
of that. His few National Grenadiers shufQo back 
with liim, into- the embrasure of a. window r there 
lie standa. with unimpeachable pasaivity, amid the 
shouldering and the braying; a spectacle to men. 
They hand him. a red Cap of Liberty ; he sets it 
quietly on his head, forgets it there. He complains 
of thirst : haU-drunk Kascality offers him a bottle, 
h« dhnk&of it. " Sire do not fear,'^ says one of his 
Crrenadiers. " Fear ?" answers Louis : " feel then," 
putting the man's hand on his heart. So stands 
Majesty in Red Woolen Cap. > black Sansculottlsm 
weltering round him, far and wide, aimless, with in- 
articulate dissonance, with cries, of ** Veto . Patriot 
Ministers !'' 

1155. For the space of three hours or more! The 
National Assembly is adjourned, tricolor Munici- 
pals avail almost nothing: Mayor Petion tarries ab- 
sent ; Authority is nonei The Queen with her Chil- 
dren and Sister Elizabeth, in tears and terror not for 
themselves only, are sitting behind barricaded tables 
and Grenadiers, in an inner room. The Men in 
black have all wisely disappeared. Blind lake of 
Sansculottlsm welters stagnant through the King's 
Chateau, for the space of three hours. 

1156. Nevertheless all things do end. Vergniaud 
arrives with Legislative Deputation, the Evening 
Session having now opened. Mayor Potion has ar- 


rived , is haranguing," lifted on the shoulders of two 
Grenadiers." In this uneasy attitude and in others^ 
at various places without and 'v ithin. Mayor Petion 
harangues; many men harangue : finally Command- 
ant Santerre defiles ; i)asses out, with his Sansculot- 
tism, by the Opposite side of the Chd^teau. Passing 
through the room where the Queen, with an air jf 
dignity and sorrowful resignation, sat among the 
tables and Grenadiers, a woman offers her too a Bed 
Gap ; she holds it in her hand, even puts it on the 
little Prinee Eoyal. " Madame," ^»id Santerre, " this 
People loves you more than you think."* — About 
eight o'clock the Royal Family fall into each xjther's 
arms amid *' torrents of tears." Unhappy Family i 
Who would not weep for it, were there not a wliol© 
^orld to be wept for ? 

1157. Thus has the Age of Chivalry gone, and 
that of Hunger come. Thus does all-needing Sans- 
culottism look in the foce of its Roi, Regulator, King 
or Able-inan ; and find that A^ has nothing to give it. 
Thus do the two Parties, brought face to face after 
long centuries, stare stupidly at one another, " TAw, 
«7cn7y, am I; hut good Heaven, is that lltout — and de- 
part, not knowing what to make of it. And yet, 
Incongruities having recognized liiemselves to be in** 
congruous, something must be made of it. The Pates 
know what. 

1158 This is the world-famous 20th of June, more 
worthy to be called the Procession of ike Black 
Breeches. With which, what we had to say of this 
First French biennial Parliament, and its products 
and activities, may perhaps fitly enough terminate. 

* Toulonffcoa, 11. 173; Campan^ ii. c 20. 





1159. How could your paralytic National Execu- 
tive be put " in action," in any measure, by such a 
20th of June as this? Quite contrariwise: a large 
synapathy for Majesty so insulted arises everywhere; 
expresses itself in Addresses, Petitions, " Petition of 
the 20,000 inhabitants of Paris," and such-like among 
all Constitutional persons; a decided rallying round 
the throne. 

1160. Of which rallying it was thought King Louis 
might have made something. However, he does 
make nothing of it, or attempt to make ; for indeed 
his views are lifted beyond domestic sympathy and 
rallying, over to Cobleutz mainly. Neither in itself 
is this same sympathy worth much. It is sympathy 
of men who believe still that the Constitution can 
march. Wherefore the old discord and ferment, of 
Feuillant sympathy for Royalty, and Jacobin sym- 
pathy for Fatherland, acting against each other from 
within ; with terror of Coblentz and Brunswick act- 
ing from without: — this discord and ferment must 


hold on its course, till a catastrophe do ripen and 
come. One would think, especially as Brunswick is 
near marching, such catastrophe cannot now he dis- 
tant. Busy, ye Twenty-five French Millions; ye 
foreign Potentates, minatory Emigrants, German 
drill-sergeants; each do what his hand findethi 
Thou, O Reader, at such safe distance, wilt see what 
they make of it among them. 

1161. Consider, therefore, this pitiahle 20th of June 
as a futility ; no catastrophe, rather a catastasis, or 
heightening. Do not its Black Breeches wave th«re» 
in the Historical Imagination, like a melancholy flag 
of distress ; soliciting help, which no mortal can give? 
Soliciting pity, which thou wert hard-hearted not to 
give freely, to one and all ! Other such flags, or what 
are called Occurrences, and black or bright symbolic 
Phenomena will flit through the Historical Imagina- 
tion ; these, one after one, let us note, with extreme 

1162. The first phenomenon is that Lafayette at 
the Bar of the Assembly; after a week and day. 
Promptly on hearing of this scandalous 20th of June, 
Lafayette has quitted his Command on the North 
Frontier, in better or worse order ; and 'got hither, on 
the 28th, to repress the Jacobins : not by letter now ; 
but by Petition, and weight of character, face to face. 
The august Assembly finds the step questionable ; in- 
vites him meanwhile to the honors of the sitting.* 
Other honor, or advantage, there unhappily came al- 
most none ; the Galleries all growling ; fiery Isnard 
glooming ; sharp Guadet not wanting in sarcasms. 

* Moniteur, Seanoe du 28 Juin ITS^ 


1163. And out of doors; when the sitting is over, 
Sieur Resson, keeper of the Patriot Caf6 in these^e- 
gions, hears in the street a hurly-burly j steps forth 
to look, he and bis Patriot customers . it is La^yette's 
carriage, with a tumultnous escort of blue Grena- 
diers, Cannoneers, even Officers of the Line, hurrah- 
ing and capering round it. They make a pause op- 
posite Sieur Resson's door \ wag their plumes at him ; 
nay, shake their fists, bellowing A has les Jacobins ! 
but happily pass on without onslaught. They pass 
on, to plant a Mai before the Geiierars door, and 
bully considerably. All which the Sieur Ressdh 
cannot but report with sorrow, that night, in the 
Mother Society.* But what no Sieur Sesson nor 
Mother Society can do more than guess is this, That 
a council of rank Feuillants, your unabolished Staff 
of the Guard and who else has status and weight, is 
in these Very moments privily deliberating at the 
General's: Can we not put down the Jacobins by 
force ? Next day, a Review shall be held, in the 
Tuileries Gardens, of such as will turn out, and try. 
Alas, says Toulongeon, hardly a hundred turned out. 
Put it off till to-morrow, then, to give better warning. 
On the morrow, which is Saturday, there turn out 
" some thirty ;" and depart shrugging their shoulders If 
Lafayette promptly takes carriage again ; returns 
musing on many things. 

1164. The dust of Paris is hardly off his wheels, 
the summer Sunday is still young, when Cordeliers 

 **I>6bat8de8 Jacobins** ("Histoire Parlementaire," 
XV. 236. 

t Toulongeon, ii 180. See also Oampmartin, 11. 16L 


in dentation pluck np tliat Mai of biis : before snn- 
fl^, Patriots have fannit him in effigy. Louder doubt 
and louder rises, in Section, in National Assembly, 
as to the legality of such unbidden Anti-jacobin visit 
on the part of a General : doubt swelling and spread- 
ing all over France, for six weeks or so ; with endless 
talk about usurping soldiers, about English Monk, 
nay about Cromwell : O thou poor Qrandison-Cxom- 
well! — What boots it? King Louis himself looked 
coldly on the enterprise : colossal Hero of two Worlds, 
having weighed himself in the balance, finds that he 
is become a gossamer Colossus, only some thirty turn- 
ing out. 

1165. In a like sense, with a like issue, works our 
Department-Directory here at Paris ; who, on the 6th 
of July, take upon them to suspend Mayor Petion 
and Procureur Manuel from all civic functions, A>r 
their conduct, replete, as is alleged, with omissions 
and commissions, on that delicate 20th of June. Vir- 
tuous Potion sees himself a kind of martyr, or pseu- 
do-martyr, threatened with several things; drawls 
out due heroical lamentation ; to which Patriot Paris 
and Patriot Legislative duly respond. King Louis 
and Mayor Potion have already had an interview on 
that business of the 20th; an interview and dialogue, 
distinguished by frankness on both sides ; ending on 
King Louis's side with the words ** Taisez-vous 
(Hold your peace)." 

1166. For the rest, this of suspending our Mayor 
does seem a mistimed measure. By ill chance, it 
came out precisely on the day of that famous baiser 
de I'amourette, or miraculous reconciliatory Delilah- 

100 ^ "■■■ ''-:THE:MAESEILLEBE:,:r: -' ■. 

Kiss, ^hiijh we spoke of long ago^ IVl^hi Delilah- 
Kiss was thereby quite htnderedof effects For now 
hifi Majesty has to writer almost, that same night, 
askiiig a recoaciled Assembly for advice I the rer 
conciled Assembly will not advise; will not inT 
terfere. The King confirms the sospicion ; then per- 
haps, but noi till then will tJie Assembly interfere, 
the noise of Patriot Paris getting loud. Whereby 
your Delilah-Kiss, such was the destiny of Parlia- 
ment First, becomes a Philistine Battie L . 

1167. Nay there goes a word that as many as Thirty 
of our chief Patriot . Si^ators are to be clapped in 
prison, by mittimus and indictment of Feuillant 
Justices ( Juges de Paix) ; who here in Paris were 
well capable of such a thing. It was but in May 
last that Tuge-de-Paix Larividre, on complaint Of 
B'ertraiid-Moleville touching that Axistrian Committee^ 
made bold to launch his mittimus against three heads 
of the Mountain, Deputies Bazire, Chabot, Merlin, 
the Cordelier Trio; summoning them to appear be^ 
fore /^rm, and show where that Austrian Committee 
was, or else suffer the consequences. Wbich mitti- 
mus the Trio, on their side^ made bold to fling in thB 
fire : and valiantly pleaded privilege of Parliament. 
So that, for his zeal without knowledge, poor Justice 
Lariviere now sits in the prison of Orleans, wait- 
ing trial from the Haute Cour there. Whose 
example, may it not deter other rash Justices ; and . 

' so this word of the Thirty arrestments continue a 
word merely ? 

1168. But on the whole, though Lafayette weighed 
80 light, and has had his Mai plucked up, Official 

• » — •-• • • 

V ' • • • • • 


F^tiilhtntism falters not a whit; bttt carries its hegd 
bigh,.strong in the letter of the law. Feuillants all 
of these men ; is Fenillant Birectoiy ; foanding on 
high character, and 8uch-4ike; with Bake de la 
Bochefoueault for Presidenty — a thing which may 
prove dangerous for him! Dim now is the once 
bright Ax^lomania of these admired Noblemen. 
Duke de Lianeouil/ ofiers, ont of Normandy where 
he is Lord-Lieatenant, not only to receive his Msy^ 
esty, thinking of flight thither, but to lend him 
money to enormous amounts. Sire, it is not a Kevolt, 
it is a Bevolution; and truly no rose-water one! 
Worthier Noblemen were not in France nor in Europe 
tium those two: but the time is crooked, quick- 
Bhifting, perverse; what straightest course will lead 
to smy goal, in it f 

11^9. Another phasis which we note, in these early 
July days, is that of certain thin streaks of Federate 
National Volunteers wending from various points 
toward Paris, to hold a new Federation-Festival, or 
.Feast of Pikes, on the Fourteenth there. So has the 
National Assembly wished it, so has the Nation 
willed it. In this way, perhaps, may we still have 
our Patriot Camp in spite of Veto, For cannot these 
F€d6f6s, having celebrated their Feast of Pikes, 
march on to Soissons; and, there being drilled and 
lamented, rush to the Frontiers, or whither we 
like ? Thus were the one Veto cunningly alluded ! 

1170. As indeed the other F«e/o, about Priests, is 
also like to be eluded : and without much cunning. 
For Provincial Assemblies, in Calvados as one in- 
stance, are proceeding, on their own strength, to 

102 TMM MA&aMXlMMtM. 

Itidge aasd baiiii^ ijittnalion^l TM^&^ Or MM 
worse^ irithoat Protineial Assembly^ a decorate 
People, as at Boardeauz, ean ^ han^ two of ^em on 
&e Lantame/' on tbe way towatd jadgm«ftt.^ Viif 
iofs the spoken Veto, wlien it cannot beeome an aated 

117L It ia tene, some ghost of a War-a»nisteis or 
Home-minister, fov the time beings ^ost whom we 
do not name^ does writa toHnni<4paliti^and King% 
Ccmimaj^eiB, that they shall, by i^ oonoeivabie 
method*, obstrttct this FodidiaHoft, mid even tnfn 
back the F^dte^ by fi»t;e of arms; a meaeage whi^ 
scatters m^e donbty paralysis and oo^usion ; knL- 
tates the poor Legislature: reduces theF^d^r^as 
wo see^ to thin streaks. But being questioned, th^ 
ghost and the other ghosts. What it is th^a that they 
propose to do £[» saring the eoiti^Ty ?«»^th^y answer, 
that they eaanc^ tell ; tliat indeed they, for their 
part, have, this morning, sesigDed in a body ; and do 
now mevely rei^eetfUlly take kave of the helm a^to 
gather. With whieh words they rapidly walk <»it- 
of the hall (sortent bmsquemf&t do la salle), the 
'^ Galleries cheering londly," the poor Legislature 
sittii^ ^f6r a good while in silienee!"t Thus 
dio Cabdnet-ministeni themselyes^ in axtreme oases, 
strike work; one of the stsangest omens. Othcir 
eomplete Cabinet-ministry there will not be; only 
fragments, and these ehangeful, which never get 
completed ; spectral Appariti<ms that cannot so much 
•8 appear ! King Louis writes that he now wn^s 

• " Histoire Parlementalre/' xvf . «5«. 
i BIoDiteiir, Sianee dn J^lat Vm. 

EXEcufir^ f£^A^ mm NOT act Jds 

flitiB f^^&M^n Feiusre witb a|)ptovlil; aascl will faint* 
Ml' have tlie pleas^ore to taik« -peitt in tiie sftmo; 

1172. And so tbiede thin breaks of F^d^r^s wend 
P«tt*is*wttd through a iKarsiiytic Frittice. Tbin grim 
^tr^i£^ ; Hot thick joyful- rank«^ us of old to t^« 
&st Feast of PikeS! l^o: theso poor Fesdemtea 
itiatreh now toward Anstria and Anfit^iaii' Commit^ 
t«^6 5 tow&)!^d jeopardy" and foflorn hope ; men of batd 
feirtttnie^ dnct tiemper, not rich in' tbo world's goods. 
Mnnit^ijialities paralysed by War^ninlst^r, ai^ shy 
Of aiffoi^ng cdSb, it may be» yott» poor Federata 
tAWtnai 93£tbi theuMelv^j eannot maroh, till the 
Daughter Society of the:pbkoeopen hof' pocket Ami 
. e(nbscrib6. Tber« will not hti^e arrived, at the set 
: d^y,.3,000'of tbeBOi ift alL And yet, thin d»d feeble 
fts theso streaks 6f Federates see^, they are the only 
thing one diseeYns flOeeitring' with any clearness of mm 
in this strling^ Scene, Angry bnzz and simmer; ua.'- 
easy tossing and moe^ing of a hage France, all ea;- 
chsinted, spell'^Minnd by nnmarching ComUtution^ 
into MghtM conscious and unconsetons Mt^netie** 
i^eep; which iVightful Magnetic-sleep must now 
issne soon in one of two things : Death or Madness! 
'The F^d^r^s carry mostly in their pocket some ear^ 
nest cry and Petition, to have the " National Execu- 
tive put in actioh ;" or as a step toward that, to have 
the King^s D6ch^ance (King's Forfeiture), or at least 
his Su8pension> prononncedt they shall be welcome 
t^ the Legislative, to the Mother of Patrioti»a : and 
t^aris will provide ft)r their lodging. 

117^. D^ch^ance, indeed: and what ]i«xt? A 
TtBoOiib i^peH'^j^Nser S ]^volutiOA saired \ «nd anythiiig 


and all thiDgs next! so answer, grimly jPantcmandl 
the unlimited Patriots, down deep in their siibter^ 
ranean region of Plot, whither they have now dived. 
Bech^ance, answers Brissot with the limited : and if 
next the little Prince Royal were crowned, and some 
Regency of Girbndins and recalled Patriot Ministry 
set over him ? Alas, poor Brissot; looking, as indeed 
poor man does always, <Hi^the nearest mop;ow as his 
peaceable promised land ; deciding what must reach 
to the world's end, yet with an insight that reaches 
not beyond his own nose ! Wiser are the unlimited 
subterranean Patriots, who with light for the hour 
itself, leave the rest to the gods. 

1174. Or were it not, as we now stand, the prob- 
ablest issue of all, that Brunswick, in Coblentz, just 
gathering his huge limbs toward him to rise, might 
arrive first ; and stop both D^h^ance, and theorizing 
on it? Brunswick, is on the eve of marching; with 
80,000, they say ; ffell Prussians, Hessians, feller Emi- 
grants: a General of the Great Frederick, with such 
an army. And our Armies? And our Generals? 
As for Lafayette, on whose late visit a Committee is 
sitting and all France is. jarring and censuring, he 
seems readier to fight us than fight Brunswick. 
Liickner and Lafayette pretend to be interchanging 
corps, and are making movements, which Patriotism 
cannot understand. This only is very clear, that 
their corps go marching and shuttling, in the interior 
of the country ;. much nearer Paris than formerly ! 
Luckner has ordered Bumouriez down to him ; down 
from Maulde, and the Fortified Camp there. Which 
order tiie many-counseled Bumouriez, with the 

LET VS MdBCm 105 

Aiffitifdks hanging clnse on him, h^ busy meanwhile 
training a l€w thousands to stand lire and be soldiers, 
declares that, eome of it what will, he cannot obey.* 
Will a poor Legislative, therefore, sanction Dumou- 
riez; who applies to it, "not knowing whether there 
is any Wifft* ministry ?" Or sanction Liickner and 
these Lafayette movements? 

1175; The poor Legislative knows not what to do* 
It decrees, however, that the Staff of the Paris 
<3uard, and indeed all such Staffs, for they are Feuil- 
lants mostly, shall be broken and replaced. It de- 
tjrees earnestly: in what manner one can declare, 
that the Country is in Danger. And finally, on the 
11th of July, the morrow of that day when the Min- 
istry struck work, it decrees that the Country he, with 
 all dispatch, declared in Danger. Whereupon let the 
King sanction ; let the Municipality take measures *. 
if such Declaration will do service, it need not faiL 

1176. In Danger truly, if ever Country was ! Arise, 
Country ; or be trodden down to ignominious 
ruin! Nay, are not the chances a hundred to one 
that no rising of the Country will save it ; Bruns- 
wick, the Emigrants, and Feudal Europe drawing 
nigh ? 



1177. But, to OUT minds, the notablest of all these 
moving phenomena is tbat of Barbarqux's "600 
Marseillese who know how to die.". 

• Dumourtez, U. 1. 6. 


106 TmmAMSMMmE, 

Ftompt to the request of Bi»i)ftT«nix, tbe Harae^<is 
Mttnicipalitj has got these men together: on the 
fifth morning of July, the Townhall says, *' Marcher, 
abattez le Tyran (March, strike down the Tyjfant),"* 
and they, with grim appropriate ^* Marchons,'* aii^ 
inarching. Lcmg journey, doubtful eitand; Enians 
de la Patrie, may a good genius guide you ! Their 
own ^lld heart and what faith it has will guide 
them : and is not that the monition of some genius, 
better or worse? Five-Hundred and Seventeen able 
men, with Captains «f fifties and tens ; well armed 
all, musket on shoiilder, saber oH thigh : nay they 
drive three pieces of cannon : for who Igiaws whftt 
obstacles may occur ? Municipalities there are, par- 
alytzed by "War-minister ; Commandants with oiders 
to stop even Federation Volunteers; good, when 
sound arguments will not open a Town-gate, if you 
have a, petard to! They havie left their 
sunny Phocean City and Seahaven, with its bustle 
and its bloom ; the thronging Coufrse^ with high 
frondent Avenues, pitchy dock-yards, almond and 
olive groves, orange-lrees on house-tops, and white 
glittering bastides that crown the hills, are all be- 
hind them. They wend on their wild way, from the 
extremity of French land, through unknown cities, 
toward an unknown destiny ; with a purpose that 
they know. 

1178. Much wondering at this phenomenon, and 
how, in a peaceable trading City, -so many household- 
ers or hearth-holders do severally fling 4own dieir 
crafts and industrial tools; gird themselves with 

* Dampmartin, ii. 183. 

•wea^^M© bf'W&r, aiid aet out dn > jotttney vtWD 
tiiilfes, to " strike dowtt the tyrant,"— you fiettrch in 
all fiistotical -Books, Pamphlets and Newspapers, 
for some li^t on it: Unhappily Without effect. 
Euuior and Terror pi*efcede this march; ^vhich still 
echo on you : the hiarch it^lf an unknown thing. 
Wfeher, in the hack-stairs of the Tuileries, has un- 
derjstood that they Were Forgats, G^ey-slaVes and 
mere scoundrels, these Marseillese ; that, as they 
tkiarched through Lyons, the people shut their shops; 
'Malsb that the number oif thetn Wds some 4,000. 
E^ally vague is Blanc (rilli, who likewise murmurs 
about For«pafe3 and danger of plunder.* Formats they 
were not: neither wad there plunder or danger of it. 
Men of regular life, or oif the best-filled purse, they 
<$oiiId hai'dly be ; the ofie thing needful in them waa 
that they "knew how to die." Friend Dampmartin 
«aW thein, with his own eyes, march "gradually* 
through his quarters at Villefranche in the Beau- 
jolate; but saw in the Vaguest manner ; being indeed 
I^^M%Upi«d ; add him^lf minded for marching just 
th^n^^HacYOss the Khine. Deep was his «^tonidhment 
to thilikof such a Uiarch, without appointment or 
lfffta!igeraffltit,'fitatiOYi o^r tation; for the rest, it wsaa 
" theisAinte'tiienhehadseen fonmcTly "in the troubles 
'<>f theSomh; "perfectly civil;" though hia soldiers 
l^ld n<$t bfekte^tffom talking^ little with them.t 
It^. '80 vague arte all these ; Hfoniteur) " Histoixse 

* See Bai^anmz, '* M^fnoires '* (note in pp. 40, 41). 

t Dampmartin, vSbi supra. ~ As to Dampmartin himself 
^nd what became of him farther, see '*M6moires,*'de la 
Comtes^e de Lichtenau,*' Merits par ell&-m3me; traduits 
de i'Allemand {k Londres 1809), 1. 200-807; li. <l^l. 

108 THE marseillese: 

Parlementaire '' are as good as silent : garraloos Hid* 
tory» as is too usual, will say nothing where you 
most wish her to speak ! If enlightened Curiosity 
ever get sight of the Marseilles Council-Books, wiill 
it not perhaps explore this strangest of Municipal 
procedures ; and feet called to fish-up what of the 
Biographies, creditable or distoeditable, of these 517, 
the stream of Time has not yet irrevocably swal- 

1180. As it is, these Marseillese -remain inarticu- 
late, undistinguishable in feature; a black-browed 
Mass, full of grim fire, who wend there, in the hot 
sultry weather : very singular to contemplate. They 
wend ; amid the infinitude of doubt and dim peril ; 
they not doubtful ; Fate and Feudal Europe, having 
decided, come girdling in from without ; they, having 
also decided, do march within. Dufrty of face, with 
frugal refreshment, they plod onward ; unweariable, 
not to be turned aside. Such march will not become 
famous. The Thought, which works voiceless in 
this black-browed mass, an inspired TyrtsBan Colonel, 
Kouget de Lille, whom the Earth still holdsr* has 
translated into grim melody and rhythm ; into his 
Hymn or March of the MarseUlese : luckiest musical 
composition ever promulgated. The sound of which 
will make the blood jtingle in men^s veins \ and 
whole Armies and assemblsiges will sing it, with eyes 
weeping and burning, with hearts defiant of Death, 
Despot and Devil. 

1181. One sees well, these Marseillese will be too 
late for the Federation Feast. In fact, it is not 

•A. D- 1836. 


,Cham^-de-Mars Oaths that they have in view. They 
hav(^ suite another feat to do ; a paralytic National 
Executive to set in action. They must " strike 
down" whosoever '^Tyrant," or Martyr-Faineant, 
there may be who paralyzes it; strike and be 
struck; and on the whole prosper, and know holv to 



1182. Of the Federation Feast itself we shall say 
almost nothing. There are tents pitched in the 
Champ-de-Mars ; tent for National Assembly : tent 
for Hereditary Representative, — who indeed is 
there too early, and has to wait long in it. There are 
Eighty-three symbolic Departmental Treea-of-Lib- 
erty ; trees and mais enough : beautifulest of all, 
there is one huge mai, hung round with efifete Scutch- 
eons, Emblazonries and Genealogy-books, nay better 
still, with Lawyers*s-bags, *'sax« de procedure," whioh 
shall be burnt. The Thirty seat-rows of that famed 
Slope are again full ; we have a bright Sun ; and all 
is marching, streamering and blaring : but what 
avails it? Virtuous Mayor Petion, whom Feuillant- 
ism had suspended, was reinstated only last night> 
by Decree of the Assembly. Men's humor is of the 
sourest. Men's hats have on them, written in chalk, 
"Vive Potion;'* and even, "Potion or death (Potion 

1183. Poor Louis, who has waited till five o'clock 
before the Assembly would arrive, swears the Nation 


Oftth this time, with a quilted cuirass under his 
waistcoat which will turn pistol-buUets.* Madame 
de^Stael, from that Royal Tent, stretches put the 
neck in a kind of agony, lest the waiving multitude 
which received him may not render him back alive. 
No cry of Vive le Boi salutes the ear ; cries only of Vive 
P(Stion ; Potion on la mort. The National Solemnity is 
86 it were huddled by ; each cowering off almost be- 
fore the evolutions are gone through. The very Mai 
with its Scutcheons and Lawyer^bags is forgotten, 
stands unbumt; till *^certain Patriot Deputies,'' 
cftlled by the people, set .a torch to it, by way of vol- 
imtaxy after-piece. Sadder Feast of Pikes no man 

1184. Mayor Potion, named on hats, is at his zenith 
in this Federation : Lafayette again is close upon his 
nadir. Why does the storm-bell of Saint-Boch speak 
out, next Saturday; why do the citizens shut their 
8h(^?t It is Sections defiling, it is fear of efferves- 
cence. , Legislative Committee, long deliberating on 
Lafayette and that Anti-jacobin visit of his reports, 
this day, that there is " not ground for Accusation t" 
Peace, ye Patriots, nevertheless; and let that tocsin 
eease: the Debate is not finished, nor the Beport ac- 
cepted ; but Brissot, Isnard and the Mountain will 
sift it, and resift it, perhaps for some three weeks 

1185. So many bells, storm- bells, and noiseis do 
ring; — scarcely audible; one drowning the other. 
For example : in this same Lafayette tocsin, of Satur- 

'* Campau, ii. o. 20: I>e Stael. ii. <;«.T. 
t Moniteur, Stance du 21 Juillet 1792. 


day, w;9s theie not withal some faint bob-minor, and 
Deputation of Legislative, ringing the Chevalier Paul 
Jones to his long rest ; tocsin or dirge now all one to 
him ! Not ten days hence Patriot Brissot, beshouted 
this day by the Patriot Galleries, shall find himself 
begroaned by them, on account of his limited Patriot- 
ism ; nay pelted at while perorating, and "hit with 
two prunes."* It is a distracted empty-sounding 
worjd ; of bpb-minors and bob-majors, of triumph 
imd terror, of rise and fall ! 

1186. The more touching is this other Solemnity, 
which happens on the morrow of the Lafayette toc- 
fiin : Proclamation that the Countrp is in Danger, 
Not till the present Sunday could such Solemnity 
l»e. The Legislative decreed it almost a fortnight 
ago ; but Royalty and the ghost of a Ministry held 
back as they could. Now however, on this Sunday 
22d day of July, 1792, it will hold back no longer . 
and the Solemnity in very deed is. Touching to 
behold ! Municipality and Mayor have on their 
scarfs; cannon-salvo booms alarm from the Pont 
Neuf, and single-gun at intervals all day. Guards 
^e mounted, scarfed Notabilities, Halberdiers, and a 
Cavalcade ; with streamers, emblematic flags ; espec- 
ially with one huge Flag, flapping mournfully 
Ci toy ens, la Patrie est en Danger. They roll through 
the streets, with stern-sounding music, and slow rat- 
tle of hoofs; pausing at set stations, and with dole- 
ful blast of trumpet singing out through Herald's 
throat, what the Flag says to the eye : "Citizens, our 
Country is in Danger !" 
• "JHistoIre Parlementaire," rvi. 185. 

112 THE mMSmiLE;$£. 

1187. Is there a man's beatt that hears it witkoat* 
thrill ? The many- voiced responsive lium or bellow of 
these multitudes is not of triumph ; and yet it is a 
sound deeper than triumph. But when the long Caval- 
cade and Proclamation ended ; and our huge Flag was 
fixed on the Pont-Neuf, another like it on the Hotel- 
de-Vllle, to wave there till better days ; and each 
Municipal sat in the center of his Section, in a Tent 
raised in some open square, Tents surmounted with 
flags of Patrie eu Danger, and topnaost of all a Pike 
and Bonnet Rouge;' and, oh two drums in front of 
him, there lay a plank-table, and on this an open 
Book, and a Clerk sat, like»recording-angel, ready to 
write the lists, or as we say to enlist ! O, then, it 
seems, the very gods might have looked down on it. 
Young Patriotism, Culottic and Sansculottic, rushes 
forward emulous: That is my name; name, blood 
and life is all my country's; why have I nothing 
more ! Youths of short stature weep that they are 
below size. Old men come forward, a son in each 
hand. Mothers themselves will grant the son of 
their travail; send him, though with tears. And.the 
multitude bellows Vive la Patrie, far reverberating. 
And fire flashes in the eyes of men ; — and at even- 
tide, your Municipal returns to the Town-hall fol- 
lowed by his long train of Volunteer valor ; hands-ia 
his List; says proudly, looking. round, This is my 
days harvest.* They will march, on the morrow, to 
Soissons ; small bundle holding all their chattels. 

1188. So, with Vive la Patrie, Vive la Libert^, 
stone Paris reverberates like Ocean in his caves ; day 

* ** Tableau de la H^volution," § Patrie en Danger. 


aftctday, Municipals enlisting in tricolor Tent; tJie 
Flag flappingon Pont-Nenf and Town-hall, Citoyens, 
la Patri^ est en Danger. Some 10,000 fighters, with- 
out discipline but full of heart, are on march in few 
days. The like is doing in every Town of France. 
Consider, therefore, whether the Country will want 
defenders, had "we hut a National Executive ? Let 
the Sections and Primary Assemblies, at any rate, 
become Permanent ! They do become Permanent, 
and sit continually in Paris, and over France, by 
Legislative Decree, dated Wednesday the 25th.* 

1189. Mark contrariwise how, in these very hours 
dated the 25 th,Brunswick " shakeshimself (s'<Sbranee)" 
in Coblentz; and takes the road! Shakes himself 
indeed ; one spoken word becomes such a shaking. 
Successive, simultaheous. dirl of 30,000 muskets 
shouldered ; prance and jingle of 10,000 horsemen, 
fanfaronading Emigrants in the van ; drum, kettle- 
drum ; noise of weeping, swearing ; and the immeasur- 
able lumbering clank of baggage- wagons and camp- 
kettles that groan into motion: ullthis is Brunswick 
shaking himself ; not without all this does the one 
man march; " covering a space of forty miles." Still 
less without his Manifesto, dated, as we say, the 25th; 
a State-Paper worthy of attention ! 

1190. By this Document, it would seem great 
things are in store for France. The universal French 
People shall now have permission to rally round 
Brunswick and his Emigrant Seigneurs; tyranny of 
a Jacobin Faction shall oppress them no more ; but 
they shall return; and find favor with their own good 

« Moniteur, Stance du 25 Juillet 1792. 


«^>V •*  ._• I 

King; yshOj hjBjojal pecXeu^tion (thi^ 7^^ ^) 
of the 23d of June, ^d that he would himself make 
them happy. Aafor National Assembly^ and other 
Bodies of men invented with some temporary shadow 
of authority,, they are charged to maintain the King's 
Cities and Strong Places intact, till Brunswick arrive 
to take delivery of them. Indeed, quick submission 
may extenuate many thiugs ; but to this end it must 
be quick. Any National Guard qt other unmilitary 
person IbUjUd resisting in arms sh^ be ^^treated as a 
traitor j" that is to say, hauled with promptitude. 
For the rest, if Paris, before Brunswick ^ets thither, 
offer any insult to the Kin^; or, for example, puffer 
a Faction to carry the King away elsewhither ; in 
that cage, Paris shall be blasted asunder with cannon- 
shot and " military execution." Likewise all other 
Cities, which may witness, and not resist to the ut- 
termost, such forced-march of his Majesty, shall be 
blasted asunder; and Paris and every City of tl^em, 
starting-place, course and goal of said sacrilegious 
forced-march, gihall, as rubbish and smoking ruin, lie 
there for a sign. Such vengeance were indeed signal 
" an insigne vejpgeance :" — O Brunswick, what words 
thou writeat and blusterest ! In this Paris, as in old 
Nineveh, are so many score thousands that know not 
the right Jiand from the left, and a-lso much cattle. 
Shall the very milk-covvs, hard-living . cadgers^asses, 
and poor littfe canary birds die ? 

1191. Nor is Koyal and Imperial Prussian- Austrian 
Declaration wanting: setting forth, in the amplest 
manner, their Sans-gouci-Schonbrunn version x)f this 
whole French Reyplution, since the first beginning 


of it ; kild with what grief these high heads have 
Ijeeii such things done under the Sun. However, 
**as sotne sniall consolation to mankind,"* they do 
now dispatch Brunswick ; regardless of expense, as 
one migtt say, or of sacrifices on their own part ; for 
isitliot the first duty to console inen? 

ll^. Serene Highnesses, who sit there protocoling 
and manifestoing, and consoling mankind ! how were 
it ff, for once in the tliousand years, your jmrch- 
iuents, formularies and reasons of state were hlowii 
to ttie four winds ; and Reality Saris-indtspensablii^ 
stkried you, even you, in the face ; and Mankind said 
for Itself What the thing was that wbuld console it? 


11^. dSht judge if there was comfort in this to the 
Sections all sitting permanent ; deliberating how a 
IfTktibnal Executive could be put in action ! 

High rises the response, not of cackling terror but 
6f crowing counter-defiance, and Vive la Nation; 
young Valor streaming toward thie Frontiers ; Patrie 
en Danger inutely beckoning on the Pont-Nenf. 
Sections are busy, in their permanent Deep; and 
down, lowier still, works unlimited Patriotism, seek- 
ing sialvation In plot. Insurrection, you would 8ay» 
beconies once more the sacredest of duties? Cbm- 
mittee, self-chosen, is sitting at the Sign of the 
Golden Sun; Journalist Carra, Camille DesmouHas^ 
^ ** Annual Kegiftter,'* Cn9S),p. 236. 

il6 T^E if A nSETLLESE, 

Alsatian WestennanxL friend of Danton, AineTi<!an 
Foamier of Martinique ; — a Committee not unknown 
to Mayor PiStion, who, as an official person, must 
isleep with one eye open. Not unknown to Procttreur 
Manuel; leastof all to^Ptocareur-SubstftuteDaritoh! 
He, wrapped in darkness, being also ofBcial, beats it 
on his giant slioulders; cloudy invisible Atlas of the 
' whole. 

1194. Much is invisible; the very Jacobins have 
their reticences. Insurrection is to be : but when ? 
This only we can discern, that such F6d6r^s as are 
not yet gone to Soissons, as indeed are not inclined 
to go yet, " for reasons," says the Jacobin President, 
** which it may be interesting not to state/^ — have 
got a Central Committee Sitting close* by, under the 
roof of the Mother Society herself. Also, what in 
such ferment and danger of effervescence is surely 
proper, the Porty-eight Sections have got their Cen- 
tral Committee; intended ^^ for prompt communica- 
tion." To which Central Committee the Munici- 
pality, anxious to have it at hand, could not refuse 
an Apartment in the Hotel-de-Ville. 

1195. Singular City! For overhead of all this, 
there is the customary baking and brewing ; Labor 
hammers and grinds. Frilled promenaders saunter 
under the trees; white-niuslin promenaderess, in 
green parasol, leaning on your arm. Dogs dance, and 
shoe-blacks polish, on that Pont-Neuf itself, where 
Fatherland is in danger. So much goes its course ; — 
and yet the course of all things is nigh altering and 

1196. Look at thatTuileriesand Tuileries Garden. 

. Sileiv^ all .eus SftbaiiGi);; none eij^ter^ng. save l>y ticket ! 

. They shut their ^Srates, after the Day of the Black 

: Breeches; a thing they had the liberty to do. How-* 
ever, the National Assembly grumbled something 
about Terrace of iA^ Feuillants, how said Terrace 

, lay contiguous to the back-entrance to their Salle, 

i and was partly .iVa^iona^ Property ; and so now Na- 
tional Justice has stretched a Tricolor Ribbon athw^t 

: it, by way^f boundaryrline ; respcQted with splenetio 
strictness by all Patriots^ It hangs there, that Tri- 
color- boundary-line 5 carries "satirical inscriptions 
pu cards,'^ generally in verse; and all beyond this is 
called Coblents, and remains yacant ; silent as a fate- 
ful Golgotha ; sunshine and umbrage alternating on 
it in vain. Fateful Circuit: what hope can dwell 
.to it ? Mysterious Tickets of Entry introduce them- 
selves; speak of Insurrection very imminent. Ri- 
varoFs Staff of Genius had better purchase blunder- 
busses; Grenadier bonnets, red Swiss u^fonnsmay 
be useAiI Insurrection will come; but likewise 

. will it < not be met?. Staved off, one may hope, till 
Brunswick arrive ? 

1197. But consider withal if the Bourn-stones and 
Portable-chairs remain silent ; if the Herald's College 
of Bill-Stickers sleep ! Louvet's Sentinel warns 
gratis on all walls; Sulleau is busy ; People's- Friend 
MarUt and King^s-Friend Royou croak and counter- 
croak. For the man Marat, though long hidden 
since that Champ-de-Mars Massacre, is still alive. 
He has lain, who knows in what cellars; perhaps in 
Legendre's; fed by a steak of Legendre's killing; but 
since April, the, bull- frog voice of hira sounds again ; 

11* Tsris Sar^Mllese, 

hoarsest <ii earthly cri». For *th^ j^resent, black ^- 
iror'haTnit8 him: O brave Bafbaorouj^, wilt thou not 
siniiggle me to Marseillfes, '^^disgniacd as a jodkey?"* 
in Palais Royal and all public placed, as we read, there 
Is sharp activity; privateindividtials haranguing that 
Valbr inay enlist ; haranguing that the Executive 
may b6 put in action. Hoyalist Journals ought to 
be solemnly burnt : argument thereupon ; debates, 
which generally end in single-stick (coupes de 
Cannes) .f Or think of this ; the hour midni^t ; place 
Salle de Manage ; august A^emTjTy just adjourning ; 
** Citizens of both sexes enter in a rush, exclaimin]g, 
Vengedrice ; theif are poisoning &itr Brothers ;^'^— baking 
brayed-glass ambiig their bread atBbissobs ! VeJpg- 
hiaild has t6 speak soothing words, How Commis- 
JBioners fare already sent to investigate this brayed- 
glass, and do what is needful therein; till the rush 
of Citizens '' makes profound silence f and goes home 
to its bed. 

1198. Such is Paris; the hteart of Frbnce like to It 
Preternatural stispicion. doubt, disi^tiietude, nameleife 
anticipation, from shore to shore :^-^ahd those bl&ck- 
'browed Marsfeillese marching, 'dustjr, tinwearied, 
through the midst of it ; riot doubtful they. Mareh- 
ing'to the grim music of their U^rts, they CoiiStiine 
continually the loiig road, th^e thtee weeks and 
more; heralded by Terror and l^umor. The Brest 
F<5d^r^s arrivfe 6n the 26th ; through hurrahing 
streets. Determined men are these also, bearing or 

* Barbaroux, p. 60. 

. , t Newspaper, narratives, and d9cunient8 (" RIstoIre 
Parlemehfaire/' xV. *to;'^xVi. ^W). 



J(l,99. Jt ¥faa a bright day for CliaTentoii, thaf S9th 
.pftjie ^ic^th, when t;he Marseilles Brethren actually 
<e^Ml^ iiifiigjiit. Barbaroux, Santerre and Patriots have 
gQne*<0tat to meet the griin Wayfarers. Patriot clasps 
djQsty Patriot to his iHxsom; there is foot- washing and 
Xi^iie^tion: " djinner pf twelve-hundred covers at the 
^lae;pial (Cadra;a Bleu) ;" and deep interior consul ta- 
JlQn„4tot. one wots not of.^ Consultation indeed 
:.w^i^h tCqmes to little ; for Santerre, with an open 
purse, with a loud voice, has almost no head. Here, 
howevf^r, we repose this night ; on the morrow is pub- 
tic entry injto Paris, 

1200. Of whic^ public entry the Day-Historiansi 
I)iii.rmlis(8j pr Journalists as they call themselves 
l^ve preserved record enough. How Saint- Antoine 
mfkle and f^malje, and Paris generally, gave brotherly 
welppme, with bravo and hand-dapping, in crowded 
streets ; and all passed in the peaceablest manner ;— 
except it might be our Marsaillese pointed out here 
and |here a ribbon-cockade, and beckoned that it 
should be snatched away, and exchanged for a wool 
one ; which was none. How the Mother Society in 
a body has come as far^s the Bastille-gioand^ to em- 

'** Deux Amis," viii. SO-lOl. 

brace yotu HOw you thes-wend cmwaKl) trjiiiimj^aiit, 
to the Town-hall, to be embJaeed by Mayor Potion j; 
to pat down your muskete in the Banracks of Nou- 
velle. France^ not iar off: — then toward the appointed 
Taveru in the Champs Elys^es, to ej^oy a frugal 
Patriot repast.* 

1201. Of all which the indignant Tuileries 
may, by its Tickets of Entry, have warning. Ited 
6wiss look doubly sharp to their Oh^teau^Grates; — 
though surely there is no danger ? Blue Grenadiers 
of the Filles^Saint-Thomas Section are on duty there 
this day ; men of Agio, as we have seen ; with stuffed 
parses, ribbon-cockades ; among whom serves Weber* 
A party of these latter, with Captains, with sundry 
Feuillant Notabilities, Moreau de Saint-M4ry of the 
three*-thousand orders, and others, have been dining, 
much more respectably, in a Tavern hard by. They 
have dined, and are now drinking .Loyal-Patriotic 
toasts j while the Marseillese, ^a^ionaZ-Patriotic 
merely, are about sitting down to their frugal covers 
of delf. - How it happened remains to this day un- 
demonstrable; but the external fact is, certain of 
these Filles-Saint-Thomas Grenadiers do issue from 
tlieir Tavern ; perhaps touched, surely not yet mud- 
dled with any liquor they have had ; — issue in the 
professed intention of testifying to the Marseillese, 
or to the multitude of Paris Patriots who stroll in 
these spaces, That they, the Filles-Saint-Thomas 
men, if well seen into, are not a whit less Patriotic 
than any other class of men whatever. 

• '* Hlstolro Partementaire/' xvi. 19a. See Barbaroux, 
pp. 61-65. 

> 188^ li was ft rash «rrsiifdt Jlor how can t&e 
strolling multitude credit saoh Kthiiigt ^or do other 
indeed than hoot at it, provoking and provoked ? — 
till Grenadier sabers stir in the scabbard, and thrre- 
ttp<m a sharp i^riek rises. -^A, nous, Marseillais 
(Help, Marseillese) ? '' Quick as lightning, for the 
fragal repast is not yet served, that Marseillese 
Tavern flings itself offen by door, by window ; run* 
ning, bounding^ vault forth the dl7 i^idined Patriots ; 
and, saber flashing iroin thi^, are on the scene of 
eontroversy. Will ye parley, ye Grenadier Captains 
iaid Official Persons; '* with &ces grown suddenly 
pale," the Deponents say ?* Advisabler were instant 
moderately swift retreat! The. Filles-Saint-Thomas 
men retreat, back foremost ; then, alas, face foremost, 
at treble-quick tii»e; the Marseillese, according to a 
Deponent, ^^ clearing the fences and ditches after 
^em, like iions: Messieurs, it was an imposing 

^ 1203. Thus they retreat, the Marseillese following. 
Swift and swifter, toward the Tuileries where the 
Drawbridge receives the bulk of the fugitives ; and, 
then suddenly drawn up, eaves them; or else t}ie 
green mud of the Ditch does it. The bulk of them ; 
not all; ah, no! Moreau de Saint-Me?:yi for ex- 
ample^ being too fat, could not fly fast; he got a 
stroke, fittt-stMlke only, over the shoulder4>lades, and 
fell prone; — and disappears there from tlie History of 
the Revolution. Cuts also there were, pricks in the 
•posterior fleshy pcuis; much rending of skirts, and 

* MonUerur, Stances du 80, du 81 JuiUet IWi <** Histoire 
Parlementaire/*zvi. 197-210). 


&Saet disH^t^fpafit waM<i^.' Bnik pom* Sttblleuteiluit 
BtilMniei; husM^t Chsn^tti^D^r, what n lot fer hini 
He barbed on Ms jmrdtier, or pnfmieTB, with a i^slol; 
he fired mid mlds^l ; di^w a'secotid'inslol^ and again 
^ledarid mist^ed; then tatii nnhoi^ily inlTain^ In 
fhe Rtie Saitft-Florentin, tfa^ dlntched hint ; thrdsl 
leAiH throtigh, iti i^ ri^e: thlrbwas theend Of th6 
l^tir Eta, and Of all Erasy to x>oor BufaameK 

iSXA. Pacific Tead%i8 can fai^ what sort of gnwe* 
istfbH'ititiki thid w§bs to frngal Fatriotisnf . Aleo how 
fh^ B^ftaHon of the Fillei^hSaint-Thomar "^ drew out 
in arms,'* Inckil^ iHthont ilRrther resitH; how there 
i^a»' accttsation at thfe Bar of the Assemhij, and 
^tihter-accQ!»tidh and defense; Marseilleseehalletig*' 
ing the senteneo of a fi^ jnty-conrt,— ^which never 
got impaneled. We aslt fiather, What the upshots 
all these distracted i^Mly-aocumnlating things xnay, 
by int>babilityj Be? Sonfte np<3iot, and the time 
draws nigh! Bnsy are Central Committees^ of 
P€d^r6s af the Jac6bti«s Ghtttch, of Sections at the 
t^own-hall; Rennion df Carra Camille and Company^ 
<it the Golden Stin. Bn^y ; like submarine deitiei^ 
of call them mtid-gods, working there in deefi murk 
of haters; till the thing he ready, 

120d And how yonr National Assembly, like a 
ship water-logged, helmless, lies tnmhling , the Gal- 
leries, of shrill women, of F€d^r^ with sabers, bel- 
lowing dowii on it, not nnfrlghtfnl; — and waits 
where the waves of ehance may please to strand it; 
^picions, hay on the LefiKside, conscKms, what sab- 
marine explosion is meanwhile a-chaigkig ! Petition 
for King's Forfeiture fise^ often thcve; Petitien from 


Aleo^QO, Sriao^n, aa4 the. Traders ^t the Fair of 
Beaucaireb" Or ^bat of theae ? On the 3d of August, 
It^ajor P4^tio^ aiid the Manicipality cou^e petitioning 
£ar Forfeiture : they openly, in their tricolor Muni- 
eipal scaris. Forfeiture is what all Patriots now want 
and expeet All Brissotins lyant Forfeiture; with 
t]tie little Prii^ Boyal for King, and us for Protector 
Qv^ him. Emphatic f'ed^s asJj^ the Legislature: 
'^Canypusaye us, ^ not?" Forty-seven Sections 
iiav© ^reed if> Forfeiture ; only that of the Filles- 
SaiDt-ThoQ^^fi pretending to disagree. Nay Section 
JMiULConseil declaim Forfeiture to be, properly speak- 
ing, come ; M&^uonseil, for one, '^ does irom this day," 
the last pf July, *' cieaise allegiance to Louis," an(^ 
take 9iijQute of the same before all men. A thing 
bl^iued aloud; but which will be praised aloud; and 
^e pame Mauconseil (of Hi-counsel), b;^ thenceforth 
(^a^ged <(0 Boncanseil (of Good-counsel). 

1206. President Danton, in the Cordeliers Section, 
4o^ another th^ng: invites all Passive Citizens to 
take piaee aJX^ong the Active in Section business, one 
peril threatening all. Thus he, though an official 
person, cloudy Atlas of the whole. Likewise ne 
manages to have that Uack -browed Battalion of Mar- 
seillese shifted to new Barracks, in his own region of 
the remote Southeast. Sleek Chaumette, cruel Bil- 
laud. Deputy Chabot the Disfrocked, Huguenm with 
the tocsin in his heart, will welcome them there. 
Wherefore again and again, "O Legislators, can 
yon save us or not?" Poor Legislators, with 
their Legislature water-logged, volcanic Explosion 
charging under it! Forfeiture shall be debated 

le 9th or AngdBt; thBtmissrablebusiness of La- 
te may be expected to termioate on the eigbtb. 
)7. Or, will tbe hnmane Readet glance into the 
e-day of Sunday tbe fifth? The last Levee! 
'or a long time, "never," bbjb Bertrand-Molevill^ 
L I^evee be<;n eo brilliant, at leoat so erowded, 
d presaging intereet sat on every face; Ber- 
t's own eyes were filled with tears. Foi indeed, 
de of that Tricolor Kibboa on tbe Feuiilanta Tei- 

Legislatnre ia debating, Sections are defiling, 
aria ia astir this very Sunday, demanding D6;b6- 
• Here, bowever, within the ribbon, a grand 
>saL is on foot, for the hundiedlh time, of carry- 
is M^eaty to Konen and tbe Castle of Gaillon. 
) at Conrbevoye are in readiness ; much is ready ; 
sty himself seems almost ready. Nevertheless, 
he bnndredth time, Majesty, when near tbe 
< of action, draws hack; writes, after one has 
:d, palpitating, an endless sammer day, that "ha 
eason to believe the Insurrection is not so ripe as 
nippwe." Whereat Bertrand-Moleville breaks 

"into extremity at once of spleen and despair 
iraor et de d^BeBpolr)."t 

TEE S*BEPhW{^f MIimiGHT. 123 


1208. For, in truth, the Insurrection is just about 
ripe. Thursday is the 9th af the month August: 
if Forfeiture he not pronounced by the Legislature 
that day, we must pronounce it ourselves. 

Legislature? ' A poor water-logged Legislature 
can pronounce nothing. On Wednesday the 8th, af* 
ter endless oratory once again, they cannot even pro* 
nounce Accusation. against Lafayette but absolve 
him,~hear it. Patriotism !~by a majority of two to 
one. Patriotism hears it; Patriotism, hounded-on 
by Prussian Terror, by Preternatural Suspicion, roars 
tumultuous found the Salle de Manage all day: iiir 
sultis many leading Deputies, of the absolvent Right- 
side ; nay chases them, collars them with loud me^ 
liace: Deputy Vaublanc, and others of the like are 
glad to take refuge in Guard-houses, and escape by 
the*back window. And so, next day, there is infinite 
complaint ; Letter after Letter from insulted Deputy ; 
mere complaint, debate and self-canceling jargon : the 
sun of Thursday sets like the others, and no Forfeit- 
ure pronounced. Wherefore in^fine, To your tents, 
O, Israel ! 

1209. The Mother Society ceases speaking ; groups 
cease haranguing Patriots, with closed lips now^ 
"take one another's arm /' walk off, in rows, two and 
two, at a brisk business-pace ; and vanish afar in the 
obscure places of the East.^ Santerre is ready ; or 

* 'Deux Amis,'' vUi. 129-188. 


we will make hlxa ready. Forty-jaeven of the Forty- 
eight Sections are ready; nay Filles-Saint-Thomas 
itself turns up the Jacobins side of it, turns down 
the Feuillant side of it, and is ready too. Let the 
unlimited Patriot look to his weapon, be it pike, be 
it firelock ; and the Brest brethren, — ^above all, the 
black-browed Marseillese prepared themselves for 
the extreme hour ! Syndic RcBd,erer knows, and la- 
ments or not as the issue may turn, that '^5,000 ball- 
ourtridges, within these few days, have been distribut- 
ed to F^d^r^s, at the hotel-de-Ville."* 

1210. And ye likewise, gallant gentlemen, defend- 
ers of Royalty, crowd ye on your side to the Tuil- 
eries. Not to a levee : no, to a Couch^e ; where 
much will be put to bed. Your Tickets of Entry 
are needful; needfuler your blunderbusses !— They 
come and crowd, like gallant men who also know 
how to. die : old Maill^ the Camp-Marshal has come, 
his eyes gleaming once again, though dimmed by the 
;th(eum of almost four-score years. Courage, Broth- 
ers ! We have a thousand red Swiss ; men stanch of 
heart, steadfast as the granite of their Alps. Nation- 
al Grenadiers are at least friends of Order; Com- 
mandant Mandat breathes loyal ardor, will ^'answer for 
it on his head.'' Mandat will, and his staff; for the 
staff, though there stands a doom and Becreie to 
that effect, is happily never yet dissolved. 

1211. Commandant Mandat has corresponded with 
Mayor Potion ; carries a written Order from him 
these three days, to repel force by force. A squadron 

* Roederer a \A Barre (S^oe du 9 Aout in *.* flistoire 
Parlementaire," xvi. 393). 



ott tfte Poiit^l?en£with cflnnon sfcall ttirii baick fbase) 
Msn'st^lcse coming across the Biver. a i^adron at 
the Town-hall shall cut SamtrAntome in two, "as it 
ifesues from'the Arcade Saint- Jean ," drive one half 
lirack to the obscure East, drive the other half forward 
**tlirough l^e Wickets of the LouTre/* Squadrons 
not a few, tmd niounted squadrons; squadrons in the 
Palais Boyal, tb. the Place Yendome ; all these i^iall 
d!harge, at the right moment ; sweep this street, and 
fht^ sweep that. Some new 20th of June we shall 
iave ; only still more ineffectual ? Or probab^ the 
iusurfection will not dare to rise at all ? Mandat's 
Sqtiadnms,' Horse-gendarmerie and blue Guards 
march) clattering, tfiamping; Mandat's Cannoneers 
rUmbl^. Under cloud of night ; to the sound of his 
g^^rale; whiclt begins drumming when men should 
go to bed; It is the 9th night of August, 1792. 

1212. On the other hand, the Forty-eight Sections 
correspond by swift messengers ; are choosing each 
iheiif "three Delegates with full power." Syndic 
Ro^crer, Mayor Potion are sent for to the Tuileries : 
courageous Legislators, when the drum beats danger, 
should repair to their Salle. Demoiselle Th^roigne 
has on her grenadier-bonnet, short-skirted riding- 
habit; two pistols garnish her small waist, and saber 
Hangs in baldric by her side. 

1213. Such a game is playing in this Paris Pande- 
monium, or City of All the Devils i— And yet the 
Night, as Mayor Potion walks h^c in the Tuilenes 
Garden/' is beautiful and calm;" Orion and Plei- 
Meis gliit^ down quite serene. Potion has come 


forth, the " heat" inside waa so oppressive.* Indeed, 
his Majesty's reception of him was of the roughest ; 
as it well might be. And now there is no outgate ; 
Mandat's bine Squadrons turn you back at every 
Grate ; nay the Filles-Saint-Thomas Grenadiers give 
themselves liberties of tongue, How a virtuous 
Mayor " shall pay for it, if there-be mischief," and 
the like ; though others again are full of civility. 
Surely if any man in France is in straits this night, it 
is Mayor Pdtion ; bound, under pain of death, one 
may say, to smile dexterously with the one side of 
his face, and weep with the other ; — death if he do it 
not dexterously enough ! Not till four in the morn- 
ing does a National Assembly, hearing of his plight, 
summon him over "to give account of Paris;" of 
which he knows nothing: whereby, however, he 
shall get home to bed, and on]|r his gilt coach be left» 
Scarcely less delicate is Syndic Rcederer's task ; who 
must wait, whether he will lament or not, till he see 
the issue. Janus Bifrons, or Mr, Facing-both'^waya^ as 
vernacular Bunyan has it ! They walk there, in the 
meanwhile, these two Januses, with others of the 
like double conformation ; and *' talk of indifferent 

1214. Roederer, from time to time, steps in; to 
listen, to speak ; to send for the Department-Direc- 
tory itself, he their Procureur Syndic not seeing how 
to act. The Apartments are all crowded ; some 700 
gentlemen in black elbowing, bustling; red Swiss 

• Roederer, ♦'ChronlfuedeCinquanto Jours; Recit de 
Petlon," Town -hall records, etc., in "Histoire Parlemen- 
taire,"zvl. 809-466). 


standing like rocks: ^ost; or pariial-ghost df » 
Ministry, with Roederer and advisers, hovering round 
tteir Majesties; eld Marshal Maill(? kneeling at the 
King's feet to say, He and these i^allant gentlemen 
are come to die for him. List ! through the placid 
midnight ; clang -of the distant storm-hell ! So, in 
very sootb: steeple after steeple takes up the won- 
drous tale. Black Courtiers listen at the windows, 
opened for air; discriminate the steeple-bells:* thig 
is the tocsin of Saint-Roch ; that again, is it not 
Saint- Jacques, named de la Bonc^aerie ? Yes, Mes*' 
sieurs ! Or even Saint-Garmain PAuxerrois, hear ye 
t^ not ? The same metal that rang storm, 220 years 
ago; bnt by a Majesty's order then ; on Saint-Bar- 
tholomew's Eve!t — So go to the steeple-bells; which 
Courtiers can discriminate. Nay, meseems, there is 
the Town-hall itself; %e know it by its sound I Yes, 
Friends, that is the Town-hall, discoursing «a, to the 
Night. Miraculously ; by miraculous metal-tongtie 
and man's arm : Marat himself, if you knew it, is 
pulling at the rope there ! Marat is pulling ; Robes- 
pierre lies deep, invisible for the nejt forty hours; 
and some men have heart, and some have as good aa 
none, and not even frenzy will give them any. 

1215. What struggling confusion, as the issue 
slowly draws on ; and the doubtful Hour, with pain 
and blind struggle, brings forth its Certainty, never 
to be abolished !— The Full-power Delegates, three 
from each Section, a Hundred and forty-four in all, 
got gathered at the Town-hall, about .midnigl^t 

* Roederer, ubi supra. - 
t 24th August, 1572. 


afe Sqnadroa, atatioued there, did not hinder 
enteriDg ; are they not the " Central Committee 
i Sections "who sit here usual];; though in 
ir number to-night ? Tbej are there ; presided 
aflision, Irresolulion, and the Clack of Tongues. 
scouts Sy ; Rnmor buzzes, of blaclf Courtiers, 
wiss, of Mandat and his Squadrons that shall 
e. Better put off the Insurrection ? Yes, put 

Ha, Hark 1 Saint- Antoine booming out el»- 
. tocsin of its own accord! — Friends, no: ye 
t put off the InBuirectton ; but must put it on, 
ve Trith it, or die with it. 
B, Swift now, therefore : let these actual Old 
sijiaJs, on sight of tlie Full -po were, and maor 
if the Sovereign electivo People, lay down their 
ons: and this Kcw Hundred and Forty-four 
*em np 1 Will ye nill y6, worthy Old Munici- 
^ ye nmst. Nay is it not a happiness for many 
nicipal that he can wash his hands of such a 
sss; and tit there paralyzed, nnaccountable, till 
our do bring forth ; or even go home ta hia 
B rest?* . Two only of the Old, or at most 

we retain : Mayor F£tioD, for the present 
ng in theTuileries; Procureur Manuel; Pro- 
r-Snbatitnte Danton, invisible Atlas of the 
1. And so, with our Hundred and Forty-fonr, 
I whom are a Tocsin-Hngnenin, a BiUand, a 
nette; and Editor-Talliens, and Fabred'Eglan- 
Sergents, Fonises ; and in brief, either emergent 
i emerged and full-blown, the entire Flower of 


'atriatlBDi : have we not, aa bj magic, 
T MuQicipalitj ; ready to act in tbe tm- 
aner ; and declare itaelf louudl]', " in a 
urrection!" — First of all, then, be Com- 
indat sent for, with that Mayor'a-Order 
let the New Municipals visit tbose Sqaad- 
rere to charge ; and let the storm-beU 
idest; — and, on the whole, Forward, ye 
Enudred and Porty-ibor ; wtreat is now none for 

1217. Beader, &ncy not, in tby languid way, that 
Insurrection is easj. Insarreetion is difficult : each 
individual uncertain even of his next neighbor! 
totally uncertain of his distant neighbors, what 
strength is with him, what strength is against him ; 
certain only that, in case of bis failure, his individ- 
nal portion is the gallows! Eight hundred thoosand 
heads, and in each of tbcm a separate estimate of 
these uncertainties, a separate theorem of action 
conformable to that." out of so many nncertainties, 
does the certainty, and inevitable net-resnlt never to 
be abolished, go on, at all moments, bodying itself 
forth : — leading thee also toward civic crowns or an 
ignominions noose. 

1318, Could the Reader take an Asmodeus'sFlight, 
end waving open all roofs and privacies, look down 
from the Tower of Notre Dame, what a Paris were 
it! Of treble-voice whimperings or vehemence, of 
bass-voicegrowlings, dubitatioDS; Coorage screwing 
itself to desperate defiance; Cowardice trembling 
•ilent within baned doors r-and all ronnd, Dnllness 
calmly snoring ; for mnch Dnllaess, flung on its mat- 


tressed, always sleeps. O, between 'tlie clangor of 
these Bigh-storming tocsins and that snore of DtiU- 
ness, what a ganint: of trepidation, excitation, des- 
peration ; and above it mere Doubt, Danger, Atropos 
and Nox ! 

1219. Fighters of this Section draw ont; hear 
that the next Section does not ; thereupon draw in. 
Saint- Antoine, on this side the River, is uncertain of 
Saint-Marceau on that. Steady only is the snore of 
Dullness, are the 600 Marseillese that know how to 
die. Mandat, twice summoned to the Town-hall» 
has not come. Scouts fly Incessant, in distracted 
haste; and the many- whispering voices of Rumor. 
Th^roigneand unofficial Patriots flit, dim- visible, ex- 
ploratory, far and wide ; like night-birds on the wing. 
Of Nationals some 3,000 have followed Mandat and 
hisg^n^rale; the rest follow each his own theorem^ 
of the uncertainties ; theorem, that one should march 
rather with Saint- Antoine: innumerable theorems, 
that in such a case the wholesomest were sleep. 
And so the drums beat, in mad fits, and the storm- 
bells peal. Saint-Antoine itself does but draw out 
and draw in : Commandant Santerre, over there, can- 
not believe that the Marseillese and Saint-Marceau 
will march. Thou laggard sonorous Beer-vat with 
the loud voice and timber-head, is it time now to 
palter? Alsatian Westermann clutches him by the 
throat with drawn saber: whereupon the Timber- 
headed believes. In this manner wanes the slow 
night ; amid fret, uncertainty and tocsin : all men's 
humor rising to the hysterical pitch ; and nothing 


1220. However, Mandat, on the third summons, 
does come; — come, nngaarded; astonished to find 
the Municipality neio. They question him straitly 
on that Mayor's-Order to resist force by force; 
on that strategic scheme of cutting Saint- Antoine in 
twohalves: he answers what he can: they think it were 
right to send this strategic National Commandant to 
the Abbaye Prison, and let a Court of Law decide on 
him. Alas, a Court of Law, not Boot-Law but prime- 
val Club-Law, crowds and jostles out of doors ; all 
fretted to the hysterical pitch ; cruel as Fear, blind as 
the Night : such Court of Law, and no other, clutches 
poor Mandat from his constables : beats him down, 
massacres him, on the steps of the Town-hall. Look 
to it, ye new Municipals ; ye People, in a state of 
Insurrection! Blood is shed, blood must be an- 
swered for ; — alas, in such hysterical humor, more 
blood will flow : for it is as with the Tiger in that ; 
he has only to begin. 

1221. Seventeen Individuals have been* seized in 
the Champs Elysees, by exploratory Patriotism, 
they flitting dim-visible, by it flitting dim-visible. 
Ye have pistols, rapiers, ye Seventeen? One of 
those accursed "false Patrols;'' that go marauding, 
with Anti-National intent ; seeking what they can 
spy, what they can spill ! The Seventeen are carried 
to the nearest Guard-house ; eleven of them escape 
by back passages. "How is this?" Demoiselle 
Th(jroigne appears at the front entrance, with saber* 
pistols and a train; denounces treasonous connivance; 
demands, seizes, the remaining six, that the justice 
of the People be not trifled with. Of which six two 


cape ia the nhirl and tltbate of the Clnb- 
lurt; the last unhappy Four are massacred, 
ant was ; Two et-Eody -guards : cue dissipated 
one Royalist Pamphleteer, Sulleau, known to 
ame, Abie Editor and wit of all woric. Poor 

r his "Acts of the Apostles," and brisk Placard. 
Is (for he was an able man) come to Finis, in 
inner: and qnestioDable jesting issues snd- 
n horrid eamestl Such doings nsher-in the 
f the loth of AnguBt, 1793. 

Or think what 'a night the poor National As- 
h*B had Bitting there, " in great paucity," at^ 
ig to debate;— qnivering and shivering : point- 
rard the thirty-two azimnths at once, as tb 
-needle does when thunder-storm is in the air! 
asurreotion come? If it come, and fail? Alas, 
cose, may not black Courtiers with blDnder- 
red Swiss with bayonets mah •)ycr, flushed 
etory, and ask us ; Thou nndeSnable, water- 

self-distractive, Helf-deetructive Legislative, 
oet thon here antHnkt — Or figure the poor 
il Guards bivouacking in "temporary tents" 
>r standing ranked, shifting from leg to leg, 
ingh the weary night; New tricolor Munici- 
deriog one thing, old Manriat Captains order- 
ther. Proenreur Manuel has ordered the can- 
I be withdrawn from the Pont-Neuf; none 
>d to disobey him. It seems certain, then, the 
f, BO long doomed, has finally been dissolved, 
! hours ; and Manditt is not our Commandant 
at Sant«rre? Yes, friends: Santerre henec- 
-surely Mandat no more ! The Squadrons that 


were to charge see nothing certain, escept that they 
are cold, hungry, worn down with watching; that it 
were sad to slay French brothers ; sadder to be slain 
by them. Withont the Tuileries Circuit, and within 
it, sour uncertain humor sways these men : only the 
red Swiss stand steadfast. Them their officers refresh 
now with a slight wetting-of brandy ; wherein the 
Nationals, too far gone for brandy, refuse to particle 

1223. King Louis meanwhile had laid him 
down for a little sleep; his wig when he 
reappeared had lost the powder on one side.* 
Old Marshal Maille and the gentlemen in 
black rise always in spirits, as the Insurrection 
does not rise ; there goes a witty saying now, "Le 
tocsin ne rend pas," The tocsin, like a dry milk-cow, 
does not yield. For the rest, could not one proclaim 
Martial Law? Not easily ; for now, it seems, Mayor 
Potion is gone. On the other hand, our Interim Com- 
mandant, poor Mandat being off "to the Hotel-de- 
ViUe," complains that so many Courtiers in black 
encumber the service, are an eye-sorrow to the Na- 
tional Guards. To which her M^gesty answ^ers with 
emphasis, That they will obey all, will suffer all, 
that they are sure men these. 

1224. And so the yellow lami)-light dies out in the 
gray of morning, in the King's Palace, over such a 
scene. Scene of jostling, elbowing, of conftision, and 
indeed conclusion, for the thing is about to end. 
Rcederer and spectral Ministers jostle in the press; 
consult, in side-cabinets, with one or with both Msg- 

* Boederer, ubi suprft. 


esties. Sister Elisabeth takes the Queen to the win* 
dow : " Sister, see what a beautiful sunrise," right 
over the Jacobms Church aud that quarter ! How 
happy if the tocsin did not yield ! But Mandat re- 
turns not ; Petioa is gone : much hangs wavering in 
the invisible Balance. About five o'clock, there 
rises from the Garden a kind of sound ; as of a shout 
which had become a howl, and instead of Vive le Eoi 
were ending in Vive la Nation. " Mon Dieu ! " 
ejaculates a spectral Minister, " what is he doing 
down there ! " For it is his Majesty, gone down with 
old Marshal Maill^ to review the troops ; and tha 
nearest companies of them answer so. Her Majesty 
bursts into a stream of tears. Yet on stepping from 
the cabinet, her eyes are dry and calm, her look is 
even cheerful. *' The Austrian lip, and the aquiline 
nose, fuller than usual, gave to her countenance," says 
Peltier,* " something of majesty, which they that 
did not see her in those moments cannot well have 
an idea of." O thou Theresa's Daughter ! 

King Louis enters much blown with the fatigue ; 
but for the rest with his old air of indifference. Of 
all hopes now, surely the joyfulest were, that the 
tocsin did not yield. 



1225. Unhappy Friends, the tocsin does yield, has 
yielded ! Lo ye, how with the first sun rays its 
* In Toulongeon, 11 Ut, 


Ocean- tide, of pikes, and fusils, flows glittering from 
the far East; — ^immeasurable: bom of the Night I 
They march there, the grim host ; Saint- Antoine on 
this side the River ; Saint-Marceau on that, the black- 
browed Marseillese in the van. With hum, and grim 
murmur, far-heard ; like the Ocean-tide, as we say : 
drawn up, as if by Luna and Influences, from the 
great Deep of Waters, they roll gleaming on ; no 
King, Canute or Louis, can bid them roll back. Wide- 
eddying side-currents, of on-lookers, roll hither and 
thither, unarmed, not voiceless ; they, the steel host, 
roll on. New-Commandant Santerre, indeed, hi3 
taken seat at the Town-hall, rest there, in his half- 
way-house. Alsatian Westermann, with flashing 
saber, does not rest ; nor the Sections, nor the Mar- 
seillese, nor Demoiselle Th^roigne ; but roll continu- 
ally on. 

1226* And now, where are Mandates Squadrons that 
were to charge ? Not a Squadron of them stirs : or 
they stir in the wrong direction, out of the way ; 
their officers glad that they will do even that. It is 
to this hour uncertain whether the Squadron on the 
Pont-Neuf made the shadow of resistance, or did not 
make the shadow : enough, the black-browed Mar- 
fieiUese, and Saint-Marceau following them, do cross 
without let ; do cross, in sure hope now of Saint- 
Antoine and the rest ; do billow on, toward the Tuil- 
cries, where their errand is. The Tuileries, at sound 
of them, rustles responsive : the red Swiss look to 
their priming ; Courtiers in black draw their blunder- 
busses, rapiers, poniards, some have even fire-shovels; 
every man his weapon of wax. 






(K.' . • 


1227. Judge if, in these circumstances, Sj^ndic 
Roederer felt easy ! Will the kind Heavens open no 
middle-course of refuge for a poor Syndic who halts 
between two? If indeed his Majesty would consent 
to go over to the Assembly ! His Majesty, above all 
her Majesty, cannot agree to that. Did her Majesty 
answer the proposal with a " Fi done ; " did she say 
even, she would be nailed to the walls sooner ? Ap- 
parently not. It is written also that she offered the 
King a pistol : saying, Now or else never was the 
time to show himself. Close eye-witnesses did not 
see it, nor do we. They saw only that she was queen- 
like, quiet ; that she argued not, upbraided not, with 
the Inexorable; but, like Caesar in the Capitol, 
wrapped her mantle, as it beseems Queens and Sons 
of Adam to do. But thou, O Louis ! of what stuff 
art thou at all ? Is there no stroke in thee, then, for 
Life and Crown ? The silliest hunted deer dies not 
so. Art thou the languidest of all mortals ; or the 
mildest-minded ? Thou art the worst-starred. 

1228. The tide advances ; Syndic Roederer's and 
all men's straits grow straiter and straiter. Fremes- 
cent clangor comes from the armed Nationals in the 
Court ; far and wide is the infinite hubbub of tongues. 
What counsel ? And the tide is now nigh ! Messen- 
gers, forerunners speak hastily through the outer 
Grates ; hold parley sitting astride the walls. Syn- 
dic Roederer goes out and comes in. Cannoneers ask 
him : Are we to fire against the people ? King's 
Ministers ask him : Shall the King's House be 
forced ? Syndic Roederer has a hard game to play. 
He speaks to the Cannoneers with eloquence, with 

W^ SWISS. 139 

fervor ; such fervor as a man can, who has to blow 
hot and cold in one breath. Hot and cold, O Ecederer? 
We, for our partj cannot live and die ? The Can- 
noneersjby way of answer, fling down their linstocks. 
' — Think of this answer, O King Louis, and King's 
Ministers ; and take a poor Syndic's safe middle- 
course, toward the Salle de Manage. King Louis 
sits, his hands leant on his knees, body bent forward J 
gazes for a space fixedly on Syndic Roederer ; then 
answers, looking over his shoulder to the Queen t 
Marchons ! They march 5 King Louis, Queen, Sister 
Elizabeth, the two royal children and governess j 
these, with Syndic Ecederer, and Officials of the De- 
partment; amid a double rank of National Guards. 
The men with blunderbusses, the steady red Swiss 
gaze mournfully, reproachfully ; but hear only these 
Words from Syndic Roederer : " The King is going to 
the A-ssembly ; make way.** It has struck eight, on 
all clocks, some minutes agoi the Kiug has left the 
Tuileries — forever* 

1229. O ye stanch Swiss, ye gallant gentlemen in 
black, for what a cause are ye to spend and be spent ! 
Look out from the western windows ye may see 
King Louis placidly hold on his way ; the poor little 
Prince Royal *' sportfully kicking the fallen leaves." 
Fremescent multitude on the Terrace of the Feuil- 
lants whirls parallel to him ; one man in it, very 
noisy, with a long pole : will they not obstruct the 
outer Staircase, and back-entrance of the Salle, when 
it comes to that? King's Guards can go no farther 
than the bottom step there. Lo, Deputation of Legis- 
lators come out ; he of the long pole is stilled by 


oratory; Asacmbly'a Guards join tliemselves tO 
King's GuardS) and all may mount in this case of 
necessity \ the outer Staircase is free, or passable* 
See, Royalty ascends ; a blue Grenadier lifts the jioor 
little Prince Royal from the press ; Royalty has en- 
tered ii?. Royalty has vanished forever from yorr 
eyes.— And ye? Left standing there, amid the 
yawning abysses, and earthquake of Insurrection j 
without Course; without command: if ye perish, it 
must be as more than martyrs, as martyrs who are 
now without a cause ! The black Courtiers disap- 
pear mo»tly ; through such issues as they can* The 
poor Swiss know not how to act ; one duty only is 
(dear to them, that of standing by their post ; and 
they will perform that. 

1230. But the glittering steel tide has arrived ; it 
beats now against the Chateau barriers and eastern 
Courts; irresistible, loud-surging far and wide; — 
breaks in, fills the Court of the Carrousel, black- 
browed Marseillese in the van* King Louis gone, 
say you; over to the Assembly 1 Well and good: 
but till the Assembly pronounce Forfeiture of him, 
who boots it ? Our post is in that Chateau or strong- 
hold of his; there till then must we continue. 
Think, ye stanch Swiss, whether it were good that 
grim murder began, and brothers blasted one another 
in pieces for a stone edifice? — Poor Swiss I they 
know not how to act! from the southern windows, 
some fling cartridges, in sign of brotherhood ; on the 
eastern outer-staircase, and within through long 
stairs and corridors, they fitand firm>ranked, peace- 
able and yet refusing to stir. Westermann speaks to 

THE smsS, 141 

them in Aldatian German ; Marseillese pleod, in hot 
Provehyal speech and pantomime ; stunning hubbub 
pleads and threatens, infinite, around. The Swiss 
stand fast) peaceable and yet immovable; red granite 
pier .in that waste-flashing sea of steel. 

1231, Who can help the inevitable issue ; Marseil- 
lese and all France on this side ; granite Swiss on 
that? The pantomime grows hotter and hotter; 
Marseillese sabers flourishing by way of action ; the 
Swiss brow also clouding itself, the Swiss thumb 
bringing its firelock to the cock. And hark ! high 
thundering above all the din, three Marseillese can- 
nou from the Carrousel, pointed by a gunner of bad 
aim, come rattling over the roofs ! Ye Swiss, there- 
Ipre : Fire / The Swiss fire 5 by volley, by platoon, 
in rolling-fire : Marseillese men not a few, and " a 
tall man that was louder than any," lie silent^ 
smashed upon the pavement; — not a few Marseillese, 
after the long dusty march, have made halt here^ 
The Carrousel is void; the black tide recoiling; 
"fugitives rushing as far as Saint-Antoine before 
they stop." The Cannoneers without linstock have 
squatted invisible, and left their cannon ; which the 
Sw^ss seise. 

1232. Think what a volley : reverberating doomful 
to the four corners of Paris, and through all hearts i 
like the clang of Bellona's thongs ! The black- 
browed Marseillese, rallying on the instant, have be- 
come black Demons that know how to die. Nor is 
Brest behindhand ; nor Alsatian Westermann ; De- 
moiselle Th^roigne is Sibyl Th^roigne : Vengeance, 
Viiitoire ou la mort! From all Patriot artillery. 


□d Enmll; ih>in Feiiitlants Terrace, and all 
aad places of the wide-«pread luaturectioa- 
there roam respousive a red blazing nhitl- 
llae Nntioasls, rnnked in the Qaiden, cannot 
eir mnsketa going off agaijot Foreign mar- 
For there is a sympathy in nnsketA, in 
maasea of men: nay, are not Mankind, in 
ike tuned atringa, and acnnning influite con- 
i and unity ; you smite one string, and all 
ivill begin gotinding,^n soft flphere-melody, 
iuing screech of madness ! Mounted Gea- 
B gallop distraolfid ; are fired on merely as a 
inning ; galloping over the Pont Royal, or 
iTCs not whither. The brain of Paris, hiaiit- 
in the center of it here, baa gone mad ; what 
I taken fire. 

Behold, the fire slackens not; nor does the 
dling-fire slacken from within. Hay they 
cannon, as wesaw; and now, from the other 
!y clntch three pieces more; alas, cannon 
linstock ; nor will the frteel-and-flint answer, 
they try it.* Had it chanced to answer! 
onlookers have their miegi'vingB ; one 
t Patriot onlooker thinks that the Swiss, hod 
Mmmander, would beat. He is a man not 
led to judges the name of him Napoleon 
t«.t And onlookers, and women, stand gaz- 
tbe witty Dr. Moore of Glasgow among 
I the other aide of the River ; cannon msh 
g past them, pause on the Pont Royal ; belch 

X Amis," Til 1, 179-188. 
HlBtoireFarlementaire,"zvli.; I«aCuei,et». 


out their if on entrails tliere, ajgainst the Tuileries ; 
and at exery new belch, the women and onlookers 
" shout and dap hands."* City of all the Devils ! 
In remote streets, men are drinking breakfast-cofifee ; 
following th^r affairs ; with a start now and then, 
as some dull echo reverberates a note louder, ^nd 
here ? Marseillese fall wounded ; but Barbaroux 
has surgeons; Barbaroux is close by, managing, 
though underhand and under cover. Marseillese fall 
death-struck ; bequeath their firelock, specify in 
which pocket are the cartridges ; and die murmur- 
ing, " Revenge me, Revenge thy country I" Brest 
F^d^r^ Officers, galloping in red coats, are shot as 
Swiss. Lo you, the Carrousel has burst into flame ! 
— Paris Pandemonium ! Nay the poor Citjr, as we 
said, is m fever -fit and convulsion * such crisis has 
lasted for the space of some half hour. 

1234* But what, is this that, with Legislative . in- 
signia, ventures through the hubbub and death-hail, 
frtmi the back-entrance of the Manage ? Toward 
the Tuilenes and Swiss, written Order from his 
Majesty to cease firing ! .0 ye hapless Swiss, why 
was there no order not to begin it ? Gladly would 
the Swiss cease firing * but who wiJl bid mad Insur- 
rection cease firing? To Insurrection you cannot 
speak ; neither can it, hydra-headed, hear. The dead 
and dying, by the hundred, lie all around ; are borne 
bleeding through the streets, toward help ; the sight 
of them, like a torch of the Furies, kindling Mad- 
ness. Patriot Paris roars; as the bear bereaved of 

* Moore, "Journal during a Residence in France," 
(DubUtt* 1798). i. 26. 


herwhelpa. On, ye Patriots: Vengeance! Victory 
or death ! There are men seen, who rush on, armed 
only with walking-sticks !* Terror and Fury rule 
the hour. 

1235. The Swiss, pressed on from without, para- 
lyzed from within, have ceased to shoot ; but not to 
be shot. What shall they do? Desperate is the 
moment. Shelter or instant death : yet How, Where ? 
One party flies out by the Rue de I'Echelle ; is de- 
stroyed utterly, " en entier." A second, by the oUier 
side, throws itself into the Garden; " hurrying across 
a keen fusillade ;" rushes suppliant into the National 
Assembly ; finds pity and refuge in the back benches 
there. The third, and largest, darts out in column, 
300 strong, toward the Champs Elys^es : ** Ah,, 
could we but reach Courbevoye, where other Swiss 
are !" Woe ! see, in such fusillade the column ** sooia 
breaks itself by diversity of opinion," into distracted 
segments, this way and that ; — to escape in holes, lo 
die fighting from street to street. The firing and 
murdering will not cease; not yet for long. The 
red Porters of Hotels are shot at, be they Suisse by 
nature, or Suisse only in name. The very Firemen, 
who pump and labor on that smoking Carrousel, are 
shot at : why should the Carrousel not bum ? Some 
Swiss take refuge in private houses ; find that mercy 
too does still dwell in the heart of man. The brave 
Marseillese are merciful, late so wroth ; and labor to 
save. Journalist Gorsas pleads hard with infuriated 

* **Hl8toire Parlementalre," ubi suprfi. * Rapport du 
Capitalne des Canaoniers, Rapport du Commandant," eto. 
(Il)id.,xvii. a00-3l8j. 


gtottpd. Clemence, the Wine-merchant, stumbles 
forward to the Bar of the Assembly, a rescued Swiss 
hi his hand ; tells p&ssionately how he rescued him 
"With pain and peril, how he will henceforth support 
him, being childless himself ; and falls a-swoon round 
the poor Swiss's neck : amid plaudits. But the most 
are butchered, and even mangled. Fifty (some say 
Four-score) were marched as prisoners, by National 
Guards, to the Hotel-de-Ville : the ferocious people 
bursts through on them, in the Place-de-Gr^ve ; 
massacres them to the last man. ** O Peuple, envy 
of the universe I" Peuple, in mad Gaelic efferves- 
cence f 

1238. Surely few things in the history of carnage 
are painfnler. What ineffaceable red streak, flicker- 
ing so sad in the memory, is that, of this poor column 
Of red Swiss " breaking itself in the confusion of 
opinions;" dispersing, into blackness and death! 
Honor to you, brave men ; honorable pity, through 
long times ! Not martyrs were ye ; and yet almost 
more. He was no King of yours, this Louis ; and 
he forsook you like a King of shreds and patches ; 
ye irere but sold to him for some poor sixpence a 
day ; yet would ye work for your wages, keep your 
plighted word. The work now was to die ; and ye 
did it. Honor to you, O Kinsmen ; and may the old 
Deutsch Biederkeit and Tapferkeit, and Valor which 
is Worth and Truth, be they Swiss, be they Saxon, 
iail in no age I Not bastards ; true-born were these 
men : sons of the men of Sempach, of Murten, who 
knelt, but not to thee, O Burgundy! — Let the traveler, 
OS he passes through Lucerne, turn aside to look a 






little at their mdntimental Lion ; not for ThorwaH* 
sen's sake alone. Hewn out of liv^ing rock, the Fig- 
ure rests there, by the still Lake-waters, in lullaby 
of distant-tinkling rance-des-vaches, the granite 
Mountains dumbly keeping watch all round ; and, 
though inanimate, speakSi 





1237. Thus is the 10th of August won and losii. 
Patriotism reckons its slain by the thousand on 
thousand, so deadly was the Swiss fire itom. these 
windows ; but will finally reduce them to some 
Twelve-hundred. No Child^s-play was i t ; — nor is it ! 
Till two in the afternoon the massacring, the break- 
ing and the burning has not ended; nor t^e loose 
Bedlam shut itself again. 

1238. How deluges of frantic Sanwulottism roared. 
through all passages of this Tuileries, ruthless in 
vengeance ; how the Valets were butchered, hewn 
down ; and Dame Campan saw the Marseillese saber 
flash over her head, but the Black-browed said, 
"Va-t-en (Get thee gone)," and flung her firom him 
unstruck;* how in the cellars wine-bottles were 
broken, wine-butts were staved-in and drunk ; and 
upward to the very garrets, all windows tumbled 
out their precious royal furnitures ; and, with gold 
mirrors, velvet curtains, down of ript jfeather-beds, 
and dead bodies of men, the Tuileries was like no 

* Campan, ii. c 21. 



Garden of the Earth : — all this let him who has a taste 
for it see amply in Mereier, in acrid Montgaillard) or 
Beauliea of the ^* Deux Amis." A hundred and 
eighty bodies of Swiss lie piled there j naked, nnrer 
nioved till the second day. Patriotism has torn their 
red coats into snips ; and marches with them at the 
Pikers point: the ghastly bare corpses lie there, under 
the sun and under the stars ; the curious of both sexes 
crowding to look. Whichletnotusdo. Above a hun- 
dred carts, heaped with Dead, fare toward the Ceme- 
tery of Sainte-Madeleine ; bewailed, bewept ; for all 
had kindred, all had mothers, if not here, then there. 
It is one of those Carnage-fields, such as you read of 
by the name " Glorious Victory," brought home in 
this case to one's own door. 

1239. But the black-browed. Harseillese have 
struck down the tyrant of the Chateau. He is struck 
down ; low, and hardly again to rise. What a mo- 
ment for an august Legislative was that when the 
Hereditary Representative entered, under such cir- 
cumstances ; and the Grenadier, carrying the little 
Prince Royal out of the press, set him down on the As- 
sembly-table I A moment, — which one had to smooth- 
off with oratory ; waiting what the next would bring ! 
Louis said few words : "He was come hither to pre- 
vent a great crime ; he believed himself safer nowhere 
than here." President Vergniaud answered briefly, 
in vague oratory as we say, about "defense of Con- 
stituted Authorities," about dying at our post.* And 
so King Louis sat him down ; first here, then there : for 

* Moniteur, Stance du 10 Aout 1790. 


ifflcult^ arose, tbe Coiutittition not pennittiag us 
debate while tbe King is present : fiualljr be set* 
I himoeU' ivilh his family iathe"IiageoftbeLag9- 
phe," in the Reporter's Box of a Journalist; *liich 
leyond the enchanted CkHutitiitional Circuit, sep< 
ted from it by a rail. To sucb Lodge of the 
(ogtaplie, measnring some ten feet square, With a 
ill closet at the enttaoce at it behindi is tbe King 
iToad France now limited . here cun he and bis sit 
t, nnder tbe eyea of tbe irrorld, or retire into tbeir 
let at intervals; for tbe space of sikteeii bouia. 
:b qaite peculiar moment has tJie Legislative 

340. But also nbat a moment wbb that other, few 
lutes later, when tbe three Marseillese cannon 
it off and tbe Swiss rolling-fire and universal 
nder, like tbe crack of Doom, began to rattle) 
lorable Members start to their feet; stray bullets 
^□g epicedium even here, shivering-in with win- 
f-gloBB and Jingle. "No, this is our post ; let na 
here !" They sit therefore^ like atone Legisla- 
k Bnt may not tbe Ijogt of tbe Logograpbe be 
«d ftom behind? Tear down tbe ruiling that 
idea it from tiie enchanted Constitutional Cir- 
A Uabere tear and tug; hiaMi^eaty bimself aid- 
from within : tbe raiiii^ gives way ; M^eaty and 
islative are nnited in place, unknown Iteetiny 
eriog over both. 

241. Rattle, and again rattle, went the thunder; 
bcentbless wide-eyed messenger rushing iu after 
Cher: King's ocdet t« tbe Swiss went out. It was 
arl'ul tbundet ; but as w« know, iteudad. Breath- 


lefis messengers) fugitive Swiss, dencmciatoty Fa* 
tiiots, tn^ldation; finally ttipudiation ! — Before four 
o'clock mucti had come and gone. 

1242. The isTew Municipals have come and gone ; 
vrith three Flags, Libert^, JEgalit6, Patrie, and the 
clang of vivats. Veifgniaud, he whoaS President few 
hours ago talked of dying for Constituted Authori* 
ties, has moved, as Committee Reporter, that the 
Hereditary Kepresentative be euspended j that a Na- 
TiONAi* CoifVBifTioN do forthwith assemble to say 
what farther ! An able Keport ; which the President 
must have had ready in his pocket ? A President, 
in such cases, must have much ready, and yet not 
ready ; and Janus*like look before and after. 

1243. £ing Louis listens to all ; retires about mid- 
night **to three little rooms on the upper floor j" till 
the Luxembouiig be prepared for him, and "the safe- 
guard of the Nation.*' Safer if Brunswick were once 
here I Or, alas, not so safe ? Ye hapless discrowned 
heads I Crowds came, next morning, to catch a 
glimpse of them, in their three upper rooms* Mont* 
gaillard says the august Captives wore an air of 
cheerfulness, even of gayety ; that the Queen and 
Princess Lamballe, who had Joined her overnight, 
looked out of the. opened window, "shook powder 
from her hair on the people below, and laughed.*'* 
He is an acrid distorted man. 

1244. For the rest, one may guess that the Legisla- 
tive, above all that the New Municipality continues 
busy. Messengers, Municipal or Legislatives, and 

swift dispatches rush off to nil oomexs of France ; full 
^ MontgaUlard* U. 18fr-l07. 


wph, blended with indignant wail, for Twelve^ 
id have IMlen. France sends up its blended 
rcspouaire j the 10th of August shall be aa the 
' Jnlf, ouljr bloodier and greater. The Court 
aspired? Poor Court: the Court has been 
shed; and wUl have both the scath to bear 
sscom. How the statuee of Kings do nowall 
Bronze Henri himselti though he wore a cook' 
ce, jingles down firom. the Font Keuf, where 
Boats in danger. Much more does Lonls Fonr* 

from the Place Vendome, Jingle down; and 
reaks in falling. The curious can remark, 
L on his horse's shoe : "13 AoQt, 1682 ;" a. Ceu- 
d a day. 

The 10th of August was Friday. The week 
lone, when onr old Patriot Ministry is re- 
what of it can be got ; strict Roland, Gene- 
iTi^; add heavy Mouge the Mathematician, 
stone-hewerj and, for Minister of Jnstlce, — 
, "led hither," as himself says, in one of bis 
3 ^nres, "through the breach of Patriot can- 

These, under Legislative CominitteeB, must 
i wreck as they can : Confiisedly enough ; with 
Legislative water-logged, with a new Municl- 
!0 brisk. Bat National Convention will get 
gether; andfften,' Without delay, however, 
w Jury-Court and Criminal Tribunal be set 
aris, to try the crimes and conspiracies of the 

High Court of Orl(!anB is distant, slow ; the 
[■ the Twelve-hundred Patriots, whatever be- 
' other blood, shall be inquired after. Trem- 
Crimlnals and Conspiratorsj the Minister '\r 


Justice is Banton! Robespierre too, after the vic- 
tdry, sits in the New Municipality ; insurrectionary 
^'improvised Municipality," which calls itself Council 
General of the Commune* 

1246. For three days now, Louis and his Family 
have heard the Legislative Debates in the Lodge of 
the Logographe ; and retired nightly to their small 
upper rooms. The Luxembourg and safeguard of the 
Nation could not be got ready : nay, it seems the 
Luxembourg has too many cellars and issues; no 
Municipality can undertake to watch it. The compact 
Prison of the Temple, not so elegant indeed, were much 
safer. To the Temple, therefore! On Monday, 13th day 
of August, 1792, in Mayor Potion' s carriage, Louis and 
his sad suspended Household fare thither ; all Paris out 
to look at them. As they pass through the Place Ven- 
dome, Louis Fourteenth's Statue lies broken on the 
gifound. Potion is afraid the Queen's looks may be 
thought scornful, and produce provocation ; she casts 
down her eyes, and does not look at all. The "press 
is prodigious,'' but quiet: here and there, it shouts 
Vive la Nation: but for most part gazes in silence. 
French Royalty vanishes within the gates of the 
Temple; these old peaked Towers, like peaked ex- 
tinguisher or Bonsoir, do cover it up : — from which 
same Towers, poor Jacques Molay and his Templars 
were burnt out, by French Royalty, five centuries 
since. Such are the turns of Fate below. Foreign 
Ambassadors, English Lord Gower have all de- 
manded passports; are driving Indignantly toward 
their respective homes. 

1247. So, then, the Constitution is over? Forever 


ay! Gonei3thst,woiideroftheUQlverae;PiKt 
1 Parliament, water-logged, waits only till the 
tioncome; aadnilt tlien siuk to endless depth& 
L gaeS3tlieaileDt rageof Old-Conatituenta, Con- 
■u-buildere,estinct Feuillants, luen who tiiougbt 
latltatiou wonid march I Lafayette rises to the 
B of the Bituation ; at the head of liis Army. 
tiveCommissionersare posting toward himand 
le Northern Frontier, to eongratulate and pero- 
i orders the MDnicipallty of Sedan to arrest 
ommissionera, and keep ihem strictly in ward 
;]s, till they soy farther. The Sedan Muuici- 


The Sedan Municipals obey ; but the Sol- 
' the Lafayette Army? The Soldiers of the 
Xe Army have, as all Soldiers have, a kind of 
ling that they themselves are Sanscnlottcs In 
lla ; that the victory of Ihe 10th of August is 
ictory for them. They will not rise and fol- 
ilayette to Paris; they will riae and send him 
1 On the leth, which is but next Saturday, 
tte, with Bome two or three indignant Staff- 
. one of whom is Old-Constitnent Alexander 
leth, having first pnt his Lines in what order 
Id,— rides swiftly over the marches toward 
i. Hides, alas, swiftly into the claws of Ans- 

Hc, long wavering, trembling on the verge 
Horizon, has set, in OlmUtz Dungeons; this 
' knows him no more. Adieu, thou Hero of 
orlda ; thinnest, but compact honor-worthy 

Through long >^ugh night of captivity, 
1 other tumults, triumphs and cbanses, thou 


vilt swing well, "faat^anchored to the WaGhington 
Formula ;" and be the Hero and Perl^t chu 
were it only of one idea. The Sedan Muii 
Tejtent aiid protest; tlie Soldiers shont Vive 
tion. Bnraonriez Polymetis, from his Ca 
Mnulde, bees himself mnde Commander-io-Chi 
1249 And, O BruDBwick ! what Bort of "m 
execution ' will Paris merit now? Forward, y 
dnUed eiterminatory men; with jour an 
wagons, and camp-kettles jingling. Forwai 
chivalrous King of Frussia ; fanfarouadiug 
grants and war-god Broglie, "for some consolai 
mankind," which verily is not without need ot 




0. Ye have ronsed her, then, ye Emigrants and 
lespots of Ihe world ; Frmice is roused ! Long 
ye been lecturing and tutoring tliis poor Na- 
like cmel uncalled for pedagogues, shaking 
ler your fcrulas of Sre and steel ; it is long tjiat 
ve pricked and filliped and affrighted her, there 
! Bat helpless in her dead ceremenU of a Consti- 

1, you gathering on her from all lands, with 
armaments and plots, yonr invadixigs and tmc- 
bnllyingB ; — and lo now, ye have pricked her 
i quick, and she is up, and her blood is up. The 
cerements are rent into pobwebs, and she fronts 
n that terrible strength of Nature, which no 
has measured, which goes donn to Madness and 
et: see now how ye will deal with her. 

J. This month of September, 1792, which has 
ae one of the memorable months of History, 
Dts itself under two most diverse aspect^ 


all of black on the on6 sidj, all of bright 
on the other. Whatsoever is cruel in the panio 
frenzy of 25,000,000 men, whatsoever is great in 
tne simaltaneoos death-defiance of 25,000,000 men, 
stand here in abrupt contrast, near by one another. 
As indeed is usual when a man, how much more 
when a Nation of men, is hurled suddenly beyond 
the limits. For Nature, as green as she looks, rests 
everywhere on dread foundations were we farther 
down ; and Pan, to whose music the Nymphs danoe> 
has a cry in him that can drive all men distracted. 

1252. Very frightful it is when a Nation, rending 
asunder its Constitutions and Regulations which 
were grown dead cerements for it, becomes transcen- 
dental; and must now seek its wild way through 
the N^w, Chaotic, — where Force is not distinguished 
into Bidden and Forbidden, but Crime and Virtue 
welter unseparated, — in that domain of what is called 
the Passions; of what we call the Miracles and the 
Portents! It is thus that, for some three years to 
come, we are to contemplate France, in this final 
Third Part of our History. Sansculottism reigning 
in all its grandeur and in allitshideousness ; the Gos- 
pel (God^s-message) of Man^s Rights, Man^s mights 
or strengths, once more preached irrefragably 
abroad; along with this, and still louder for the 
time, the fearfulest De\il's Message of Man's weak- 
nesses and sins ; — and all on such a scale, and under 
such aspect : cloudy "death -birth of a world :" huge 
smoke-cloud, streaked with rays as of heaven on one 
side ; girt on the other as with hell-fire ! History 
tells \is many things: but for the last thousand 


years and more, what thing has she told us of a sort 
like this? Which therefore let us two, O Reader, 
dwell on willingly, for a little; and from its endless 
siKui^cance endeavor to extract what may, in present 
circamstances, be adapted for us. 

1253. It is untbrtuuate, though very natural, that 
the history of this Period has so generally been writ- 
ten in hysterics. Exa«^geration abounds, execration, 
wailing ; and, on the whole, darkness. But thus too, 
when foul old Rome had to be swept from the Earth, 
and those Northmen, and other horrid sons of Na- 
ture, came in, "swallowing formulas," as the French 
now do, foul old Rome screamed execratively her 
loudest : so that the true shape of many things is lost 
for us. Attila's Huns had arms of such length that 
they could lift a stone without stooping. Into the 
body of the poor Tartars execrative Roman History 
intercalated an alphabetic letter; and so they continue 
Tartars, of fell Tartarean nature, to this day. Here, in 
like manner, search as we will iu these multiform in- 
numerable French Records, darkness too frequently 
covers, or sheer distraction bewilders. One finds it 
difficult to imagine that the Sun shone in this Sep- 
tember month, as he does in others. Nevertheless it 
is an indisputable fact that the San did shine; and 
there was weather and work-^nay as to that, very 
bad weather for harvest-work! An unlucky Editor 
may do his utmost ; and after all require allowances. 

1254. He had been a wise Frenchman, who, look- 
ing close at hand on this waste aspect of France all 
stirring and whirling, in ways new, untried, had 
been able to discern where the cardinal movement 


lay; which tendency it was that had the rule and pri- 
mary direction of it then ! Bnt at forty-four years' 
distance, it is diflferent. To all men now, two cardi- 
nal movements or grand tendencies, in the Septem- 
ber whirl, have become discernible enough ; that 
stormful afluence toward the Frontiers ; that frantic 
crowding toward Town-houses and Council-halls in 
the interior. Wild France dashes, in desperate 
death-defiance, toward the Frontiers, to defend it- 
self from foreign Despots ; crowds toward Town-hall 
and Election Committee-rooms, to defend itself from 
domestic Aristocrats. Let the Reader conceive well 
these two cardinal movements ; and what side-cur- 
rents and endless vortexes might depend on these. 
He shall judge too, whether, in such sudden wreck- 
age of all old Authorities, such a pair of cardinal 
movements, half-frantic in themselves, could be of 
Soft nature ? As in dry Sahara, when the winds 
waken, and lift and winnow the immensity of sand! 
The air itself (Travelers say) is a dim sand-air ; and 
dim looming through it, the wonderfulest uncertain 
colonnaded of Sand-Pillars rush whirling from this 
side and from that, like so many mad Spinning-Der- 
vishes, of a hundred feet in stature; and dance their 
huge Desert-waltz there! — 

1255, Nevertheless, in all human movements, were 
they but a day old, there is order, or the beginning 
of order. Consider two things in this Sahara- waltz 
of the French 25,000,000 ; or rather one thing and one 
hope of a thing ; the Commune (Municipality) of Paris 
which is already here; The National Convention, 
which shall in a few weeks be here. The Insurrec- 


Commime, which, improvising Iteelf on Hie 
le 10th of August, worked this ever-raeinor- 
iverance by eiplosion, must needs rule over 
the Convention meet This Commime, which 
ly well call a spontaneous or "improvised" 
le, is, for the present, sovereign of France- 
islative, deriving its anthoritj from the Old, 

it now have anthoritj when the Old is ex- 
bj insuTrection ? As a floating piece of 
ertain things, persons and interests may still 
a it: volnnteer defenders, riflemen ot pike- 
gre^i uniform, or red nightcap (of bonnet 
lefile befoK it daily, just on the wing toward 
.ck; with the brandishing of arms; always 
ne touch of Leonidas-eloqaence, oft«n with a 
uing that threatens to out-Herod Herod, the 
s, "especially the ladies, never done with ap- 
i."* Addresses of this or the like sort can 
ived and answered in the bearing of all 

The Salle de Manage is still useful as a 
proclamation. For which use, indeed, it now 
serves. Vei^niaud delivers spirit-stirring 
; bat always with a prophetic sense only, 

toward the coming Convention. "Let onr 

perish," crys Vergniand-, "but let France 
" whereupon they all start to their feet, 
! responsive r "Yea, yes, pfirisse notre mfira- 
irru qne la France soit libre l"t Disft^cked 
adjures Heaven that at least we may "have 
th Kings ;" and fast as powder nnder spark, 
■e'8" Journal.' i. B5. 

evil. «n. 


we all blaze-up once more, and with waved hats 
shout and swear: "Yes, nous le jurons; plus de 
rois !"* All which, as a method of proclamation, is 
very convenient. 

1256. For the rest, that our busy Brissots, rigorous 
Rolands, men who once had authority, and now have 
less and less ; men who love law, and will have even 
an Explosion explode itself as far as possible according 
to rule, do find this state of matters most unofficial* 
unsatisfiactory, — ^is not to be denied. Complaints are 
made ; attempts are made : but without effect. The 
attempts even recoil ; and must be desisted from, for 
fear of worse : the scepter has departed from this 
Legislative once and always. A poor Legislative so 
hard was fate, had let itself be hand-gyved, nailed to 
the rock like an Andromeda, and could only wail 
there to the Earth and Heavens; miraculously a 
winged Perseus (or Improvised Commune) has 
drawn out of the void Blue, and cut her loose : but 
whether now is it she, with her softness and musical 
spefltph, or is it he, with his hardness and sharp fal- 
chion and aegis, that shall have casting-vote ? Melo- 
dious agreement of vote ; this were the rule I But if 
otherwise, and votes diverge, then surely Androme- 
da's part is to weep, — if possible, tears of gratitude 

1257. Be content, O France, with this Improvised 
Commune, such as it is ! It has the implements, and 
has the hands: the time is not long. On Sunday 
the 26th of August, our Primary Assemblies shall 
meet, begin electing of Electors ; on Sunday the 2d 

 Ibid., xvii. 437. 


ember (maj the day prove lack; !) tbe Elec- 
lall begin electing Deputies; and so an aU- 
; Natioii.ll Convention wilt come togtftljer. 
re d'^irgcat, or ilistiuction of Active iinii Pas- 
ow insults tlie French Piitriot : but there is 
$al euSragc. unlimited liberty to clioose. 
Dstituents, Freaent-Legislators, all France is 
!. Nay it may he said, tlie flower ol" all the 
36 (de I'Univera) is eligible ; for in these 
lys we, by act of Assembly, "naturalize" the 
oreign Friends of Humanity : Priestley, burnt 
ua in Btrmingbam ; Klopatock, a genius of 
itries; Jeremy Beutham, useful Jurisconsult; 
aished Paine, the rebellions Heedleman ; — 
r whom may be chosen. As is most fit ; for a 
tion of this kind. In a word, 745 uushackled 
;ns, admired of tbe universe, shall replace 
ipless impotency of a Legislattve,~-out of 
it is likely, tbe best Members, and the Mountain 
, may be reelected. Roland is getting ready 
le dea Cent Suisses, as preliminary reudeivoua 
n; iu that void Palace of the Tnileiies, now 
d National, and not a Palace, hut a Caravan- 
As for the Spontaneous Commune, one may 
t there never was on Earth a stranger Town- 
. Administration, not of a great City, but of 
Kingdom in a state of revolt and freuzy, this 
ask that has fallen to it. Enrolling, provi- 
judging; devising, deciding, doing, endeav- 
I do: one wonders the human brain did not 
y nnder aU this, and reel. But happily bn- 


man brains have such a talent of taking up simply 
what they can carry, and ignoring all the rest , leav- 
ing all the rest, as if it were not there ! Whereby 
somewhat is verily shifted for ; and much shifts for 
itself. This Improvised Commune walks along, 
nothing doubting ; promptly making front, without 
fear or flurry, at what moment soever, to the wants 
of the moment. Were the world on fire, one impro- 
vised tricolor Municipal has but one life to lose. 
They are the elixir and chosen-men of Sansculottic 
Patriotism; promoted to the forlorn -h ope ; unspeak- 
able victory or a high gallows, this is their meed. 
They sit there, in the Town-hall, these astonishing 
tricolor Municipals : in Council General ; in Commit- 
tee of Watchfulness (^de Surveillance, which will ever 
become de Salut Public, of Public Salvation), or 
what other Committees and Subcommittees are need- 
ful ; — managing infinite Correspondence ; passing in- 
finite Decrees: one hears of a Decree being "the 
ninety-eight of the day." Ready ! is the word. They 
carry loaded pistols in their pocket : also some impro- 
vised luncheon by way of meal. Or indeed, by and 
by, traiteurs contract for the supply of repasts, to be 
eaten on the spot, — too lavishly, as it was afterward 
grumbled. Thus they : girt in their tricolor sashes ; 
Municipal note-paper in the one hand, fire arms in 
the other. They have their Agents out all over 
France; speaking in town-houses, market-places, 
highways and byways ; agitating, urging to arm ; all 
hearts tingling to hear. Great is the fire of Anti- 
aristocrat eloquence: nay some, as BiDliopolic Mo- 
moro, seem to hint afar off at something which smells 


grarian Law, and a ani^ry of the over-swoln 
psical atrong-boi itaelf; — whereat indeed the 
i Bookseller rnns the risk of being haogeiJ, and 
Constituent Bnzot has to smuggle him off.* 
259. Governing Peisons, were t&ey never so in- 
liQcant intrinsically, have for most part plenty of 
noir-writers ; and the cnrious, in aftcr-timea. can 
■a minutely their goings out and comings in : 
,ch, as men always lore to know their fellow-men 
ingular situations, is a comfort, of ita kind. Not 
rith these Govemiug Persons, now in the Town- 
l ! And yet what most original fellow-man, of 
Groveming sort, high-chancellor, king, kaiser, sec- 
iry of the home or the foreign department^ ever 
ired such a phasis aa Clerk Tallien, Procurenr 
luel, fntnre Procnrear Chaumette, here in this 
d-walta of tie Twenty-five millions now do? O 
ther mortals, — thou Advocate Panis, friend of 
iton, kinsman of Santerre ; Engraver Sergent ; 
e called Agate Seigent ; ^hon Hngneniu, with the 
in in thy heart! Horace says, theywantned 
sacred memoir-writer (sacro vate) : and we know 
n not. Men bragged of Augast and ita doings, 
lishing them in high places; bnt of thisSeptem- 
none now or afterwards would br^. The Sep- 
ber world remains dark, fuliginous, as Lapland 
!h-midnight; — from which, indeed, very strange 
MS will evolve themselves. 

!60. Undeistand this, however : tbatincormptible 
lespierre is not wanting, now when the brant of 
;Ie is past; in a stealthy way the sea-green man 
" Me'tnoirea de Bu^ot " (Paris, 1823), p. 8& 


sits there, hig feline eyes excellent in the twilight. 
Also understand this other, a single fact worth many : 
that Marat is not only there, hut has a seat of honor 
assigned him, a tribune particuli^re. How changed 
for Marat ; lifted from his dark cellar into this lu* 
minous "peculiar tribune!" All dogs have their 
day ; even rabid dogs. Sorrowful, incurable Philoc 
tetes Marat {Without whom Troy cannot be taken! 
Hither, as a main element of the Governiog Power, 
has Marat been raised. Royalist types, for we have 
"suppressed" innumerable Durosoys, Eoyous, and 
even clapt them in prison, — Royalist types replace 
the worn types often snatched from a People's-Friend 
in old ill days. In our " peculiar tribune " we write 
and redact: Placards, of due monitory terror; Amis- 
du-Peuple (now under the name of Journal de ]a 
R^publique) ; and sit obeyed of men. " Marat," says 
one, " is the conscience of the Hotel-de-Ville." Keeper, 
as some call it, of the Sovereign's Conscience ; which 
surely in such hands will not lie hid in a napkin ! 

1261. Two great movements, as we said, agitate 
this distracted National mind: a, rushing against 
domestic Traitors, a rushing against foreign Despots. 
Mad movements both, restrainable by no known rule ; 
strongest passions of human nature driving them on: 
love, hatred, vengeful sorrow, braggart Nationality 
also vengeful, — and pale Panic over all ! Twelve- 
hundred slain Patriots, do they not, from their dark 
catacombs there, in Death's dumb-show, plead (O ye 
Legislators) for vengeance! Such was the destruc- 
tive rage of these Aristocrats on the ever-memorable 
10th. Nay, apart from vengeance, and with an eye 


'ablic Salvation only, are there not still, in this 

9 (in round'nurabers) "30,000 AristocratB," of 
most malignant humor ; driven no'w to tbeir last 
op-card ?— Be patient, ye Patriots : onr new 
li Court, " Tribunal of the Seventeenthj" sits; 
[Section has sent Four Jnrymen; and Daaton, 
nguishinft improper judges, improper practices 
resoever found, is "the same manyou hare known 
le Cordeliers." With such ft Minister of Justice, 
!• not Justice be done? — Let it he swift, then, 
Tera universal Patriotism; swift and sure! — 
!6S. One would hope, this Tribunal of the Seven- 
th is swifter than most. Already on the Slst, 
le onr Court is but four days old, Colleuot d'An- 
lont, " the Royalistenlister " (crimp embaucheur), 

by torchlight. For, lo, the great Guillotine, 
drous to behold, now stands there; the Doctor's 
: has become Oak and Iron ; the hnge cyclopean 
" falls in its grooves like the ram of the Hle-en- 
," swiftly snuffing-out the light of men ! " Mais 
1, Gualches, what have you invented?" ThUf — 
; old Laport, Intendent of the Civil List, follows 
:; qnietly, the mild old man. Then Durosoy, 
alisls Placarder, " cashier of all the Anti-revolu- 
Lats of the interior;" he went rejoicing ; said that 
lyalist like him ought to die, of all days, on this 

the 25th or St. Louis's Day. All these have 
I tried, cast, — tiie Galleries sliontiag approval- 
handed over to the Realized Idea, within a week, 
des those whom we have aeqiiitted, the Galleries 
muring, and have dismissed ; or even have per- 
Uy guarded back to Prison, as the Galleries took 


to howling, and even to menacing and elbowing.* 
Languid this Tribunal Is not. 

1263. Nor does the other nwjvement slacken ; the 
rushing against foreign Despots. Strong forces shall 
meet in death-grip j drilled Europe ggainst mad un- 
drilled France; and singular conclusions will be tried. 
—Conceive therej'ore, in some faint degree, the tumult 
that whirls in this France, in this Paris I Placards 
from Section, from Commune, from Legislative, from 
the individual Patriot, flame monitory on all walls* 
Flags of danger to Fatherland wave at the Hotel-de- 
Ville ; on the Pont-Neuf — over the prostrate Statues 
of Kings. There is universal enlisting, urging to 
enlist ; there is tearful-boastful leave-taking ; irregu- 
lar marching on the Great North-eastern Road. Max- 
seillese sing their wild To armSy in chorus ; which 
now all men, all women and children have learnt, 
and sing chorally, in Theaters, Boulevards, Streets ; 
and the heart burns in every bosom : Aux armes 1 
«Marchons! — Or think how your Aristocrats are skulk- 
ing into covert ; how Bertrand-Moleville lies hidden 
in some garret " in Aubry-le-boucher Street, with a 
poor surgeon who had known me.'' Dame de Stael 
has secreted her Narbonne, not knowing what in the 
world to make of him. The Barriers are sometimes 
open, oftenest shut ; no passports to be had ; Town- 
hall Emissaries, with the eyes and claws of falcons, 
flitting watchful on all points of your horizon ! In 
two words : Tribunal of the Seventeenth, busy under 
howling Gralleries; Prussian Brunswick, "over a 
space of forty miles," with his war-tumbrils, and 

* Moore's "Journal,*' i. 169-168 


thnndcM, and BrUieaO' "nxtf-aix Uioa> 
right haods, — ctnoing, comuig ! 
Heavens, m tbege lottec days of Angogt 
oe ! Durosoy waa not yet gnillotiaed when 
il come that the PrnasiEuiB were harrying and 
; about Metz ; in some four da^B moi«, (me 
at Lougwi, our &xat Blrong-place on the bor- 
allen " ia fifteen honn." Quitk theiefi»e, 
>roTiBed Mnnidpals ; qvack, and etec qaieker I 
ipcovised Mnnidpnb make front to this ^ao. 
ent urges itself; and clothing, and arming. 
r ofOcen have now " weol epaulets ; " for it 
:eign of Equality, and also of Neceaaitf. 
do men now tnoaneur and tir one anotheti 
[citizen) were suitablei ; we even gay Hum, as 
e pei^tee of Antiquity did : " so liBve Joni- 

the Improvised Commune BUggest«d ; whidi 

Infinitely better, meantime, eonld we sng- 
ere arms aie to be found. For the present, 
yens chiuit diorally 7b arms ; and hare no 
LTmsare searched for; passionately; there is 
: any musket. Moreover, intrenchments BhaU 
3 roimd Paris : on the slopes of Uontmartie 
and shovel ; tboegh even the simple sospect 
s desperate. They dig ; Tricolor sashes speak 
[ement and weH-speei-ye. Nay Anally " Twelve 
9 of the Legialalive go daily," not to encouT- 
, but to bear a hand, and delve : it was de- 
th acclamatioi). Arms shall either be pro- 
}r else tbe ingennity of men crack itself, and 
'ouloogeon, "Hfstolre de France," II. c. G. 


become fittnit^r. Lean Beaumarchais, thinking to 
^ocrve €lie Pathejriand, and do asta^ke of trade in the 
old way, has conmiisskmed 60,060 stand of good 
asms^out of Holland : would to Heaven, for Father- 
Icmd^s fli^eand his, they were come! Meanwhile 
-failings aire torn up' ; hammered into pikes; challis 
tfaemselveBi^all be wielded together into pikes- The 
very coffins of the dead are raised ; for melting into 
bfills. All Ghurch-b^ls jxxost down into the furnace 
to make^caBiion ; all ChnHsh-^plate intol;he mint to 
•make money. Also, bdbold the fair swan^beTles of 
<3itoyennea that hare alighted in Churches, and sit 
-there with swan^eek,— «ewing tents and regimen- 
taibsl Nor -are Patriotic Grifte wanting, from those 
Ihat have aught l^t; nor stingily given : the fair 
TiHanmes, msliher and daughter. Milliners in the 
Rue St. -Martin, "give a " silver thimble, and a coin of 
fifteen sous (aevenpcnee half-penny)," with other 
similar effects; and offer, at least the mother does, 
to mount ^ard. M«n who have not even a thimble, 
^ve « thimbleful, — ^were it but of invention. One 
Gitoyen has wrought out the scheme of a wooden 
eannon ; which France shall exclusively profit by, in 
the first instance. It is to be made of staves, by the 
coopers; — of almost boundless caliber, but uncertain 
as to strength ! Thus they : hammering, scheming, 
fititching, founding, with all their heart and with all 
their soul. Two bells only are to remain in each 
Parish, — for tocsin and other purposes. 

1266. But mark also, precisely while the Prussian 
bafiteiies were playing their briskest at Longwi in 
the Kort^»eii8t, and our dastardly Lavexgne saw 


lug for it i/at sairender,— 80Qth-we?tiWard, in 
rte, patriarchai La Vendf^e, that sonr ftrment 
t Nonjuring Priests, after long working, is ripe, 

explodes: at ihe wrong momeot for nsl And 
e have "8,000 peasants at ChfttilIon-3ar-S4Tre " 

will not be balloted for aoldiera; will not have 
r Cni«tc8 molested. To whom Boncbamps, La- 
cjaqnelins, and Seigneurs enough of a Koyalist 
,will join themselves; with Stoffleta and Cha- 
ts; with Heroes and ChonanSmuj^ers; and the 
1 wannth of a simple people, blown to flame and 

bv theological and seignorial bellows ! So that 
e shall be flghtin); from behind ditcbes, death- 
tjsburstingoutof thickets and raTinesof rivers; 

burning, feet of the pitiful nomen hurrying ta 
;e with their children on their back, seed-fields 
w, whitened with human bones ; — " 80,000, of all 
, ranks, sexes, flying at once across the Loire," 
1 wail borne far on the winds : and in brief, for - 
8 coming, sncb a snit of scenes as glorious war 
not offered in these late ages, not since onr Albi- 
lee and Crusadings were over, — save indeed some 
ice Palatinate, or BO, we might have to"bnm,'' 
pay of exception. The " 80,000 at ChAtillon" will 
ot dispelled for the moment ; the fire scattered, 
extinguished. To the dints and bruises of ont- 
d battle there is to be added henceforth a dtad- 
intemal gangrene. 

'.61, This rising in La Vendue reports itself at 
is on Wednesday the 2Sth of August: — jnst as 
had got OUT Electors elected ; and, in spite of 
nswick and Longwi, were hoping still to have & 



Kationa] .Cosventlon, if it pleased HeaTen. But in- 
deed otherwise this Wednesday is to be regarded as 
one of the notablest Paris had yet seen* gloomy 
tidings come successively, like Job^s messengers ; are 
met by gloomy answers. Of Sardinia rising to in- 
vade the South-east, and Spain threatening the South, 
we do not speak. But are not the Prussians masters 
of Longwi (treacherously yielded, one would say) ; 
and preparing to besiege Verdum ? Clairfait and his 
Austrians are encompassing Thionville; darkening 
the North. Kot Metzland now, but the Clermontais 
is getting harried : flying hulans and hussars have 
been seen on the Chalons road, almost as far as Sainte* 
Menehould. Heart, ye Patriots ; if ye lose heart, ye 
lose all! 

1268. It is not without a dramatic emotion that 
one reads in the Parliamentary Debates of this Wed- 
nesday evening " past seven o'clock," the scene with 
the military fugitives from Longwi. Wayworn, 
dusty, disheartened, these poor men enter the Legis- 
lative, about sunset or after; give the most pathetic 
detail of the frightful pass they were in : Prussians 
billowing round by the myriad, volcanically spouting 
fire for fifteen hours : we, scattered sparse on the ram- 
parts,hardly a cannoneer to two guns ; our dastard 
Commandant Lavergne nowhere showing face ; the 
priming would not catch ; there was no powder in 
the bombs, — what could we do ? " Mourir (Die) !" 
answer prompt voices;* and the dusty fugitives must 
shrink elsewhither for comfort. — Yes, Mourir, that is 
now the word. Be Longwi a proverb and a hissing 

* " Hifltoii© Parlementalre," xvil. 148. 


among Fi«ndi strong^placeB : let it (m^ tlieLogiBlfK 
tive) be oblitevsrtMd ratihCT^ fsom tbo shamed face of. 
the Eartii ; — aacl so there baa gone' forth Beoee, that 
Longwi skally were the Fntssiazus oaeejoot of it^ .^' he 
razed," and eziet onlj as plowed groimd. 

1169'. Nor are the JaoobuM milder; as how oonld 
they, the flower of Patriotnm ? Poor Dame Lairezgne, 
wife of the poor Cemmandantr took her parasol one 
evening, and escorted l^ her Father came over to 
the HaU of the mighty Mother ; and '^ reads a memoir 
tendii^ to Jnetify the Commandant of Longwi.'' 
Lafarge, President, makes aacMwer; *^ GItoyeniiev Uie 
uation will judge Lavergne; the Jacobins are bonnd 
to tell him the tmlh. Be would hare «ided his 
course there (termini sa carridre),if he had loved the 
honor of his coontry.'^* 



1270. But better than razing of Longwi, or rebuk- 
ing poor dusty soldiers or soldiers' wives, Danton had 
come over, last night, suid demanded a Decree to 
search for arms, since they were not yielded volun- 
tarily. Let " Domiciliary visits," with rigor of au- 
thority, be made to this end. To search for arms ; 
for horses, — Aristocratism rolls in its carriage, while 
Patriotism cannot trail its cannon. To search gen. 
erally for munitions of war, " in the houses of per- 
sons suspect," — and even, if it seem proper, to seize 

• ** Histoire Parlemcntaire,'* xIjc. 300. 

DANTON, 271 

and imprison the suspect persons themsdves ! In the 
Prisons tfeeirFlots win be hanaleas; inthe^PrisiQiui 
they mi\\. te aiS' hostagss^ for nsytindiiot without use. 
This l>«Byee the ^Bigetic Minister of Jnstiee de?* 
IttahdedlalBt night, 4ind got; and l^is same night it 
is1x) be executed ; It is beii^ executed at the moiment 
when these dust J soldi^s get saluted with Moorir. 
Tiwp4:hon3Bnd stand of arms, as they count, are for* 
i^^.in this way.; and some 460 head of new Pri»- 
eostB ; and, on tibe whole, cmch atea«r and damp is 
stnudc^ thvoQ^ the Aristocrat heart, as. all tmt Pa- 
triotism, and eren Patriotism were it out of this 
agony, might pity. Yes, Messieurs ! if Brunswick 
blast Paris- toashes^he probably will blasttbe Prisons 
of Paris- too : pale Terror, if we have got it; we will 
aieo give i% and the depth of honors that lie in it; 
the same leaky bottom, in these wild waters, beass 
us all. 

1271. One can judge what stir there was now 
among the ''SO.OOa Royalists:" how the Plotters, or 
the accused of Plotting, shrank each closer into his 
lurking-place, — likeBertrand-Moleville,looking eager 
toward Longwi, hoping the weather would keep fair. 
Or how lifaey dressed -themselves in valet's clothes, 
like Karbonne, and ''^t to England as Dr. Bellman's 
-ftuntilus ;** how Dame de StaSl bestirred henself, 
i^leading with Manuel as a Sister m Literature, plead- 
ing even with Clerk TalKen ; a prey to nameless 
^diagrins !* Hoyalist Peltier, the Pamphleteer, gives 
* tonching Narrative (not deficient in height of col- 
oring) of the terrors of that night. From five in iiie 

* DeStaSl, "Oousld6ration8SurlaR«volution,**ii. 67-81. 


Ktn, a great city k Btruck Eoddeiily silent ; ex- 
>i the beating of diuma, for the tTamp of 
ii^feet; and ever and uion the dread thunder 
knocker at some door, a Tricolor ComniisBiODeT 
lis blue Guards {fiZaeJfc-gnardB!} arriving. All 
are vacant, sajs Peltier j beset bj Guards at 
id : all Citizens aie ordeied to be within doois. 
River float sentinel barges, lest we escape by 
the fiairiers beimetically closed. Frightful! 
im shines: serenely westering, in smokeless 
rel-sky , Paris is as if sleeping, as if dead : — 
is holding ita breath, to see what stroke will 
it Poor Peltier ! " Acts of Apostles," and 
ondity of Leadiru^-Articles, aie gone ont, and 
«ome bitter earnest instead; polished satire 
id DOW into course pike-points (hammered out 
■ag); all logic reduced to tliia one primitive 
An eye for an eye, a toolh for a tooth 1 — Pel- 
ilefuUy aware of it, ducks low ; escapes nn- 
1 to England ; to urge there the inky war 
—to have Trial by Jury, in due season, and 
ance by young Whig eloquence, world-cele- 
for a day. 

. Of " 30,000 " naturally gteatmnlfitndes were 
molested : but, as we said, some 400, desig- 
>s " persons suspect," were seized i and an nn- 
ble terror fell on all. Woe to him who ia 
of plotting, of Anti-civism, Royalism, Fenil- 
I ; who, guilty or not guilty, has an enemy in 
tion to call him guilty ! Poor old M, de Ca- 
1 seized ; his young loved Daughter with bim, 
g to quit bim. Why, O Cazotte, wooldstthoD 

VANTON. 173 

qtfit romanchig and " Diable Amonreua:," for such 
reality as this ? Poor old M. de Sombreuil, he of the 
Invalides, is seized ; a man seen askance by Patriot^ 
ism ever since the Bastille days; whom also a fond 
Daughter will not qnit. With young tears hardly 
suppressed, and old wavering weakness rousing itself 
once more, — O my brothers, O my sisters ! 

1273. The famed and named go ; the nameless, if 
they have an accuser. Necklace Lamotte's Husband 
is in these Prisons {she long since squelched on the 
London Pavements) ; but gets delivered. Gross de 
Morande, of the Courrier de TEurope hobbles dis- 
tractedly to and fro there : but they let him hobble 
out ; on right nimble crutches; — ^his hour not being 
yet come. Advocate Maton de la Varenne, very weak 
in health, is snatched off from mother and kin ; Tri- 
color Rossignol (journeyman goldsmith and scoundrel 
lately, a r:ssn man now) remembers an old Pleading 
of Maton 's ! Jourgniac de Saint- M^ard goes ; the 
brisk frank soldier : he was in the mutiny of Nanci, 
in that "effervescent Regiment du Roi," — on the 
wrong side. Saddest of all: Abb6 Sicard goes ; a 
Priest who could not take the Oath, but who could 
teach the Deaf and Dumb : in his Section one man, 
he says, had a grudge at him ; one man, at the fit 
hour, launches an arrest against him ; which hits. In 
the'Arsenal quarter, there are dumb hearts making 
wail, with signs, with wild gestures ; he their mirac- 
ulous healer and speech-bringer is rapt away. 

1274. What with the arrestments on this night of 
the 29th, what with those that have gone on more or 
less, day and night ever since the 10th, one may 


sltat tlie FrigcniB nowwere. C^wdiug and 
fOD ; jostle, hun;, Tehemeuee and textxa \ Of 
w QneMi's Friends, who had followed her to 
mfie, and been commiUed elsewhither to Pri»- 
le, as QoYentende ToaneUe,aieto beletgp: 
«poOT Princeas Ae LamhaUe, ia not kt go ; bat 
a the strong looms of La Force theije, what 
^tide fitrthei'. 

. AmonBsoraaoyhandtedawhomtfaelaDiiched 
hits, who are rolled off to Town-hall or Soc- 
dl, to pieUiniiuHy Honsca of Detentian, and 
in thither as into cattle-pens, we mnst men* 
le olber : Caron de Beaamarehaia, Author of 
m"; Tfrnqnisher of Uanpeou ParleneiitB and 
an bell-dogs ; once nnmbaied among the demi- 
and noir-^? We left him in his ciJiBinttBt 
what dieadfbl decline la this, when we again 
t glimpae ot himi "At midnight" (itwasbnt 
bh of Angoat yet), " the servant, in hia shirt," 
ide-stacing eyc^ euten your lootn : — Monsieiu, 
1 the people ate come to seek yon ; th^ ata 
ing, like to break-in the dooi ! " And tiief 
in &et knocking in a terrible manner (d'nna 
lenible). I fling on my coat, forgetting evtsi 
bistcoat, nothing on my feet but idippeTs ; and 
him "—And A«, alas, answers mere n^atory 
tencea, panic inteijecttona. And throngh the 
rs and crevices, in front or rearward, the duU 
lamps diBcloae only BtreetttilB of hazard coon- 
«8 ; clamorons, bristling with pikes : and yon 
istiacted iTom an ontlet, finding none ;— and 
o tnke refdge in the ciockerj-preas, down stairs ; 

and- stand tljefe^ palpitating in that imperfi^ cos- 
ttime, liglfts dftttcing past your key^hole, tramp of 
feet overhead) and tbe tumult of Sataxi) "for foof 
hours and mordi '' And old ladies, of the quarter^ 
started np (as we hear next morning) ; rang for their 
bonnes and eordiaMrops, with shrill inteijection^^: 
and old gentlemen, in their shirts, " leapt garden-- 
walls;" flying while none pursued; one of whom 
unfortunately broke his leg.* Those 60,000 stand of 
Dutch Arms (Which never arrive), and the bold stroke 
of trade, have turned out so ill!^** 

WJ6. B^uman^iais esca^ttd for this time ; but not 
for the nelLt time, ten days after. On the evening of 
the 29th he is still in that chaos of the Prisons, in 
saddest wrestling condition; unable to get justiee, 
even to get audience ; " Panis scratching his head" 
when fofA speak to him, and making off. Neverthe- 
less let the lover of " Figaro " know that Procureur 
Manuel, a Brother in Literature, found him, and de- 
livered him once more. But how the lean demigod, 
now shorn of his splendor, had to lurk in barns, to 
roam over harrowed fields, panting for life ; and to 
wait under eaves-drops, and sit in darkness '* on the 
Boulevard amid paving-stones and boulders," long- 
ing for one word of any Minister, or Minister's Clerk, 
about those accursed Dutch muskets, and getting 
none,r— with heart fuming in spleen, and terror, and 
suppressed canine-madness; alas, how the swift 
sharp hound, once fit to be Diana's, breaks his old 
teeth now, gnawing mere whinstones ; and must " fiy 

* Beaumarchals* Nnrrative, "Memolres sur les Pris- 
ons," (I»nri8, 1833), i. 17»-1«>. 


""landi" And .Mtumiag from -England, mnat 
itothecoriier,aucllie qniet, tootMees (^oney- 
all thiskttbe lover of "Figaro" fency, and 
r. We here, withont weeping, not mitbout 
, wave the withered tongh fellow-mortal onr 
1, His " Figaro " has returned to the French 
an,j ia, at this day, aometimes named the best 
tiere. And indeed, so long as Man's Lil^ can 
itself only on artificiality and aridity ; each 
volt and Change of Dynasty turning np only 
tratnm of dry-ruhinth, and no soil yet oomiug 
, — may it not be good to protest against sncti 
in many ways, and even intiie" Figaro" way? 



Such are the last days of AngiiBt, 1792; 
oomy, disaatroas and of evil omen. What 
;ome of this poor France ? Dnmonriez rode 
le Camp of Maulde, eastward to Sedan, on 
r last, the 28th of tbe month ; reviewed that 
i Army left forlorn there by Lafayette: the 
soldiers gloomed on him; were heard growl- 
him, " This is one of them, ce b— e M. that 
Tar be dedared."* Unpromising Army! He- 
ow ID, filtering through D^pot after D^pot; 
■nita merely : in want of all ; happy if tbey 
1 much as arms. And Longwi has fallen 

and Brunswick, and the Fruaaian King, with 
lonrlez. "Ma'molreB,"11.38S. 


Mb^jOOO, will beleaguer VerdTm; and daitfkit and 
AiistriAns press deeper in, over the Korthem marches : 
150)000 as fear counts, 80,000 as the returns show, do 
hem us in ; Cimmerian Europe behind them. There 
ifi Castries-and-Broglie chivalry ; Royalist foot " in 
red facing and nankeen trousers f breathing death 
and the gallows.' 

1278. And lo, finally, at Verdun, on Sunday the 2d 
of September, 1792, Brunswick is here. With his 
King and 60,000, glittering over the heights, from 
beyond the winding Meuse Biver, he looks dovm on 
u^ on our " high citadel '' and all our confectionary 
ovens (for rwe are celebrated for confectionary ) ; has 
sent courteous summons, in order to spare the effu- 
sion of blood ! — Resist him to the death ? Every day 
of retardation precious? How, O General Beaure- 
paire (asks the amazed Municipality), shall we resist 
him ? We, the Verdun Municipals, see no resistance 
possible. Has he not 60,000, and artillery without 
end ? Retardation, Patriotism is good ; but so like- 
wise is peaceable baking of pastry, and sleeping in 
whole skin. — Hapless Beaurepaire stretches out his 
hands, and pleads passionately, in the name of coun- 
try, honor, of Heaven and of Earth : to no purpose. 
Tte Municipals have, by law, the power of ordering 
it; — ^with an Army offered by Royalism or Crypto- 
Royalism, such a Law seemed needful : and they or- 
der it, as pacific Pastry-cooks, not as heroic Patriots 
would, — To surrender! Beaurepaire strides home, 
with long steps : his valet, entering the room, sees 
him "writing eagerly," and withdraws. His valet 
{hears then, in few ininuteSt the report of a j^istol : 


e IB Ijing dend; bis eagei writing hod - 
r suicidal farewelL In this miuiiiei- died 
),weptofFrance; buried Jn the PantiKon, 
ibte Pensiot) Lo bis Widow, and for Epi- 
wordB, Se chose Death rathtr than yield to 
e Frassians, deacendicg from the Iteigli'tB, 
le mastera of Verdon. 
1 BO BniSHWick advanoes, fiom stage to 
1 Bball now stay him, — coT«iiBg for^ 
mtry ? Foragers fly tia; the villages of 
asC are baxried ; your Headan forager has 
: SOUS a day:" tbe very EmigrastB, it ia 
.ke Bilver-plate, — by way of revenge. Clsr- 
Lte-Menehonld, Yarennes especially, ye 
le Night of ^mrg, tremble ye ! Procurenr 

tbe Magistracy of Varennes have fled ; 
ace le Eiane of tbe Ems d'Or is to Ow- 
I. le Blanc, a yonng woman fair to look 

bei young iniant, has to live in gi«es. 
I beautiful Bessy Bell of Song, her bower 
tb msbes ; catching permbtnre rheuma- 
rmont may ring the tocsin now, wad illa- 
f I Clermont lies at tbe foot of its Caw 

they name that Mountain), a prey to 
spoiler; its fair women, fkirer than most, 
not of life, ox what is dearer, yet of ail 

per and portable ; for Kecesaity, on three 
day, baH no law. At Sainte-Menehould 
las been expected more than once, — onr 

1 turning out in arms; but was not yet 
iria Williams, "Letters frODi France"(Loa- 

DUmUBJMZ. 179 

seta. Postmaster Drouet he is npt in the woods, hut 
mindkig his Election ; and will sit in the Conven- 
tion) notahle King-takl^ and bold Qld-Dragppn as 
he iff. 

1280. Thus on the North-east all roams and runs ; 
and on a set day, the date of which is irrecoverable 
by History, Brunswick " has engaged to dine in Paris,** 
— the Powers wflling. And at Paris, in the center, 
it is as we saw.; and in La Vendee South-west, it is 
as we saw ; and Sardinia is in the South-east, and 
Spain in the South, and Clairfait with Austria and 
sieged ThiouTille is in the North ; — and all France 
leaps distracted, like the* winnowed Sahara waltzing 
in sand colonnades ! More desperate posture no 
country ever stood in. A country, one would sayi 
which the Majesty of Prussia (if it so pleased him) 
might partition and clip in pieces, like a Poland ; 
flinging the remainder to poor Brother Louis, — ^with 
directions to keep it quiet, or else we will keep it for 

1281. Or perhaps the Upper Powers, minded that 
a new Chapter in Universal History shall begin here 
^d not farther on, may have ordered it all other- 
wise ? In that case, Brunswick will not dine in Paris 
on the set day ; nor, indeed, one knows not when! — • 
verily, amid this wreckage, where poor France seems 
finding itself down to dust and bottomless ruin, 
wholpiows what miraculous salient-point of Deliver- 
ance and New-life may have already come into exist- 
raiee there ; and be already working there, though as 
yet human eye discern it not ! On the night of that 
same 28th of August, the uni^omising Beview-day 

"n, Dumonriez assembles a Conndl of War at 
jings there. He Bpu|ds out the map of this 
waj-district ; Prussians here.Anstriansthere; 
lant both, with broad highway, and litflo 
ice, all the way to Paris ; we scattered, help- 
re andthere; what to advise? The Generals, 
rs to Dumouriez. look blank enough ; know 
1 what to advise, — if it be not retreating, and 
ng till oar recrnits accumul^e ; .till perhaps 
pter of chances turn up some leaf for us ; or 
t all events, be sacked at the latest day pos- 
The many-counseled; who "baa not closed 
'or three nighta," listens with little speech to 
ng, cheerless speeches: merely watching the 
, that he may know him; then wishes theiu 
.-night; — but beckons a certain young Thou- 
he fire of whose looks had pleased him, to 
loment. Thourenot waits; Voil4,says Poly- 
lOiutini; to the map ! That is the Forest of 
:, that long strip of rocky Mountain and wild 
forty miles long ; with but five, or say even 
racticable passes through it; this, for they 
rgotten it, might one not stilf seize, though 
t aits BO nigh ? Once seized ;— the Champagne 
he Hungry (or worse. Champagne Pouillense) 
r side of it ; the fat Three Bishoprics, and 
France on ours; and the Equinox rains not 
lis Argonne " might be the Thennopylieof 

O brisk Dumouriei Polymetia with thy 
; head, may the gods grant it t — f olymetis, 
ouriez, II. 361. 


at any; rate, folds his map toj^etlier, and flings him* 
self on bed ; resolyed to try, on the morrow morning. 
With astucity, with swiftness, with audacity \ One 
had need to be a lion-fox, and have luck on one's 



1283. At Paris, by lying Rumor which proved pro- 
phetic and veridical, the fall of Verdun was known 
some hours before it happened. It is Sunday the 2d 
ot September; handiwork hinders not the specula- 
tions of the mind. Verdun gone (though some 
still deny it); the Prussians in full march, with 
gallows-ropesj with fire and faggot ! Thirty thou- 
sand Aristocrats within our own walls, and but the 
merest quarter-tithe of them yet put in Prison ! Nay 
there goes a word that even these will revolt. Sieur 
Jean Julien, wagoner of Vaugirard,* being set in the 
Pillory last Friday, took all at once to crying, That 
he would be well revenged ere long . that the King's 
Friends in Prison would burst out, force the Temple, 
set the King on horseback, and, joined by the unim- 
prisoned, ride rough-shod over us all. This the un- 
fortunate wagoner of Vaugirard did bawl, at the top 
of his lungs; when snatched off to the Town-hall, 
he persisted in it, still bawling ; yesternight, when 
they guillotined him, he died with the froth of it on 
his lips.t For a man's mind padlocked to the Pil- 

♦Moore^J. 178. 

t •'Histolrc Parlcmentalre,**xvll. 409. 


may go nEid ; and all men's minds may go mad 
believe him," as the fi-enetic will do, " fiecoiMe 

4 So that apparently the knot of tbe crisis and 
gony of France ie cnme? Make front to tbis, 
Impiovieed Commune, etrong Danton, whatso- 
nan is strong] Keaders can judge whether the 
Of Conntrj in Danger flapped soothingly or dia- 
vely on the souls of men that day. 
5. But the Improvised Commune, but strong 
)n is not "wanting, eaeh al1:eT hia kind. Hoge 
rds are getting plaBtered to the walls; at two 
k the storm-bell shall be Bounded, the alarm 
m fired ; all Paris shall rush to the Champ-de- 
aud have itself enrolled. Dnartned, truly, 
indrilled; but desperate, in the strength of 
r. Hasle, ye men ; ye very women, offer to 
t gaard and shoulder the brown mnsket ; weak 
ing-hens, in a state of desperation, will fly at 
inazle of the mastiff; and even conquer him, — 
hemenceof character! Terror itself, when onee 
1 transcendental, becomes a kind of conrage; 
rt sufficiently intense according to Poet Milton, 
Mm. — Banton, the other night, in the Legisla- 
7ommittee of G)eneral Defense, when the other 
ters and Legislatois had all opined, said, rt 
1 not do to qnit Paris, and fly to Sanmnr ; that 
nust abide by Paris; and take such attitade as 
I pnt their enemies in fear,— (Viirepenr; a word 
i which has been often repeated, and reprinted 

)logrra.pbied«sHlnlBtreB"(Bruxe[leB,18M), p. 05. 

IN FAB18. 183 

198& At -two of the clock, Beaurepaire, as we saw, 
has shot himself at Verdun; and, oyer Europe, mor> 
tala arer going in for afternoon sermon. But at Paris, 
aU steepto are clangoriQg not for sermon; the 
alarm-gun booming from minute to minute ; Champ* 
de-Mars and Fatherland's Altar boiling with desper- 
ate terror-courage: what a miserere going up to 
Heaven from this once Capital of the Most Christian 
Bang! The Legislative sits in alternate awe and 
effervescence; Vergniaud proposing that Twelve 
shall go and dig personally on Montmartre ; which 
is decreed by acclaim. 

12S7. But better than digging personally with ac- 
claim, see Danton enter; — the black brows clouded, 
the colossus figure tramping heavy; grim energy 
looking iTom all features of the rugged man ! Strong 
is that grim Son of France and Son of Earth ; a 
Seality and not a Formula he too: and surely now 
if ever, being hurled low enough, it is on the Earth 
and on Realities that he rests. "Legislators!" so 
speaks the sten tor- voice, as the Newspapers yet pre- 
serve it for us, " it is not the alarm-cannon that you 
hear: it is the pas-de-charge against our enemies. 
To conquer them, to hurl them back, what do we re- 
quire? II nous faut de Vaudace, et encore de 
I'audace, et toujours de I'audace (To dare, and again 
to dare, and without end to dare) !"*— Right so, 
thoa brawny Titan ; there is nothing left for thee 
but that. Old men, who heard it, will still tell you 
how the reverberating voice made all hearts swell, 
in that moment ; and braced them to the sticking- 
* Monlteur (in ♦* Histoire Parlementaire/' xvii. 347). 


thrilled abroad over France, like electrio 
t word spoken in seaBoo. 
I ikeCommtine, enrotliDg in tlie Ctaamp- 
But the Cotumittee of Watchfalness, be- 
Coiuitiittee af Public Salvation; whose 
» Marat? The Conimnne enrolling enrolls 
ridea tents ibrthem in that Mars-Field, 
ma; maiL'h with dawn on the morrow: 
is part of the Commune 1 To Mavat and 
Ittee of Watchfulness not pmise; — not 
, such as conid be meted ont in these tn- 
alects of onrs i expressive silence rather I 
I, the man forbid, meditating long in his 
sftoge, on his Stylites Pillar, conld seesal- 
>ne thing only: in the &I1 of "260,000 
heads." With so many score of Naples 
2h a dirk in his right-hand, a muff on his 
lid traverse lYnnce, and do it. But the 
led, mocking the severe-benevolence of * 
lend ; and his Iden coald not become an 
only a fiied-idea: Lo, now, however, he 
>wn Ihim his Stylites PiUar to a Tribune 
; here now, withont the dirks, withont 
. least, were it not grOwn possible, — now 
of the crisis, when si^vation or destrnc- 
n the horn , 

i lee-Tower of Avignon was noised of 
apd lives in nil memories; but the an- 
not punished : nay we saw Jourdan 
borne on men's shoulders, like a copper 
aveising the cities of the South." — What 
sqnalid-boTiid, shaking tiieir dlik and 

IN PARIS. 185 

miiidr, may ^anc^ tlirougli ihe brain of a Marat ; iu 
this dizzy pealing of. tocsin-miserere and univer- 
sal frenzy, seek not to guess, O Reader ! Nor what 
the cruel Billaud "in his short brown coat" was 
thinking ; nor Sergent, not yet Agate-Sergent ; nor 
Panis the confidant of Danton ; — nor, in a word, how 
gloomy Orcus does breed in her gloomy womb and 
fashion her moi^ers and prodigies of Events, which 
thou seest her visibly bear! Terror is on these 
Streets of Paris ; terror and rage, tears and. frenzy : 
tocsin-miserere pealing through the air; fierce des- 
peration rushing to battle : mothers, with streaming 
eyes and wild hearts, sending forth their sons to die. 
^* Carriage-horses are seized by the bridle," that they 
may draw cannon ; "the traces cut, the carriages left" 
standing," In such tocsin-miserere, and murky be- 
wilderment of Frenzy, are not Murder, At6 and all 
Furies near at hand ? On slight hint-^who knows 
on how slight ? —may not Murder come ; and with 
her snaky-sparkling head, illuminate this murk] 

1290. How it was and went, what part might be 
premeditated, what was improvised and accidental, 
man will never know, till the great Day of Judg- 
ment make it known. But with a Marat for a keep- 
er of the Sovereign's Conscience — And we know 
what the ultima ratio of Sovereigns, when they are 
driven to it, is!. In this Paris there are as wicked 
men, say a hundred or more, as exist in all the 
earth: to be hired, and set on; to set on, of their 
own accord, unhired. — And yet we will remark that 
premeditation itself is not performance, is not surety 
of perfonnance : that it is perhaps, at most, surety of 


whosoerer wills perform. Prom tbe parpase 
le to the act of crime there is an abyss j won- 
to think of. The finger lies on the pistol; 
e man is not yet a mnrdeTer: nay his whole 
I Btaggering at snch consnmmation, is there not 
"aeei pause ratber, — one last instant of pos^- 
for him ? Not yet a murderer ; it is at the 
of t^ht trifles Trhetlier the most fixed idea 
ot yet become unfixed. One slight twitch of a 
1, tlie death-flash bursts ; and he is it, and will 
emity be it ; and Earth has become a penal 
■us for him ; hia horizon girdled now not with 
1 hope, but with red flames of remorse ; vcdces 
he depths of Natnie BOnnding, Woe, woe, on 

. Of snch stuff are we all made ; on such pow- 
nes of bottOTuleiBS gnilt and criminality, — "if 
strained not," as is well said, — does the purest 
ralk. There are depths in man that go to the 
of lowest HeU, as there are he^ts Qiat reach 
t HeaTen ; — for are not both Heaven and Hell 
>utofhim, made hjr him, everlasting Miracle 
ystery as he is ?— Bat lookii^ on this Champ-de- 
with its tent -btiildiDgs and frantic eDrollmenls ; 
is mni^y-Bimmering Paris, with its crammed 
B(sDpposed about io burst), with if s tocsiu-mis- 
te mothers' tears, andsoldiers' farewell shMit- 
the pious soul might have prayed, that daj; 
od's grace wonld restrain, and greatly restiain ; 
9 slight best 01 hint, Madness, Horror and 
r rose, and tkte Sabbath-day of September be- 
> Day black in ti>e Annals of men. 

IN PARIS. 187 


1^3. The toc&ia iape»U&g its loudest, the clocks 
inaudibly striking Three, when poOT Abb6 Sicardi 
"writh. whom thirty other Nonjurant Priests, in six car- 
jiages, fore along the streets, from their preliminary 
House of Detention at the Town-hall, westwardto ward 
the Prison of the Abbaye» Carriages enough stand 
deserted on the streets ; these six move OU) — through 
angry multitudes, cursing as they move. Accursed 
Aristocrat TartuSies, this is the pass ye have brought 
US to! And now ye will break the Prisons, and set 
Capet Veto on horseback to ride over us ? Out upoa 
you, Priests of Beelzebub and Moloch : of Tartuffery 
Mammon and the Prussian Gallows, — ^which ye name 
Mother-Church and God ! — Such reproaches have the 
poor Noi^uiants to endure, and wocse ; spoken^ii^ on 
them by frantic Patriots, who mount even on the 
caniageHBtepe : the very Guards hardly refraining^ 
Pull up your carriage-blinds? — ^No ! answers Patriot- 
ism clapping its homy paw on the carriage-biindi 
and crushing it down agaim Patience in oppression 
has limits : we axe close on the Abbaye, it has lasted 
long : a poor Nonjuraut, of quicker temper, smites 
tlie horny paw with his cane ; nay, finding solacer 
ment in it, smites the unkempt head, sharply and 
again more sharply, twice over,-^seen clearly of us 
and of the world. It is the last that we see clearly. 
Alas^ next moment the carriages are locked and 
blocked in endless raging tumults, in yells deaf to 
the cry for mercy, which answer the cry for mercy 
with saber-thrusts through the heart.^ The thirty 

* F416mhe8i<ana8rramforM6h4e Plls), "La V6rit6 tout 
eutidre sur ies varis auteurs de la joum^e du 2 Septem- 
bre 1792 (reprinted in ** Histoire Parlementadre, * xviii. 
166-ldlA p. 167. 


a Bit torn out, are ntEtasacred about the Prison 
one after one,— only the poor Abh6 Sieatd, 
one Hot^n, a watchmaker, knowing him, he- 
f tried to save and secrete in the prison, es- 
n tell ; — and it is Night and Orcus: and Mur- 
uaky-sparkling head hai risen in the murk ! — 
. From Sunday afternoon (exclusive of inter- 
[d pauses not final) till Thursday «vemDg, there 
consecutively a Hundred Hours. Which hun- 
ouis are to be reckoned with the honra of the 
ilomew Butchery, of the Armagnac Massacres, 
a Vespers, or whataoerer is savagest in the an- 
' this world. Horrible the honr when man's 
I its paroxysm, spurns asunder the harriers 
les; and shows what dens and depths are in 
or Night and Orcus, as we say, as was long 
sied, have bnrst forth, here in this Paris, from 
nbterranean imprisonment: hideous, dim-con> 

which it Ls painful to look on ; and yet which 
, and indeed which should not, be foi^otten. 
. The Reader, who looks earnestly through 
m Phantasmagory of the Pit, will discern few 
«rtain objects ; and yet still a few. He will 
9, in this Abbaye Prison, the sudden massacre 

Priests being once over, a strange Court of 
!, or call it Court of Revenge and Wild- Justice, 
 fashion itself, and take seat round a table, 
le Prison Registers spread before it ; — Stanis- 
liUard, Bastille hero, famed leader of the 
s, presiding. Stanislas, one hoped to meet 
sewhere than here ; thou shifty Riding-Usher, 
CL inkling of Law 1 This work also thon hadst 

IN FAMJS. 189 

tado; and I^Gn^to depart forever from, oar eyes. 
At JjA Foroe, at the CMtelet, the Conciergerie, the 
like Court forms itself, with the like accompani- 
iBents ; the thing that one man does, other men can 
do. There are some Seven Prisons in Paris, full of 
Aristocrats with conspiracies ; — nay not even Bic^tre 
and Salp^tri^re shall escape, with their Forgers of 
Asaignats : and there are seventy times 700 Patriot 
hearts in a state of frenzy. Scoundrel hearts also 
there are ; as perfect, say, as the Earth holds, — if such 
are needed. To whom, in this mood, law is as no 
law ; and killing, by what name soever called, is but 
work to be done. 

1295. So sit these sudden Courts of Wild-Justice, 
with the Prison Registers before them : unwonted 
wild tumult howling all round; the Prisoners in 
dread expectancy within. Swift ; a name is called ; 
bolts jingle, a Prisoner is there. A few questions are 
put; swiftly this sudden Jury decides: Hoyalist 
Plotter or not ? Clearly not j in that case, let the 
Prisoner be enlarged with Vive la Nation. Probably 
yea; then still, Let the Prisoner be enlarged, but 
without Vive la Nation ; or else it may run^ Let the 
JRrisoner be conducted to La Force. At La Force 
again their formula is, Let the Prisoner be conducted 
to the Abbaye — "To La Force, then!" Volunteer 
bailififs seize the doomed man ; be is at the outer 
gate ; " enlarged," or " conducted," not into La Force, 
but into ^ howling sea ; forth, under an arch of wild 
sabres, axes and pikes ; and sinks, hewn asunder. 
And another sinks, and another; and there forms 
Itself a piled heap of corpses, and the kennels begin 


to run red. Fancy tlie yells of these men^ tlieir 
faces of sweat and blood ; the crueller shrieks of these 
women, for there are women too; and a fellow-mor- 
tal «^hurled naked into it all! JourgniaCi de Saint 
M^ard has seen battle, has seen an effervescent Itegi- 
ment du Boi in mutiny ; but the bravest heart may 
quail at this. The Swiss Prisoners, remnants of the 
10th of August, " clasped each other spasmodically, 
and hung back ; gray veterans crying : * Mercy, 
Messieurs ; ah, mercy !' But there was no mercy. 
Suddenly, however, one of these men steps forward. 
He had on a blue frockcoat ; he seemed about thirty, 
his stature was above common, his look noble and 
martial. * I go first,' said he, * since it must be so: 
adieu !' Then dashing his hat sharply behind him : 
'Which way?* cried he to the Brigands: * Show it 
me, then.' They open the folding gate ; he is an- 
nounced to the multitude. He stands a moment 
motionless ; then plunges forth among the pikes^ and 
dies of a thousand wounds."* 

1296. Man after man is cut dovni ; the sabers need 
sharpening, the killers refresh themselves from wine- 
jugs. Onward and onward goes the butchery ; the 
loud yells wearying down into bass growls. A som- 
ber-faced shifting multitude looks on; in dull s^ 
proval, or dull disapproval ; in dull recognition that 
it is Necessary. "An Anglais in drab great-coat" 
was seen, or seemed to be seen, serving liquor fi'om 
his own dram-bottle ; — for what purpose, " if not set 
on by Pitt," Satan and himself know best! Witty 
Dr. Moore grew sick on approaching, and turned into 

- * F616mhesl. ♦'La V6rit6 tout entiSre " (ut suprft), p. 173. 

IN FARM 191 

another street * — Quick enoi^gli goes this Jury-Court; 
and rigorous. The brave are not spared, nor the 
beautiful, nor the weak. Old M. de Montmoriu, the 
Minister's Brother, was acquitted by the Tribunal of 
the Seventeenth; and conducted back, elbowed by 
howling galleries ; but is not acquitted here. Prin- 
cess de Lamballe has lain down on bed : *^ Madame, 
you are to be removed to the Abbaye." " I do not 
wish to remove; I am well enough here." There is 
a need-be for removing. She will arrange her dress 
a little, then ; rude voices answer, " You have not far 
to go." She too is led to the hell-gate ; a manifest 
Queen's-Friend. She shivers back, at the sight of 
bloody sabers ; but there is no return. Onward ! 
That fair kind head is cleft with the axe ; the neck 
is severed. That fair body is cut in fragments ; with 
indignities, and obscene horrors of mustachio grands- 
l^vres, which human nature would fain find incredi- 
ble, — which shall be read in the original language 
only. She was beautiful, she was good, she had 
known no happiness. Young hearts, generation after 
generation, will think with themselves : O worthy 
of worship, thou king-descended, god-descended, and 
poor sister- woman ! why was not I there ; and some 
Sword Balmung or Thor's Hammer in my hand? 
Her head is fixed on a pike ; paraded under the win- 
dows of the Temple, that a still more hated, a Marie 
Antoinette, may see. One Municipal, in the Temple 
with the Royal Prisoners at the moment, said, " Look 
out." Another eagerly whispered, " Do not look." 
The citcuit of the Temple is guarded, in these hours, 
• Moore's "Journal/* i. 185-105. 


a long stretched tricolor ribbon : terror eDf«K 
;he clangor of infinite tumult, hitherto not regi- 
though that too may come. 
)7. But it is inore edifjing to not* what tbrill- 
of affection, what flragments of wild virtues turn 
this shaking asunder of man's existence ; for of 
! too there is a proportion. Note old Marquia 
tte: heis doomed to die; but his young Daugii- 
.asps him in her arms, with an inspiration of 
lence, with ft love which is stronger than Teiy 
1 : the heart of the killers themselves is touched 
; the old man is spared. Yet he was guilty, if 
ing for his King is guilt: in ten days more a 
t of Law condemned him, and he ,had to die 
'here ; bequeathing his Daughter a lock of his 
tray hair. Or note old M. de Sombreuil, who 
liad a Daughter:- My Father is not an Aristo- 
O good gentlemen, I will swear it, and testify 
id in all ways prove it; we are not ; we hate 
lOcrats ! " Wilt thou drink Aristocrats' blood ?" 
[nan lifts blood (if universal Rumor can be 
ted) ;* the poor maiden does drink. '' This 
jreuil is innocent, then I" Yes, indeed, — and 
note, most of all how the bloody pikes, at this 
, do rattle to the ground ; and tlie tiger-yella 
oe bursts of jubilee over a brother saved; and 
Id man and his daughter ore clasped tu bloody 
as, witb hot tears, and borne home in triumph 
ve la Nation, tbe kiUers refusing even money ! 

ilaure, "Gsqullsei histoHgues dea prinolpHux 6v6- 
iuadBlaB€voliitioa,"il< WBialted in MODlKaillard 


Does it seem strange, this temper of U^eijs ? It seems 
very certain, well proved by Boyalist testimony in 
other instances ;^ and very significant. 



1298. As all Delineation, in these ages, were it 
never so. Epic, '' speaking itself and not singing 
itself,^' most either found on Belief a provable Fact, 
or have no foundation at all (nor, except as floating 
cobweb, any existence at all), — the Header will per- 
haps prefer to take a glance with the very eyes of 
eye-witnesses ; and see, in that way, for himself, how 
it was. Brave Jourgniac, innocent Abb^ Sicard, 
Judicious Advocate Maton, these, greatly compress- 
ing themselves, shall speak, each an instant. Jourg- 
niae's " Agony of Thirty-eight Hours " went through 
'' above a hundred editions," though intrinsically a 
poor work. Some portion of it may go through above 
the hundred-and-first, for want of a better. 

1299. " 2'oward seven o^cloek " (Sunday night at the 
Abbaye ; for Joui^niac goes by dates) : *' We saw two 
men enter, their hands bloody and armed with sabers ; 
a turnkey, with a torch, lighted them ; he pointed to 
the bed of the unfortunate Swiss, Reding. Eeding 
spoke with a dying voice. One of them paused ; but 
the other cried, Allons done ; lifted the unfortunate 
man ; carried him out on his back to the street. He 

was massacred there. 

* Bertrand-Moleviae ('^M^moires particuliers*" ii. 2V^, 
etc., etc 


W« all looked at one onolber ia silence, we 
;h other's hands. Motionless, with fixed 
;azed on the pnvement of our priaou; on 
the moonlight, checkered with the triple 
• of our windows." 

rhree in the morning : Thej were breaking 
be pnaOQ-doora. We at first thought they 
ig to kill ns in our room ; but heard, by 
he BtniTcaee, that it was a room where 
>net3 had barricaded themselves. They 
atchered there, as we shortly gathered." 
Ten o'clock : The Abbfi Lefantand the Abb* 
itastignac appeared in the pnlpit of the 
lich was onr prison ; they had entered by 
n the stairs. They said to us that onr end 
id ; that we must compose ourselves, and 
sir last blessing. An electric movement, 
lefined, threw ns all on our knees, and we 
. These two white-haired old men, bless- 
n their place above; death hovering pvra 

on all hands environing ns ; the moment 
> be forgotten. Half an hour after, they 

massacred, and we heard their cries."* — 
gnisc in his " Agony " in the Abbaye : how 
'ith Jourgniac, we shall see anon. 
Snt now let the good !i{at«n speak, what he, 
p Force, in the same hours, is suffering and 
!■ This " Efisurrection " by him is greatly 
beleast theatrical of these Pamphlets; and 
ting by documents: 

lao Sa1nt>-M*ard. "Mon Agonie de trente-huft 
sprinted in "Hiatoire Parlementaire." xvlli. 


' 1304. "Toward seven o'clock," on Sunday night, 
** prisoners were called freqiiently, and they did not 
reappear^ Each of us reasoned, in his own way^ on 
this singularity : hut our ideas hecame calm, as we 
persuaded ourselves that the Memorial I had drawn 
iip for the National Asaemhiy was producing effect" 
^. 1305. " At one in the morning, the grate which led 
lto our quarter opened anew. Four men in unlforniy 
«ach with a drawn saber and blazing torch, came up 
to our corridor, preceded by a turnkey ; and entered 
an apartment close to ours, to investigate a box there, 
which we heard them break up. This done, they 
stept into the gallery, and questioned the man Cuissa, 
to know where Lamotte" (Necklace's Widower) 
" was." Lamotte, they said, had some months ago, 
under pretext of a treasure he knew of, swindled a 
sum of three-hundred livres from one of them, in- 
viting him to dinner for that purpose. * The wretched 
Cuissa; now in their hands, who indeed lost his life 
^is night, answered trembling. That he remembered 
the fact well, but could not tell what was become of 
Lamotte. Determined to find Lamotte, and confront 
him with Cuissa, they rummaged, along with this 
latter, through various other apartments ; but with- 
out effect, for we heard them say : * Come search 
among the corpses, then ; for, nom de Dieu ! we must 
find where he is.' " 

1306. " At this same time, I heard Louis Bardy, 
the Abb^ Bardy's name called : he was brought out ; 
and directly massacred, as I learnt. He had been 
accused, along with his concubine, five or six years 
before, of having murdered and cut in pieces his own 


.aditor of the ChambK d«a Coraptes of 

r ; but had by his aabtlety, his dexterity, 
quence, out'witled the judges, and escapad. 
ine may fancy what tetnir those words, 
ch among tiie corpses, then,' had thrown 

saw nothing for ituow bntresigning my- 

I wrote my last-will ; concluding it by 

iiid adjurtttiou, that the paper should be 

uldreas. Scarcely had I quitted the pen, 

came two other men in uniform ; one of 
« arm and sleeve up to the very Moulder, 
Li» saber, were covered with blood, said, 
iveory asa hodman that had been heating 

andin de la Chenaye was called ; sixty 
rtnes coold not save him. They said 
: he passed the fatal outer-gate ; gave a 
ir, at wght of the heaped corpses ; covered 
th bis hands, and died of innumerable 
it every new opening of the grate, I 
jhould bear my own name called, and sea 

flung off my nightgown and cap ; I put 
unwashed shirt, a worn frock without 
mold round hat: these things I had sent 
lys ago, iu the fear of what might hap- 

lie rooms of this corridor had been all 
it ouia. We weie four together ; whom 
i to have forgotten : we addressed onr 
a the Eternal to be delireied 


1311. " Baptiste tiie tarnkey came up by himself, 
to see ns. I took him by the hands ; I conjured him 
to save us ; promised him a hundred louis, if h6 
would conduct me home. A noise coming from the 
grates made him hastily withdraw. 

1312. "It was the noise of some dozen or fifteen 
men, armed to the teeth ; as we, lying flat to escape 
being seen, could see from our windows. ' Up stairs ! ^ 
said they : * Let not one remain.' I took out my pen- 
knife ; I considered where I should strike myself," — 
but reflected " that the blade was too short," and also 
"on religion." 

1313. Finally, ho'vever, between seven and eight 
o'clock in the morning, enter four men with blud- 
geons an i sabers! — "To oue of whom Gerard my 
comrade whispered, earnestly, apart* During their 
colloquy I searched everywhere for- shoes, that I 
might lay ofl* tlie Advocate pumps (pantoufles de 
Palais) I had on," but could find none.—" Constant^ 
called le Sauvage, Gerard, and a third whose name 
escapes me, they let clear off: as for me, four sabers 
were crossed over my breast, and they led me down. 
I was brought to their bar ; to the Personage with 
the scarf, who sat as judge there. He was a lame 
man, of tall lank statuiej He recognized me on the 
streets and spoke to me, seven months after. I have 
been assured that he was son of a retired attorney, 
and named Chepy. Crossing the Court called Des 
Nourrices. I saw Manuel haranguing in tricolor 
scarf." The trial, as we see, ends in acquittal and 


•Matonde laVarenne '^Ma R^surreotton" (ln**Hia- 
toire Parlementaire/'zviii. 135-166). 


lor Sicard, from the violiu of the Abbaye, 
but n few morels ; true-looking, tliotigb 

Towiird three in the morning, the killers' 
liera of this little violon ; and knock from 

" I tapped gently, trembling leat the 
might hear, on the opposite door, where 
II Committee was sitting: they answered 
it they had no key. There were three of 
violon ; my companioua thought they per- 
ind of loft overhead. But it was very high ; 
f as conld reach it by mounting ou the 
Df both the others. One of them said to 
y life 'was usefuller than theirs ; T resisted 
ted ; no denial ! I fling myself on the 
ese two deliverers ; never was scene more 
I mount on the shoulders of tbe first, then 
f the second, finally on the loft; and ad- 
ly two comrades the expression of a soul 
led wijh natural emotions."* 
»e two generous companions, we rejoice to 
ot perish. But it is time that Jourguiao 
ieard should speak his last words, and end 
lar trilogy, Tlie night had become day ; 
ay has s^ain become night. Jourgniac, 
iwilhuttermostagitatior. was fallen asleep, 
cheering dream ; he had also contrived to 
laintance with one of the volunteer bailifl^, 
Q in native Provencal with him. On Tues- 
} one in the morning, his Agong is reaching 

a deaeHamls (in 


1316. " By the glare of two torches, I now descried 
the terrible tribunal, where lay my life or my death. 
The President, in gray coat, with a saber at his side, 
stood leaning with his hands against a table, on 
which were papers, an ink-stand, tobacco-pipes and 
bottles. Some ten persons were around, seated or 
standing; two of whom had jackets and aprons: 
others were sleeping stretched on benches. Two 
men, in bloody shirts, guarded the door of the place ; 
an old turnkey had his hand on the lock. In front 
of the President three men held a Prisoner, who 
might be about sixty " (or seventy ; he was old Mar- 
shal Maill^, of the Tuileries and August Tenth). 
" They stationed me in a corner ; my guards crossed 
their sabers on my breast. I looked on all sides for 
my Provencal : two National Guards, one of them 
drunk, presented some appeal from the Section of 
Croix Rouge in favor of the Prisoner ; the man in 
Gray answered : ' They are useless, these appeals for 
traitors.' Then the Prisoner exclaimed ; 'It is 
frightful; your judgment is a murder.' The Presi- 
dent answered : * My hands are washed of it ; take 
M, Maill^ away.' They drove him into the street ; 
where through the opening of the door, I saw him 

1317. "The President sat down to write; register- 
ing, I suppose, the name of this one whom they had 
finished ; then I heard him say, ' Another (A un 
autre) !' 

"Behold me then haled before this swift and 
bloody judgment-bar, where the best protection was 
to have no protection, and all resources of ingenuity 


I if they were not founded on tratb. Tno 
Aa held me each hy a hand, tbe third by 
of my coat. ' Your name, your profes- 
the President. ' The amallest lie mics 
d one of the Judges. — ' My name ia 
iaint-Meard ; I have served, as an officer, 
rs: and I appear at your tribunal with 
ce of an innocent man, who therefore will 
We shall see that,' said the President 
low why yon are arrested ?' — ' Yes, Mon- 
r^sident; I am accused of editing the 

la Cour et de la Villa. But I hope to 
falsify ' " — But no ; Jourgniac'e proof of 

and defense generally, though of excel- 
)S a defense, is not interesting to read. It 
led; there is a loose theatricality in the 
'it, which does not amount to unveracity> 
inda that way. We shall suppose him 
leyond hope, in proving and disproving , 
gely, — to the catastrophe almost at two- 

ittt after all,' said one of the Judges 
) smoke without tindling : tell ns why 
you of that,' — 'I was about to do so '" 
•■ does so; with more and more success, 
outinoed I, ' they accuse me even of re- 
' tlie Eiuigrantii!' At these words there 
ral murmur. ' Messieurs, Messieurs ' I 
raising my voice, - it is my turn to speak; 
President to have the kindness to main- 
me; I never needed it more.'— 'True 


enough, trae enough,' 6»id almost all the Judges 
with a laugh : * Silence!' 

1319; '^ While they were examining the testimonials 
I had produced, a new Prisoner was brought in, and 
placed before the President. *It was one Priest 
luore,' they said, * whom they had ferreted out of the 
Chapelle.' After very few questions : * A la Force !' 
He flung his breviary on the table ; was hurled 
forth, and massacred. I reappeared before the tri- 

1320. "*You tell us always,' cried one of the 
Judges, with a tone of impatience, * that you are not 
this, that you are not that ; what are you, then ?' — 
M was an open Royalist.'— There arose a general 
murmur; which was miraculously appeased by 
another of the men, who had seemed to take an in- 
terest in me : *' We are not here to Judge opinions,' 
said he, * but to judge the results of them.' Could 
Rousseau and Voltaire both in one, pleading for me, 
have said better ?— * Yes, Messieurs,' cried I, ' always 
till the 10th of August I was an open Royalist. 
Ever since 'the 10th of August that cause has been 
finished. I am a Frenchman, true to my country. I 
was always a man of honor.' 

1321. "*My soldiers never distrusted me. Nay, 
two days before that business of Nanci, when their 
suspicion of their officers was at its height, they 
chose me for commander, to lead them to Lun^ville, 
to get back the prisoners of the Regiment Mestre- 
de-Camp, and seize General Malseigne.'" Which 
fact there is, most luckily, an individual present who 
by a certain token can confirm. 


' Tbe President, this croes-qnestioning being 
toff his bat and said: 'I secuotliing to 

1 this man : I am for graDting him bis lib- 
that your vote V To wliich all the Judges 
1: 'Oui, Oui; it is just!'" 

ind there aroseTivals within doors and with- 
Mtt of three," amid shoutings and embrac- 
13 Jourgniac escaped hom jury-trial and 
of death.* Maton and Sicard did, either 
and no bill found, lank President Chepy 
' abgoluteiy nothing ;" or else by evasion, 
favor of Motou tbe brave watehmaker, like* 
!tpe; ^id were embraced and wept OTer; 
in return, aa they well might, 
rhns they three, in wondrous trili^y, or 
liloquy, uttering simultaneoiietj, through 
d night- watches, their Night-thoaghta, — 
dible to us! They Three are become audi- 
the other "Thonsand and Eighty- nine, of 

02 were Priests," who also bad' Night- 
, remtun inaudible ; choked forever in black 
[eard only of President Chepy and the Man 



3nt the Constituted Authorities, all thia 
The Legislative Assembly ; the Six Minis- 
 Town-hall ; Santerre with the National 
AgoDle" (utsupni. " Histolre rorlementalre." 

Guard?— It is very curious to think what a City is. 
Theaters, to the number of some twenty-three, were 
open every night during these prodigies ; while right 
arms here grew weary with slaying, right arms there 
were twiddle-deeing oh melodious catgut: at the 
very Instant when Abb6 Sicard was clambering np 
his second pair of shoulders threcmen high, 500,000 
human individuals were lying horizontal, as if noth- 
ing Were amiss. 

1326. As for the poor Legislative, the scepter had 
departed from it. The Legislative did send Deputa- 
tion to the Prisons, to these Street-Courts ; and poor 
M. Dusaulx did harangue there ; but produced no 
conviction whatsoever : nay at last, as he continued 
haranguing, the Street-Court interposed, not without 
threats { and he had to cease, and withdraw. This 
is the same poor worthy old M. Dusaulx who told 
or indeed almost sang (though with cracked voice), 
the Taking of the Bastille to our satisfaction, long 
since. He Was wont to announce himself, on such 
and all occasions, as the Translator of Juvenal "Good 
Citizens, you see before you a man who loves his 
country, who is the Translator of Juvenal," said he 
once. — " Juvenal !" interrupts Sansculottism j " Who 
the devil is Juvenal? One of your sacr^s Aris- 
tocrates? To the Lanterne!" From an orator of 
this kind, conviction v^as not to be expected. The 
Legislative had much ado to save one of its own 
Members, or ex-Members, Deputy Jounneau, who 
chanced to be lying in arrest for mere Parliamentary 
delinquencies, in these Prisonsi As for poor old 
Dusaulx and Company^ they returned to the Salle 


ii€ge,. Mfiog, " It woa dark ; and thej^ conld 
; well what was going on."* 
'. Boland writes indignant neMages, iti the 
af Order, HamanitJ' and the Law ; but there 
'orce at hia disposal. Sanlerl'e'a Nalloual Force 
laEy to tiee j though he made requisitions, he 
which always dispersed again. Nay did not 
th Advocate Maton'a ej'es. see " men in uni' 
too, with thoir "sleevee bloody to the Bhoul' 
F^tioii goes in tricolor scari'; speaks " the 
i langnage of the law ;" the killera give up, 
lie is there ; when his hack is turned, recom- 
Manuel too in scarf we, with Maton'e eyes, 
rttly Baw haranguing, in the Court called nf 
I (Conr des Nonrrices). On the other hand, 
Billaud, likewise in scarf, " with that suiajl 
oat and black wig we are used to, on hini,'Y 
y delivers, " standiug among corpses," at the 
e, a short but ever-meniorabte harangue, re- 
in various phraseology, but always to this 
e; " Brave Citizens, you are extirpating the 
ea of Liberty : jou are at yonr doty. A gtate- 
nmune and Country would wish to recompense 
equatety ; but cannot, for you know its want 
is. Whoever aliall havewocked (tcavaill^) in 
)n shall receive a draft of one louis, payable 
cashier. Continue yonr work. "J The Con- 
1 Authorities are of yesterday: ftll pulling 
it ways; there is properly no Constituted 

itgail ard, ill. Wl, 

Autlit>rity, \>nt evbts ^^^ ^ ^ ovm filing ; a&d all 
are ki&glets> tjeilig^renl^ idlied, idir anaiecl^ii^iitral^ 
without king ^V6r them. 

1338. •* Oh everlasting infamy,** e^claltuft Montgail* 
lard, '^that Fails stood looking on in stupor for four 
days, €Hid did not inter^re !*' Very desirable indeed 
that Fatis had interfered ; yet not unnatural that it 
stood eVBa so, looking ob in stupor. Paris is in 
death^panle, the enemy and gibbefs at its door : who** 
soever in Paris has the heart to front death, finds it 
more pressing to do it fighting the Prussians, than 
fighting the killers of AristocratSv Indignant ab* 
horrence^ as in Roland, may be here*; gloomy sane* 
tion, premeditation or not, as in Marat and Oommit-* 
tee of Salvation, may be there ; dull disapproval) 
dull approval, and acquiescence In Necessity and 
Destiny, is the general temper. The Sons of Dark- 
ness, *^ two hundred or so," risen from their lurking^ 
places, have scope to do their work. Urged on by 
fever-frenxy of Patriotism, and the madness of ter* 
ror; — urged on by lucre, and the gold louis of wages? 
Kay, not Iticre ; for the gold watches, rings, money 
of the Massacred, are punctually brought to the 
Town-hall, by Killers sans^indispensables, who hig* 
gle afterward for their twenty shillings of wages ; 
and Sei^nt sticking an uncommonly fine agate on 
his finger (fully ** meaning to account for it ") be* 
comes ii^te^Sergent. But the temper, as we say, is 
dull acquiescence. Not till the Patriotic or Frenetic 
part of the work is finished for want of material ; 
and Sons *of Darkness, bent clearly on lucre alone, 
begin wrenching watches and purses, brooches from 


equip Tolnuteere," in dajlJgbt) on 
the temper irom dn)l grow vehe- 
!k)DStable Taiae his trnneheoD, and 
tike a catLle-drirer in earnest) beat 
iiiigfl"back into its old regulated 
1 Oude-Meuble itself wus aureep* 
ed, on the ITth of the mouth, to 
nir ; who onerw bestirs himself, and 
, '' the Teto of BconndrelB," Roland 

lie September HassBCre, otherwise 
itice of the People." These are the 
itembrisenrB) ; a name of some note 
t lucency of the nether-fire 8ort| 
a that of our Bikstille Heroes, who 
by no Friend of Freedom, as in 
diance : to snch phasia of the bosi- 
iu)ced since then ! The nnmbeis 
. the Historical fanlaig, ''between 
liousaod;" or indeed they are up- 
: Peltier (in vision) saw them mas- 
its of the Btc^tre Madhoa8e"with 
flnaliy they are "13,000" and odd 
lOre than that-t In Arithmetical 
1 drawn np by accnrnte Advocate 
ber, including 203 priests, three 
I," and "one thief killed at the Ber- 
wve hinted, 1089, — not less than 

ind and eigbty-nine lie dead, 260 


beitped careasses on* the Pont au Change" itself;— 
among which, .Rohespierre pleading afterward will 
**Bearly weep*' to reflect that there was said to be one 
slain innocent.^ One; not two, O thou sea-green 
Incormptible ? If so, Themis Sanscullotte must be 
Incky ; for she was brief! — In the dim Begisters of 
the Town-hall, which are preserved to this day, men 
read, with a certain sickness of heart, items and^ 
entries not nsual in Town Books: "To workers 
employed in preserving the salubrity of the air in 
the Prisons, and persons who presided over these 
dangeroos operations," so much, — in various items, 
nearly £700 sterling. To carters employed to "the 
Burying-grounds of Clamart, Montrouge and Yaugi- 
rard,"at so much a Journey ,per cart; this alsoisan en- 
try. Then so many francs and odd sous " for the neces- 
sary quantity of quicklime !"t Carts go along the 
streets; full of stript human corpses, thrown pell- 
mell * limbs sticking up : — seest thou that cold Hand 
sticking up, through the heaped embrace of brother 
corpses, in its yellow paleness, in its cold rigor ; the 
palm opened toward Heaven, as if in dumb prayer, 
in expostulation de profundis. Take pity on the Sons 
of Men ! — Mercier saw it, as he walked down "the 
Rue Saint-Jacques from Montrouge, on the morrow 
of the Massacres :" but not a Hand ; it was a Foot, — 
which he reckons still more significant, one under- 
stands not well why. Or was it at the Foot of one 
spuming Heaven? Rushing, like a wild diver, in 

* Monlteurof eth November (Debate of 6th November, 

t "Etat des sommes payees par J a Commune de Paris " 
C' Histoire Pariementaire,** xviii- m). 


disgust and despair, towai^d the depths of Annihila- 
tion ? Even thete shall His hand find thee, and His 
right hand hold thee, — surely for right not for 
wrong, for good not evil! **I saw that Foot," sayij 
Mercier ; *'I shall know it again at the great Day 
of Judgment, when the Eternal, throned on his 
thunders, shall judge both Kings and S^tem« 

J33X. That a shriek of inarticulate horror rose 
over this thing, not only from French Aristocrats 
and Moderates, but from all Europe, and has pro- 
longed itself to the present day, was most natural 
and right. The thing lay done, irrevocable \ a thing 
10 be counted beside some other things, which lie 
very black in our Earth's Annals; yet which will 
not erase therefVom. For man, as was remarked, 
has transcendentalism in him ; standing, as he doesi 
poor creature, every way "in the confluence of Infini- 
tudes;" a mystery to himself and others; in the 
center of two Eternities, of three Immensities, — in 
the intersection of primeval Light with the everlast- 
ing Dark! — Thus have there been, especially by 
vehement tempers reduced to a state of desperation, 
very miserable things done. Sicilian Vespers, and 
"8,000 slaughtered in two hours," are a known thing. 
Kings themselves, not in desperation, bat only in 
difficulty, have sat hatching ; for year and day (nay 
Be Thou says for seven years), their Bartholomew 
Business ; and then, at the right moment, also on an 
Autumn Sunday, this very Bell (they say it is the 
identical metal) of Saint-Germain I'Auxerrois was 
* Mercier, " Nouveaux Paris," vi. 21. 


9et a-pealiikg — with eflfect.* Nay the same black 
boulder-stones of these Paris Prisons have seen Pris- 
on-massacres before now: men massacring country- 
men, Burgundies massacring Atmagnacs, whom 
they had suddenly imprisoned, till, as now, there 
were piled heaps of carcasses, and the streets ran 
red ;— fhe Mayor Petion of the time speaking the 
austere language of the law, and answered by the 
Killers, in old French (it is some 400 years old) : 
**Maugr6 bleu, Sire,— (Sir God^s malison) on your 
justice,' your *pity,* your *right reason.' Cursed be 
of God whoso shall have pity on these false traitorous 
Armagnacs, English ; dogs they are ; they have de- 
stroyed us, wasted this realm of France, and sold it 
to the English."! And so they slay, and fling aside 
the slain, to the extent of "1518, among whom are 
found four Bishops of false and damnable counsel 
and two Presidonts of Parlement." For though it is 
not Satan's world this that we live in, Satan always 
has his place in it (under-ground properly) : and 
fVom time to time bursts up. Well may mankind 
shriek, inarticulately anathematizing as they can. 
There are actions of such emphasis that no shrieking 
can be too emphatic for them. Shriek ye ; acted have 

1332. Shriek who might in this France, in this 
Legislative or Paris Town-hall, there are Ten Men 
who do not shriek. A Circular goes out from the 
Committee of Salut Public, dated 3d of September 

• 9th to 13th September, 1572 (Duiaure^ ^'Histoire de 
Paris," Iv. 289). 
t Dulaure, iii. 494. 


rected to all Town-halls ; n State-paper too 
We to be overlooked. "A part of the feto- 
wpitotors detoined in the PriBons," it aays, 
;en put to death by the People ; and we can- 
jt but the whole Nation, driven to the edge 
>y such endlees series of treasoim wiil make 

adopt tbia means of public salvation: and 
ihiuen will cry aa the men of Paris : We go 
tlie enemy ; hot we will not leave tobbers 
IB, to botcher oar wives and children." To 
■e legibly appended these signatarea : Panis: 

Marat, Friend of the People ;• with 8eien 
-carried down thereby, in a atrai^ wity, to 
remembrance of Antiquarians. We remark, 
, that their Circular rather recoiled on them- 
The Town-halls made no nse of it, even the 
d Sanacnlott^ made little ; they only howled 
awed, but did not bite. At Hheima "abont 
ceons" were killed ; and two afterward were 
for doing it. At Lyons, and a few other 
ome attempt was made ; but with hardly any 
•Ang qnickly put down. 
Less fortunate were the Prisonera of Orlf ana 
good Dnke de la Eochefoucanlt. Hejonr- 
by quick stages, with his Mother and Wife, ' 
ihe Waters of Forges, or some quieter coun- 
I arrested at Oisors ; condnct«d along the 
amid effervesciDg multitudes, and killed 
y the stroke of a pavii^-stone hurled throngh 
h-ivindow." Killed as a once Liberal now 
at; Protector of Priests, Suspender of Virtu* 


ous' P^tioBS, aikd most anfortunate Hot-grown-cold, 
detestable to Patriotism. He dies, lamented of 
Europe ; his blood spattered the cheeks of his old 
Mother, ninety-three years old. 

1334. Aft for the Orleans Prisoners, they are State 
Criminals: Royalist Ministers, Delessarts, Mont- 
morins ; who have been accumulating on the High 
Court of Orleans, ever since that Tribunal was set up. 
Whom now it seems good that we should get trans- 
ferred to our New Paris Court of the Seventeenth } 
which proceeds fxs quicker. Accordingly hot Four- 
nier from Martinique, Foumier I'Am^ricain, is off 
missioned by Constituted Authority; with stanch 
National Guards, with Lazouski the Pole ; sparingly 
provided v^ith road-money. These, through bad 
quarters, through difficulties, perils, for Authorities 
cross each other in this time,— do triumphantly 
bring oflf the Fifty or Fifty-three Orleans Prisoners 
toward Paris ; where a swifter Court of the Seven- 
teenth will do justice on them.* But lo, at Paris, in 
the interim, a still swifter and swiftest Court of the 
Second^ and of September^ has instituted itself: enter 
not Paris, or that will judge you ! — ^What shall hot 
Foumier do ? It was his duty, as volunteer Con- 
stable, had he been a perfect character, to guard those 
men's lives never so Aristocratic, at the expense of 
his own valuable life never so Sansculottic, till some 
Constituted Court had disposed of them. But he 
was an imperfect character and Constable ; perhaps 
one of the- more imperfect. 
1335. Hot Foumier, ordered to turn hither by one 

• Ibid. zvii. 484. 


hoiitj, uo tata thither by uiother Authority, ia 
perplexing multiplicity of OTdets; bnt finally be 
les off lot Veruilles. His Prisanera lure lu tuoi' 
], or open carte, himself And Ouards «idiug uia 
chiag'arouud : and at the last vtllEige, the wOTthf 
'or of Versailles comes to meet bim, tuiRious that 
fttrival and locking-up were well OTer. It USqb- 
, the 9th day of the month. Lo, on entericg ths 
Bue of Versailles, what maltitudes, Htlrring, 
fming ib the September sun, under the duUfreen 
member foliage; the Four>roned Avenue all bnm- 
g and swarmiug, as if the Town had emptied 
f ! Our tumbrils roll hwvilj thtoogb the liTing 
the Ouards and Ponmlet makiflg way with ever 
e difficulty ; the Mayor speaking and gesturing 
persuaaivest ; amid the inarticulate growling 
1, which growls ever the deeper even by hearing 
f gMwl, not without sharp yelping here and 
6!— Would t« Qod we were out of this strait 
e, and wiud and separation had cooled the he«t, 
?h seems about igniting berel 
3S. And yet if the wide Avenue Is too strait, 
t will the Street de Surfn tendance be, at leaving 
le saraef At the comer of 3urintendance Street, 
sompreased yelpings become a contlnnousyell; 
ge flguree spring on the tumbril-shafts; first 
ysof an endless coming tide? The Major pleads, 
les, halMesperatej is pushed; carried off In 
'sarms; thesavage tide has enttaiice.has mastery, 
d horrid noise, and tumult aa of fierce wolves, 
Prisoners sink massacred,— all bnt some eleven, 
escaped into houses, and found mercy. The 

l^rismis, and what other Prisoners they held, wei'e with 
difficulty sayedt The stript clothes are hurnt in b^n'• 
fire ; the corpses lie heaped in the ditch on the morirow 
morningi^ Ail Trance^ except H be the Ten Men of 
the Circular and their people^ mdans and rages, in- 
articulately Bhrieking ; all Europe rings. 

133t. But neither did Danton shriek | though, as 
Mimster of Justice, it was mote his part to do sOi 
Brawny Danton is in the breach, as of stormed Cities 
imd Nations; amid the sweep of Tenth-df-August 
cannon, the rustle of Prussian gallows-topes, the 
smiting of September sabers ; desttuctioti all round 
him, and the tnshing down of worlds ! Miniistet 6t 
Justice is his name J but Titatt of the Forlotn Hop©, 
and Enfant Petdu of the Hevoltitidh, in his quality, 
— and the man acts according to that* *' "We must 
put our enemies in fear V Deep fear, is it not, as of 
its own acCotd, falling on oUr enemies? The Titan 
of the Forlorn Hope, he is not the man that would 
swiftest of all ptevent its so falling. Forward, thott 
Titan of an :finfantl*erdu ; thOu must dafe and again 
dare, and without end dare ; thete Is nothing left for 
thee*but that I " Que mon nom sOit fl^tri (Let my 
name be blighted) t'* what am I ? The Cause alone 
is great; and shall live, and not petish. — So, on the 
whole, here too is a Swallower of Formulas ; of still 
widergulp than Mirabeau t this Danton, Mirabeau 
of the Sansculottes. In the September days, this 
Minister was not heard of as co-operating with strict 
Koland; his business might lie elsewhere -with 

* "Pieces oflicie les relatives au massacre flea Prison- 
ni6rs6yenailie8"(in ^^iiistoire Parlom«ntaire/' xviii. 



" and the Hotel-de-Ville. Wheu applied 
Icial person, about the OtUana Piiaouerai 
ca they ran, he answered gloomily, twice 
not the^ men guilty?"r-When pressed, 
ed in a terrible voice," and turned his 
lOasand slain in the Prisons ; horrible U' 
lat Bruuawiek is within a day's journey 
there are Five-and-twenty Millione yet, 
> save. Some men haye tasks, — fntitfuler 
It seems strange, but isnot etrauge.that 
er of Stoloeh-Justice, when any suppliant 
*8 life got access tflhim, Was found to have 
apaasion ; and yielded and granted " al' 
either did one pecaonal enemy of Danton 
lese days."t 

shriek, we say ; when certain th'ug" ara 
■oper and unavoidable. Nevertheless, ar- 
iech, not shrieking, is the faculty of mam 
ih is not yet possible, let there be, with 
tdehiy, at least — silence. Silence, accord- 
is forty'fourth year of the business, and 
:indred and thirty-sixth of an " Era called 
s lucus k non," is the thing we recommend 
!e. Nay, instead of shrieking more, it were 
ifyii^ to remark, on the other side, what 
thing Customs (in Latin, ItTores) are ; and 
the Virtue, Vir-tus, Manhood or Worth, 
t man, is culled his Morality Or Custom- 
'ell Slanghter, one of the moet authentic 
rtbePityon would say, once give it Cua- 

ipbte des Minlstres," p. 71. 


toms, becomes War, with Laws of War ; and is Cus- 
tomary and Moral enough :^ and red individuals cany 
tiie tools of it girt round their haunches, not without 
an air of pride, — which do thou nowise blame. While, 
see ! so long as it is but dressed in hodden or russet; 
and Revolution, less frequent than War, has not yet 
got its Laws of iRe volution, but the hodden or russet 
Individuals are tJncustomary — O shrieking beloved 
brother blockheads of Mankind, let us close those 
wide months of ours; let us cease shrieking, and be- 
gin considering! 



1339. Plain, at any rate, is one thing: that the fear^ 
whatever of fear those Aristocrat enemies might 
need, has been brought about. The matter is getting 
serious, then ! Sansculottism too has become a Fact, 
and seeins minded to assert itself as such ? This 
huge moon-calf of Sansculottism, staggering about^ 
as young calves do, is not mockable only, and soft 
like another calf; but terrible too, if you prick it ; 
and, through its hideous nostrils, blows fire 1 — Aris- 
tocrats, with pale panic in their hearts, fly toward 
covert ; and a light rises to them over several things ; 
or rather a confused transition toward light, whereby 
for the moment darkness is only darker than ever. 
But what will become of this France ? Here is a 
question! France is dancing its desert- waltz, as 
Sahara does when the winds waken ; in whirl-blastd 


rt in nninbeT; waltaiug toward Town-hallsf 
Prieona and Election CommUtee-rooma ; 
Jiawick and the fVontieta; toward a New 
Uuivetaal Histoiy ; if indeed it be not 
ind winding-up of that I 
Election Committee-rooms there is now no 
ot the work goes bravely along. The 
ia getting clioscn, — really in a decisive 
he Town-hall we already date JVref gear 
vilie. 9omt 300 of our beat Legislators 
ilected, the Mountain bodily : Robespierre, 
r Pfition, Buzot, Curate Gr^goire, Rabaut, 
score Old- Constituents; though we once 
thirty voices." All these : and alongwilh 
ia long known to Bevolutionary fame: 
smoulins, thongh he stutters in speech ; 
llien and Company; Jouroalists Gorsas, 
ier, Louvet of Fanblas ; Clootz, Speaker 
I ; Collot d'Herbois, tearing a passion to 
I d'Eglantine, specuiative Pamphleteer; 
the solid Butcher : nay Marat, though 
M can hardly believe it, or even believe 
I a Marat, except in print Of Minister 

will lay down his Ministry for a Mem- 
need not speak. Paris is fervent ; nor is 
'Wanting to itself. Barbarous, Rebecqui, 

Patriots are coming from Marseilles, 
red and forty-firemen, (or indeed forty- 
ignon now sends Fonr) are gathering : so 
 meet ; not so many are to part ! 
orney Carrier from Auriilac, Ex-Priest 

1 Arras, llicse shall both gain a name. 



j Mountainous Auvergne re-elects her Romme ; hardy 

|( tiller of the soil, once Mathematical Professor; who, 

F' unconscious, carries in petto a remarkable New QO- 

I endarj with Messidors, Pluvioses, and such-like ; — 

1 and having given it well forth, shall depart by the 

Ij death they call Eoman. Sieyes Ola-Constitrent 

comes; to make new Constitutions as many as 
wanted : for the rest, peering out of his clear cau- 
tious eyes, he will cower low in many an emergency, 
and find silence safest. Young Saint- Just is coming, 
deputed by Aisne in the North ; more like a Student 
than a Senator ; not four-andrtwenty yet j who has 
written Books ; a youth of slight stature, with mild 
mellow voice, enthusiast olive-complexion and long 
black hair. F6raud, from the fiar valley D^Aure in the 
folds of the Pyrenees, is coming ; an ardent Bepubii- 
can; doomed to fame, at least in death. 

1342. All manner of Patriot men are coming: 
Teachers, Husbandmen, Priests and Ex-Priests, 
Traders, Doctors ; above all, Talkers, or the Attor- 
ney species. Man-mid wives, as Levasseur of the 
Sarthe, are not wanting. Nor Artists; gross David, 
with the swoln cheek, has long painted, with genius 
in a state of convulsion ; and will now legislate. 
The swoln cheek, choking his words in the birth, 
totally disqualifies him as an orator; but his pencil, 
his head, his gross hot heart, with genius in a state 
of convulsion, will be there. A man bodily and 
mentally swoln-cheeked, disproportionate ; flabby- 
large, instead of great; weak withal as in a state of 
convulsion, not strong in a state of composure: so 
let him play his part. Nor are naturalized Benefac- 


if tlic Species forgotten : Priestly, elected b; tbe 
DRpattment, but declining ; Faine the i^>eU- 
feetlleman, by the Pas de Calais, who accepts. 
3. Few Nobles come, and yet not none. Panl- 
:(iis Barrar, "noble as the Bai rases, old as the 
of Provence;" he is one. The reckless, ship. 
:edman: flung ashore on the coast of the Mal- 
long ago, while sailing and soldiering as Indian 
er : fluug ashore since then, as hungry Parisian 
ire-hunter and half-pay, on mauyaCirce Island) 
temporary encbauUneut, temporary conversion 
eaaihood and hoghood;— the remote Var De- 
ent has now sent him hither. A man of heat 
BSt«; defective in utterance; defective indeed 
rthing to utter ; yet not without a certain ra- 
of glance, a certain swift transient courage^ 
1 these times, Fortune favoring, maygolai. He 
, handsome to the eye, " only Ibe complexion a 
yellow ;" but " with a robe of pul'ple, with a 
b cloak and plume of tricolor, on occasions of 
nity," tbe man will look well.* Lepelletier 
Pargeau, Old- Constituent, is a kind of noble, 
' enormous wealth ; he too baa come hither :— 
e the Pain of Death abolished/ Hapless Er- 
nenteet 1 Nay among our Sixty Old-Constitu- 
te Philippe d'0rl<?ans, a Prince of the Blood! 
>w D'Orlians: for. Feudalism being swept fVom 
ctM, he demands of his worthy friends the 
rsof Paris, to have anewnameof their choos- 
rhereupon Procnreur Manuel, like an antithe- 
erary man, recommends Egunlily, igalitS. A 
Ictlonnaire des Hommcs MarquaoB." 1 BsrnM, 


Philippe l^galit^ therefore will sit ; seen of the Earth 
asd Heaven. 

1344. Such a Convention is gathering itself together. 
Mere angry poultry in moulting season; whom 
Brunswick's grenadiers and cannoneers will give 
short account of. Would the weather, as Bertrand is 
always praying, only mend a little !* 

1345. In vain, O Bertrand ! The weather will not 
mend a whit : nay even if it did ? Dumouriez Poly- 
metis, though Bertrand knows it not, started from 
hrief slumber at Sedan, on that morning of the 29th 
of August; with stealthiness, with promptitude, 
audacity. Some three mornings after that, Bruns- 
wick, opening wide eyes, perceives the Passes of the 
Argonne all seized ; blocked with felled trees, forti' 
fied with camps; and that it is a most shifty swift 
Bumouri^ this, who has outwitted him ! 

1346. The maneuver may cost Brunswick " a loss 
of three weeks," very fatal in these circumstances. A 
Mountain-wall of forty miles lying between him and 
Paris : which he should have preoccupied ;— which 
how now to get possession of? Also the rain it 
raineth every day ; and we are in a hungry Cham- 
pagne Pouilleuse, a land flowing only with ditch- 
water. How to cross this Mountain-wall of the 
Argonne ; or what in the world to do with it ? — 
There are marchings and wet splashings by steep 
paths, with Mchermenta bltA guttural inteijections ; 
forcings of Argonne Passes,— which unhappily will 
not force. Through the woods, volleying War rever- 
berates, like huge gong-music, or Moloch's kettle- 

4 Bertnmd-Mole^'ille. ' Biemolree. ' ii- 225. 


borne bj the echoes; swoln torrents boil 
' round the foot of rocks, floating pale carcaa- 
mei3. In vain ! Islettee Villager, with its 
-steeple, rises intact in the Mountain-pass, be- 
the embosoming heights; jour forced march- 
id climbing have become forced slidings and 
ogs back. From the hill-tops thou seest 
; bnt dumb crags, and endless wet moaning 

the Clermont Vache (huge Cotr that she is) 
.ng herself* at interv^, flinging off her 
■tonket, and soon taking it on again, drowned 
pouring Heaven. The Argonne Passes will 
Be: yoa mnstsjtirl the Argonse: go round by 
Lof it. 

Bat iimcf whether the Emigrant SeignenrB 
vt got theii brilliancy dulled a little; whether 
Foot Kegiment in red-facings wit^ nankeen 
s " conid be in field-day order ! In place of 
tding, a sort of desperation, and hydrophobia 
xtett of water, is threatening to supervene. 
Priuce dc Ligne, son of that brave literaiy 
ne the Thunder-god of Dandies, feil hack- 
shot dead in Oraud-PrS, the Noithmost of 
sses; Brnnswick is skirting and rounding, 
islyt by the estremity of the South. Four 
lajrsof arain aaof Noah, — without fire, with- 
d! For fire you out down green trees, and 
J smoke ; for food you eat green grapes, and 
3 colic, pestilential dysftntery dUxoyro 3i Xaoi. 
e Peasants assassinate us, they do not join us; 
romen cry shame on us, threaten to draw their 
Helen Maria Williams. "LetLors." Ill- 7ML 


very scissors on us! Oye hapless duUed-bright 
Seigneurs, and hydropbobio splashed Nankeens ; — 
bnt O, ten times more, ye poor scbckermtntrng ghastly- 
visaged Hessians and Hnlans, fallen on your backs ; 
who had no call to die there, except compulsion and 
three half-pence a-day ! Nor has Mrs. le Blanc of 
the Golden Arm a good time of it, in her bower of 
dripping rushes. Assassinating Peasants are hanged; 
Old-Constituent Honorable Members, though of ven- 
erable age, ride in carts with their hands tied: these 
are the woes of war. 

1348. Thus they ; sprawling and wriggling, far and 
widC) on ^e slopes and passes of the Argonne; — a 
loss to Brunswick of five-and-twenty disastrous days. 
There is wriggling and struggling; facing, backing 
and right-about Ikcing ; as the positions shift, and 
the Argonne gets partly rounded, partly forced : — 
but still Dnmouriez, force him, round him as you 
will, sticks like a rooted fixture on the ground ; fix- 
ture with many hinges ; wheeling now this way, now 
that ; showing always new front, in the most unex- 
pected manner; nowise consenting to take himself 
away. Eecruits stream up on him ; full of heart 
yet rather difficult to deal with. Behind Grand-Pr6 
for example, Grand-Pr^ which is on the wrong-side 
of the Argonne, for we are now forced and rounded, 
— the full heart', in one of those wheelings and show- 
ings of new front, did as it were overset itself, as full 
hearts are liable to do ; and there rose a shriek of 
sauve qui pent, and a death-panic which had nigh 
ruined all ! So that the General had to come gallop- 
ing ; and, with thunder-words, with gesture, stroke 


Bword even, check and rally, and bri i^ bftA 
of shame;* — nay to seize the first shriekers 
iaders ; "shaTe their heads and eyebrows," 
: ttem forth in the world as a sign. Thns 
■ally the rations are short, and wet camp- 
hnngry stomach bringa had hnmor) there 
be mutiny. Whereupon s^in Dnmonriez 
t the head of their line, with his staff, and 
of a htindred hnssars. He had placed some 
I behind them, the artillery in li-ont; he 
lem; 'Aa for yon, fori will neither call 
tens, nor soldiers, nor my men (ni mea en- 
i sec before yon this artillery, behind yon 
Iry. You have dishonored yourselves by 
[f you amend, and grow to behave like this 
ny which you have the honor of belonging 
fill find in me a good father.  But plan- 
d assassins I do not suffer here. At the 
mutiny I will have you shivered in pieces 
a piSeea). Seek out the Scoundrels that aw 
>n, and dismiss them yonrselves ; I hold you 
le Ibr them.' "* 

fttience, Dnmonriei! This tmcertain 
hriekera, mntineera, were they once drilled 
d, will become a phalanxed mass of FigbteiB; 
1 and whirl, to order,swiftly like the wind 
tiiriwind: tanned mus tach So- figures ; often 
even bare-backed ; withsinewsof iron ; who 
ily bread and gunpowder; very Sons of Fire, 
itest, hastiest, hottest ever seen prehapa, 


since Attila*s time. They may conquer and overrun 
amazingly, much as that same Attila did; — whose 
Attila'a Camp and Battle-field thou now seest, on this 
very ground;* who, aftersweepingbarethe world, was, 
with difficulty, and days of tough fighting^ checked 
herehj Boman ^tius and Fortune; and his dust- 
cloud made to vanish in the East again ! — 

1350. Strsmgely enough, in this shrieking Confusion 
of a Soldiery, which we saw long since fallen ; all 
suicidal collision, — ^at Nanci, or on the streets of 
Hetz, where brave Bouill^ stood with drawn sword ; 
uid which has collided and ground itself to pieces 
worse and worse ever since, down now to such a 
state; in this shrieking Confusion, and not elsewhere, 
lies the first germ of returning Order for France ! 
Bound which, we say, poor France nearly all ground 
down suicidally likewise into rubbish and Chaosi 
will be glad to rally ; to begin growing, and new- 
shaping her inorganic dust; very slowly, through 
centuries, through Napoleons, Louis Philippes, and 
other the like media and phases, — into a new, infi- 
nitely preferable France, we can hope ! — 

1351. These wheelings and movements in the re- 
gion of the Argonne, which are all faithfully described 
by Dumouriez himself, and more interesting to us 
than Hoyle's or Philidor's best Game of Chess, let us 
nevertheless, O Header, entirely omit; — and hasten 
to remark two things : the first a minute private, the 
second a lai^e public thing. Our minute private thing 
is :"the presence, in the Prussian host, in thatwar-game 
of the Argonne, of a certain Man, belonging to the sort 
• * Helen Maria Williams, iil. 82. 


[mmortal ; who, in days since then, la becoming 
more and more in tliat cJiaracter, as the Transi- 
ore and more vanishes : for from of old it was 
:ed that when the Gods appear amoug men, it 
om in Tecognizable shape; thns Admetus'a 
jrds give Apollo a draught of their goatskin 
wttle (well if they do not give him strokes 
heir ox-rungs) not. dreaming that he is the 
d! This man's name is Johann Wolfgang von 
:. He is Herisog Weimar's Minister, come 
le small contingent of Weimar ; to do insigni- 
innoilitary duty here; very irrecognizable to 
all ! He Btunds at present, with drawn bridle, 
height near Sainte-Menehonld, making an ex- 
Dt on the "cannon-fever;'' having ridden 
against peisnasiou, into the dance and firing 
cannon-balls with a scientific desire to nnder- 
That that same cannon-fever maybe: '"The 
)f them," saya he, "ia corious enotigh ; as if it 
impounded of the humming of tops, the gnr- 
f water and the whistle of birds. By degreea 
i a very uncommon sensation ; which can only 
ribed by similitude. It seems as if yon were 
> place extremely hot, and at the same time 
ompletely penetrated by the heat of it; sa 
n feel as if you and this element yon are in 
^rfectly on a par. The eye-sight loxes noth- 
ts strength ordistinctneaa; and yetit is as if 
gs had got a kind of brown-red color, which 
the situation and the object atill moreimprea- 

:be,"CampaenelnFYaiikreich' <WeT^e.ixx.TII). 


1352. This is the cannon-fever, as a World-Poet 
feels it. — A man entirely irrecognizable ! In whose 
irrecognizable head, meanwhile there verily is the 
spiritual counterpart (and call it complement) of this 
same huge Death -Birth of the World : which now 
effectuates itself, outwardly in the Argonne, in such 
cannon- thunder ; inwardly, in the irrecognizable 
head, quite otherwise than by thunder ! Mark that 
man, O Reader, as the memorablest of all the memor- 
able in this Argonne Campaign. What we say of 
him is not dream, nor flourish of rhetoric, but scien- 
tific historic fact ; as many men, now at this distance, 
see or begin to see. 

1353. But the large public thing we had to remark 
is this : That the 20th of September, 1792, was a raw 
morning covered with mist ; that from three in the 
morning, Sainte-Menehould, and those Villages and 
homesteads we know olold, were stirred by the rum- 
ble of artillery-wagons, by the clatter of hoofs and 
many-footed tramp of men : all manner of military, 
Patriot and Prussian, taking up positions, on the 
Heights of La Lune and other Heights ; shifting and 
shoving, — seemingly in some dread chess-game; 
which may the Heavens turn to good ! , The Miller 
of Valmy has fled dusty under ground; his Mill 
were it never so windy, will have rest to-day. At 
seven in the morning the mist clears off: see Keller- 
mann, Dumouriez's second in command, with "eigh- 
teen pieces of cannon," and deep-serried ranks, drawn 
up round that same silent Windmill, on his knoll 
of strength ; Brunswick, also with serried ranks and 
cannon, glooming over to him irom the Height of La 


only tiie brook and its little dell now paitii^ 

Sotliattheraach-loDged-forhascoineat laati) 

'ad of hunger and dysentery, we shall have shaip 

and then I — Domoariez, with force and firm 

looks on from a neighboring height ; can help 

itli hie wisheB, in silence, Lo,theeighteen pieces 

and Ijarfc, reeponsive to the blnater of La 

KJI ; and tbnnder-cloads mount into the air ; and 
roar tbrongb all dells, &c into the depths of 
e Wood (deserted now) ; and limbs and lives 
dissipated, this way and that. Can BrnoB- 
njafce an impression on them ? The duUed- 
 Beigneurs stand biting the^ thambs; these 
lulottes seem not to By like poultry ! Toward 
shot blows Eellermann's borae 
|](|''nnder him; there bnnita a powder-cart high 
witb fenell beard over all : some swag- 
id swaying oheervable; — Bmnswlck will try ! 
" cries Kellermann, "Vive la Patrie ! Al- 
ponrelle {Come let us conqner for her)." 
the Fatherland !" rings responsive to the 
, like rolling-fiie from side to side : onr ranks 
firm as rocks; and Bnuuiwickmay recroesthe 
^n bis old position on "La Lune ; 
ibattered by the way. And ao, for the length 
September day, — with blaster and bark : with 
fiir^echoing ! Tlie cannonade lasts till sun- 
id no impression made. Till an hoar after 
't, the few remaining Clocks of the District 
Seven; at this late time of day Bmnawick 
in. With not a whit better fortune 1 He is 


met by xoek-Tanks, by shonis of Vive la Batrie ; ahd 
driven back, not unbatteied. Whereupon he ceases ; 
retires "to the Tavern of La Lnne f and sets to rais- 
ing a redonbt lest he be attacked ! 

13S5. Verily so, ye dulled-bright Seigneurs, make 
of it what ye may. Ah, and Fraxice does not rise 
round us in mass? and the Feasants do not join ns 
but assassinate us: neither hanging nor any persua- 
sion will induce them ! They have lost their old dis- 
tinguishing love of King and King's cloak, — 1 fear, 
altogether ; and will even fight to be rid of it: that 
seems now their humor. Nor does Austria prosper, 
nor the si^e of Thionville. The Thionvillers, car- 
rying their insolence to the epigramn.atic pitch, have 
put a Wooden Horse on their walls, with a bundle of 
Hay hung from him, and this Inscription : ^ When I 
finish my hay, you will take Thionville."* To such 
height has the frenzy ai mankind risen. 

1366. The trenches of Thionville may shut; and 
what though those of Lille open ? The Earth smiles 
not on us, nor the Heaven ; but weeps and blears 
itself, in sour rain, and worse. Our very friends in- 
sult us ; we are wounded in the house of our friends : 
*' His Msjesty of Prussia had a great-coat, when the 
rain came ; and (contrary to all known laws) he put 
it on, though our two French Princes, the hope of 
their country, had none!" To which indeed; as 
€roethe admits, what answer could be made?t — Cold 
and Hunger and Affront, Colic and Dysentery and 
Death ; and we here, cowering redoubted, most un- 

* *'Hi8tolre Parlementaire," xlx. 177. 
t Goethe, xxx. 49. 


redoubtable, amid the '^ tattered corn-shocks and de- 
Ibrmed stubble; " on the splashy Height of I^a Lune, 
round the mean Tavern de la Lune ! — 

1357. This is the Cannonade of Valmy ; wherein 
the World-Poet experimented on the cannon-fever ; 
wherein the French Sansculottes did not fly like 
poultry. Preciou9 to France I Every soldier did his 
duty, and Alsatian Kellermann (how preferable to 
old Lilckner the dismissed !) began to become greater; 
and £galit^ Fils (Equality Juxiior), a light gallant 
Field-Officer, distinguished himself by intrepidity : 
— it is the same intrepid individual who now, as 
Louis Philippe, without the Equality, struggles, 
under sad circumstances, to be called King of the 
French for a season. 



1358. But this 20th of September is otherwise a 
great day. For, observe, while Kellermann's horse 
was flying blown from under him at the Hill of 
Valmy, our n6w National Deputies, that shall be a 
National Convention, are hovering and gathering 
about the Hall of the Hundred Swiss : with intent 
to constitute themselves ! 

1359. On the morrow, about noontide, Camus the 
Archivist is busy " verifying their powers;" several 
hundreds of them already here. Whereupon the 
Old Legislative comes solemnly over, to merge its 
old ashes phcenix-like in the body of the new ; — and 
so forthwith, returning all solemnly back to the Salle 

exevnt: isssB 

de Maa^gej tliere sits a National Convention, 749 
complete, or obmplete enongh ; presided by Potion ; 
— which proceeds directly to do business. Read that 
reported afternoon's debate, O Reader; there are few 
debates like it: dull reporting Moniteur itself be- 
comes more dramatic than a very Shakespeare. For 
epigrammatic Manuel rises, speaks strange things; 
how the President shall have a guard of honor, and 
lodge in the Tnileries : — rejected. And Danton rises 
and speaks; and Collot d'Herbois rises, and Curate 
Or^goire, and lame Couthon of the Mountain rises ; 
and in rapid Meliboean stanzas, only a few lines each, 
they propose motiona not a few : That the comer- 
stone of our new Constitution is. Sovereignty of the 
People; that our Constitution shall be accepted 1^ 
the People or be null ; ftirtiier that the people ought 
to be avenged, and have right Judges ; that the Im- 
posts must continue till new order; that Landed and 
other Property be sacred forever; finally that "Roy- 
alty from this day is abolished in France '^—Decreed 
all, beibre four o'clock strike, with acdiamation of 
the world!* The tree was all so ripe ; only shake 
it, and there fall such yellow cart-loads. 

1360. And so over in the Yalmy Region, as soon as 
the news come, what stir is tiiis, audible, visible 
from our muddy Heights of La Lune ?t Universal 
shouting of the French on their opposite hill-side ; 
caps raised on bayonets : and a sound as of R^pub- 
lique: Vive la R^publique borne dubious on the 
winds !— On the morrow morning, so to speak, Bruns* 

 *• Hifftolro Parlementaire," xlx. 10. 
t Williams, Hi. 71. 


ingB his ktupsacka before day, lights any flies 
; luid marches withoat tap of diam. Qa- 
; finds ghasttf tiymptotos in that camp; 
» fall of blood 1"* The chivalxooB Kiug of 
, — for he, as w« saw, is here in person,— ^nay 
3 tbedaj; may look colder than everon these 
bright Seigneurs, aod French I^nccs their 
f's hope; — and, on the whole, put on his 
lat withont ceremonf , happy that be has one. 
etiie, all letire with convenieot di^atoh, 
I B Champagne trodden into a qoagmire, the 
gathei ponring on them : Dumouriez, tbroagh 
lerraanos Bind Dillons, pricking them a little in 
ider parts. A JitUe, not much ; now prick- 
T n^otiating : far Brunswick has his ^es 
I and the Mtyesty of Prussia is a repentant 

Bfor has Austria prospered ; nor the Wooden 
jf TbioHTiUe bitten his hf^ ; nor Lille Oty 
ered itself. The Lille trenches opened on 
li of the month ; with balls and shells, and 
balls 1 as if not trenches bnt Vesnvins and 
had opened. It was frightful, say all eye- 
e^ but it la IneSectnal. The LUlers have 
) snch temper ; especially after these news 
[gonne and the East. Not a Sans-indispensa- 
Lille that would surrender for a King's ran- 
ted-hot balls rain, day and night, " 6,000," or 
bombs "filled internally with oil of tuipen- 
lich splaabes np in flame ;" — mainly on the 
gs of the BauBcnlottes and Poor; the streets 
)otober. 1T93: Dnmonrtei. 111. IB. 

EXEUNT. 231 

of fhe ftich being spared. But the Sansculottes get 
water-pails; form qnenching-regnlations : "The 
ball is in Peter's house !^ '* The ball is in John's !" 
They diride their lodging and substance with each 
other ^ shout Vive la K^publique ; and faint not in 
heart. A ball thunders through the main chamber 
of the Hotel-de^Ville while the Commune is there 
assembled : ** We^ are in permanence,'' says one 
coldly, proceeding with his business ; land the ball 
remains permanent too, sticking in the wall, prob- 
ably to this day.* 

1362. The Austrian Archduchess (Queen's Sister) 
will hersrff see red artillery fired : in their over- 
haste to satisfy an Archduchess, ^' two mortars ex- 
plode and kill thirty persons." It is in vain; Lille, 
often burning, is always quenched again ; Lille will 
not yield. The very boys deftly wrench the matches 
out of &|len bombs : *' a man clutches a rolling ball 
with his hat, which takes fire; when cool, they 
crown it with a bonnet rouge." Memorable also be 
that nimble Barber, who when the bomb burst beside 
him, snatched up a sherd of ft, introduced soap and 
lather into it, crying " VoiU mon plat 4 barbe (My 
new shaving-dish) !" and shaved " fourteen people " 
on the spot. Bravo, thou nimble shaver ; worthy to 
shave old spectral Red-cloak, and find treasures! — 
On the eighth day of this desperate siege, the 6th 
day of October, Austria, finding it fruitless, draws 
off, with no pleasurable consciousness ; rapidly, Du- 
mouriez tending thitherward ; and Lille, too, black 

* *'Bombardement de LlUe" (in "HIstotre Farlemen- 
taire/* xx. 68-n}. 


adieB and . amonidcT, but JubOant skj-high, 
its gates open. The Plat k barbe beeame fash- 
le; "ho "Patriot of an elegant tuni," says Mer 
Bveral jeara Bfterward, ''but shaves binaelf out 
i splinter of a Lille bomb." 

3. Qaid mnlta (Wb; maay woida) ? The In- 
SBTftinfl^t; Bnuiswick'sHoat.tbethiidp^rt 
gone to death, el^gen disaetrona alonK the 
high'vrajs of Champagne; spieading out also 
the fields of a tAiigb spongy red-colored clay i" 
Ice Pharaoh through a Eed Sea of Mud," says 
le; "for here also lay brakeii chariots, and 
: and foot seemed ainkii^ around."* On the 
itta momii^ of October, the World-Poet, stmg- 

Northword out of Verdim, which he had en- 
Sonthward, some five weeks ago, iuquite other 
discerned the following Pheaomeuou and 
d part of it 

4. "Towardthree in themoroing, withoathav- 
)d any sleep, we were about mounting our cai- 
diawu Qp at the dooi ; when an inanperable 
lie disclosed itself: for theie rolled on already, 
en the pavement-stones which were crushed 
o a ridge on each side, an uninterrupted column 
k-wagons through the Town, and ail was trod- 
} into a morass. While we stood waiting what 
be made of it, oar Landlord and JCuight of 
Louis pressed past us, without salutation." 
id been a Calonne's Notable in 1787, an Emt- 
since ; bad returned to his home, jubilant, with 
russians . but must now forth again into the 
^ampagBe In FraakntliA," p. lOB. 

MXEUNT, 233- 

wide worldj " followed by a Bemnt canying a little 
bundle oh his etick«" 

1366. ^ The activity of our alert Lifideuz ahone 
eminent, and on this occasion too brought us on : lor 
he struck into a small gap of the ws^on-row; and 
held the advancing team back tiU we, with our six 
and our four horses, got intercalated ; after which, 
ill my light little coachlet. I could breath freer. We 
were now under way ; at a funeral pace^ but still 
under way. The day broke ; we found ourselves at 
the outlet of the Town, in a tumult and turmoil 
without measure. All sorts of vehicles, few horse- 
men, innumerable foot-people, were crossing each 
other on the great esplanade before the Gate. We 
turned to the right, With our Column, toward Estain, 
on a limited highway, with ditches at each side. 
Self-preservation, in so monstrous a press, knew now 
no pity, no respect of aught. 

Not far before us there fell down a horse of an am- 
munition-wagon ; they cut the traces, and let it lie. 
And now as the three others could not bring their 
load along, they cut them also loose, tumbled the 
heavy-packed vehicle into the ditch ; and with the 
smallest retardation, we had to drive on right over 
the horse, which was just about to rise ; and I saw 
too clearly how its legs, under the wheels, went 
crashing and quivering, 

1366. " Horse and foot endeavored to escape from 
the narrow laborious highway into the meadows; 
but these too were rained to ruin; overflowed by full 
ditches, the connection of the foot-paths everywhere 
interrupted. Four gentlemen-like, handsome, well- 


BDeh BDldieiB wad«d for a time iMtdde our 
TonderMly clean and nest: and had such 
ing their st^w, that theii foot-^eai teati- 
her thim the ankle to the mnddy pilgrim- 
;ood people foand thenuetTes engaged in. 
niat nnder snch circnoiBtiuices one saw, in 
meadowe, in delde and croAe, dead boraee 
>8 natnial to the cose ; by and by, bow- 
found them alao flayed, the fleshy parte 
iray ; sad token of the oniTersal diatreas. 
ilmaweftiTulon; eyery moment in danger, 
lleet steppage «n oni own part, of being 
nmbled overboard ; nnder which circuni' 
ilj, l3ie careful dexterity of oar Liaieux 
be anfficieutly praiaed. The same talent 
elf at Eetaiu ; where we aniTed toward 
descried, over the beautiful well-built 
1, through streets and fm sqnarea, around 
us, one sense-confusing tumult: the mass 
way and that ; and, all straggling forward, 
red the other. Unespectedly our carriage 
efore a stately honse in the market-phice ; 
. mistress of the mansion sainted us in 
listance." Dexterous Lisienx, though we 
t, had said we were the £iDg of Frossia's 

tut now, iTom the ground-floor windows, 
■er the whole market-place, we had the 
anlt lying, as it were, palpable. All sorts 
soldiers in nniform, marauders, stout but 
citizens and peaaania, women and children, 
d jostled each other, amid vehidea of all 

exevnt: 235 

foJrms: aminunition-wagwis, baggage-wagenft ; em* 
riages, single, double, and mnltiplex ; such hundred- 
fold miscellany of teams, requisitioned or lawfully 
owned, making way, hitting t<^ther, hindered each 
other, rolled here to right and to left. Horned-cattle 
too were struggling on ; probably herds that had been 
put in requisition. Riders you saw few; but the 
elegant carriages of the Emigrants, many-colored, 
lackered-, gilt and silvered, evidently by the best 
builders, caught your eye.* 

1^0. *' The crisis of the strait, however, arose far- 
ther on a Kttle; where the crowded market-place 
had to introduce itself into » street, — straight indeed 
aud good, but proportionately fer too narrow. I have, 
in my life, seen nothing like it: the aspect of it 
might perhaps be compared to that of a swollen river 
which has been raging over meadows and fields, and 
is now again obliged to press itself through a narrow 
bridge, and flow on in its bounded channeL Down 
the long street, all visible from our vmidowSf there 
swelled continually the strangest tide : a high double- 
seated triaveling coach towered visible over the flood 
of things. We thought of the fair Frenchwomen we 
had seen in the morning. It was not they, however ; 
it was Count Haugwitz ; him you could look at, with 
a kind of sardonic malice, rocking onward, step by 
step, there."t 

1371. In such untrinmphant Procession has the 
Brunswick Manifesto issuMt Nay in wotsc, "ia 

 See "Hermann und Dorothea" (also by Goethe), Buch 

t '^Campafirne in Frankrelch,*' Goethe's '* Werke " (Stutt- 
gart, 1889), XXX. 133-137. 


tioa witb tlie'at iniacreaiiis," — the first nevs 
h produced sutli a revutsion in the Emigraot 
as put out acieulific World Poet " in fear for 
B of several."*. Tbeie is no help : th«; must 
tbese poor EmigrantB, augrj wiUi all persons 
Dga, and making all persons ODgrj in the hap- 
rse thej stmck into. Landlord and landlady 
to fon, at tables-d'hote, bow insupportable 
rencbmea are : bow, in spite of such tinmUia- 
porertf and probable beggary, tbere is ever 
le struggle for precedence, the same forward- 
d want of discretion. Higb in honor ; at the 
the table, yon with your own eyes observe 
ieignenr, bnt the antomaton of a Seignenr 
into dotage; etil] worshiped, reverentlj 
on and fed. In miscellaneous seats is a mis- 
of soldiers, commissaries, adventnreiB ; con- 
silently their barbarian victuals. " On all 
9 to be re^d a hord deetiny ; all are silent, for 
s his own sufTt^rings to bear, and looks forth 
sery wilhont bounds." One hasty wanderer, 
in, and eating without ungiacionsoess what 
efore him, the landlord lets off almost acot- 
He is," whispered the landlord to me, "the 
Jiese cursed people I haveseeu coodeeceud to 
I German black bT«iML"t 
And Damouriez is in Paris; landed and 
; paraded in glittering saloons, floods of beau- 
blonde-dreaaee and broedcloth-coata flowing 
npagne In Frankreicb,'' Goethe's " Werke,"zzz. 
npapie in Frankrelch." Goethe's Werke, p. BID- 

past him, endless, in admiring joy. (hie nightj nerer- 
theless, in the splendor of one such seene, he sees 
himself suddenly apostrophized hy a squalid nnjoy-. 
ful Figure, who has come in wninvited, nay despite 
Of all lackeys : an unjoyful Figure ! The Figure is 
come " in express mission from the Jac6bins," to in- 
quire sharply, better then than later,^ touching cer- 
tain things : " Shaven eyebrows of Volunteer Patriots, 
for instance ?" Also, " your threats of shivering in 
pieces?" Also, "why you have not chased Bruns- 
wick hotly ^ongh ?" Thus, with sharp croak, in- 
quires the Figure, — "Ah, c'est vous qu'on appelle 
Marat (You are he they call Marat) !" answers the 
General, and turns coldly on his heel.* — " Marat !" 
The blonde-gowns quiver like aspens; the dress 
coats gather round ; Actor Talma (for it Is his house), 
Actor Talma, and almost the very chandelier-lights 
are blue: till this obscene Spectrum, swart unearthly 
Visual-Appearance, vanish, back into his native 

1373. General Dumouriez, in few brief days, is 
gone a^ain, toward the Netherlands ; will attack the 
Netherlands, winter though it be. And General 
Montesquieu, on the South-east, has driven in the 
Sardinian Majesty ; nay, almost without a shot fired, 
has taken Savoy from him, which longs to become a 
piece of the Republic. And General Custine, on the 
North-east, has dashed forth on Spires and its Ar- 
senal ; and then on Electoral Mentz, not uninvited, 

* Dumounez, lii. 116.— Marafs account, in the •*Dfebat8 
des Jacobin B" and Journal de la Republique ("Histoire 
Parlementaire,** xix. 317-321). agrrees to the turning on 
the heel, but sti'ives to interpret it differently. 


1 are German Bemocr&ta and no sbadow of 
:tor now : bo that in the last daf a of October, 
]iater, a daughter of Hejne's, somewHat demo' 
ivalking ont of the Gate of Mentz with her 
id, finds French Soldien playing at bowla 
uuion-balls there. Forater trips cheerfiillj' 
e iron bomb, with " Live the Republic !" A 
carded National Guard anaweie, " Elle Tivra 
M Tons (It will probably live independently 

inn Oeorg Fontor'a "arietweohMl " (Iielpils> 





1374. France therefore has done two things very 
completely: she has hurled back her Cimmerian 
Invaders far over the marches ; and likewise she has 
shattered her own internal Social Constitution, even 
to the minutest fiber of it, into wreck and dissolu* 
tion. Utterly it is all altered : from King down to 
Parish Constable, all Authorities, Magistrates, Judges, 
persons that bore rule, have had, on the sudden, to 
alter themselves, so far as needful ; or else, on the 
sudden, and not without violence, to be altered ; a 
Patriot ** Executive Council of Ministers," with a 
Patriot. Danton in it, and then a whole Nation and 
National Convention, have taken care of that. Not 
a Parish Constable, in the farthest hamlet, who has 
said De par le Roi, and shown loyalty, but must re- 
tire, making way for a new improved Parish Con- 
stable who can say De par la R^publique. 

1375. It is a change such as History must b^ her 
readers to ima;]cine, tmdescribed. An instantaneous 


 of the ivbole body-politic,- the Bonl-jHdiiic 
all changed ; such a change as few bodies, 
or other, can experience in this world. Say, 

0, such as poor Nymph Semele'e body did ex* 
;e, when stie would needs, with woman's ha* 
ie her Olynipiaii Jove as very Jove'; — and so 
pour Nymph, thia moment Seniele, next mo- 
lot Semele, but Flame and a Statue of red-hot 

France has looked upon Democracy ; seen 
to face. — The Cimmerian Invaders will rallyi 
ihler temper, nith better or worse luck : the 
and dissolution must rt'shnpe itself into a so- 
rai^ement as it can and may. But aa for this 
al Convention, which is to setUe everything, 

1, aa Deputy Faine and France generally ex- 
;et all finished " in a lew months," we shall 
i, most deft Convention. 

. In truth, it ia very singular to see how thiq 
ial French People plunj^es suddenly from 
: Roi to Vive la E^publique; and goeasini- 

aud dancing, shaking otT daily (so to speak) 
impling into the dust, its old social garnitures, 
r thinking, rnlea of existing ; and cheerfully 

toward the Euleiesa, Unknown, wit^ snch 

I its heart, and nothing hut Freedom, Equality, 
aiherbood ia its mouth. Is it two centuries, or 
ly two years, since all France roared simul- 
i\j to the welkin, hurBting forth inU) sound 
.oke at its Feast of Pikes, " Live the Restorer 
ich Liberty ?" Three short years ago there 

II VjcrsaiJIes and Oilil-de-Bteuf : now there ia 
ttched Circuit of the Temcle, girl with dr^on- 


eyed Mvmeip&lSi where, as in its final limbo, Royalty 
liies extinct. In xhe year 1789, Constituent Deputy 
Barrdre " wept," in his Break-of-Day Newspaper, at 
sight of a reconciled King Louis ; and now in 1792, 
Oonvention Deputy Barr^re, perfectly tearless, may 
be considering, whether the reconciled King Louis 
shall be guillotined or not ! 

1377. Old garnitures and social ventures drop ofi*, 
(we say) so fast, being indeed quite decayed, and are 
trodden under the National dance. And the new 
vestures, where are they ; the new modes and rules ? 
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity : not vestures, but the 
wish for vestures ! The Nation is for the present, 
figuratively speaking, naA;erf ; it has no rule or ves- 
ture ; but is naked, — a Sansculottic Nation. 

1378. So far therefore, and in such manner, have 
our Patriot Brissots, Guadets triumphed. Vergniaud's 
Ezekjel- visions of the fall of thrones and crowns, 
which he spake hypothetically and prophetically in 
the Spring of the year, have suddenly come to ftilfiU- 
ment in the Autumn. Our eloquent Patriots of the 
Legislative, like strong Conjurors, by the word of 
their mouthy have swept Royal ism with its old modes 
and formulas to the winds ; and shall now govern a 
France free of formulas. Free of formulas! And 
yet man lives not except with formulas ; with cus- 
tomS) ways of doing and living : no text truer than 
this ; which will hold true from the Tea-table and 
Tailor's shop-board up to the High Senate-houses, 
Solemn Temples ; nay through all provinces of Mind 
and Imagination, onwards to the outmost confines 
of articulate Beings — Ubi homines sunt modi sunt. 


Thei-e are mod^ wherever there aa:e men. It is the 
deepest law of man's nature ; whereby man is a orafts- 
man and ^' tool-using animal ;'' not the slave of Im- 
pulse, Chance and bmte Nature, but in some measure 
their lord. Twenty-five millions of men, suddenly 
stript bare of their modi, and dancing them down in 
that manner, are a terrible thing to govern ! 

1379. Eloquent Patriots of the Legislative, mean- 
while, have precisely this problem to solve. Under 
the name and nickname of ^^ statesmen (hommes 
d'(3jbat)," of " moderate men (mod^rantins)," of Bris- 
sotins, Rolandins, finally of Girondins, they shall be- 
come world-famous in solving it. For the 25,000,000 
are Gallic effervescent too ; — ^filled both with hope of 
the unutterable, of universal Fraternity and Golden 
Age ; and with terror of the unutterable, Cimmerian 
Europe all rallying on us. It is a few. 
Truly, if man, as the Philosophers brag, did to any 
extent look before and after, what, one may ask, in 
many cases would become of him ? What, in this 
case, would become of these 749 men ? The Con- 
vention, seeing clearly before and after, were a para- 
lyzed Convention. Seeing clearly to the length of 
its own nose, it is not paralyzed. 

1380. To the Convention itself neither the work 
nor the method of doing it is doubtful! To make 
the Constitution ; to defend the Republic till that 
be made. Speedily enough, accordingly, there has 
been a ** Committee of the Constitution '' got together. 
Sieyes, Old-Constituent, Constitution-builder by 
trade ; Condorcet, fit for better things ; Deputy Paine, 
foreign Benefactor of the Species, with that " red car- 


blinded face and the black beatning eyes f H^rault 
de S^chelles, Ex-Parlementeer, one of the hand- 
somest mea. in France; tbese, with inferior guild- 
brethren, are girt cheerfully to the work ; will once 
more '*make the €k)nstitution ;" let us hope, more 
effectually than last time. For that the Constttution 
can be made, who doubts, — unless the Gospel of Jean 
Jacques came into the world in vain ? True, our last 
Constitution did tumble within the year, so lament- 
ably. But what then : except sort the rubbish and 
boulders, and build them up again better ? '^ Widen 
your basis," for one thing,-^to Universal Suffrage, if 
need be; exclude rotten materials, Royalism and 
such-Hke, for another thing. And in brief, huild^ O 
unspeakable Sieyes and Company, unwearied ! Fre- 
quent perilous down-rushing of scaffolding and rub- 
ble-work, be that an irritation, no discouragement. 
Start ye always again, clearing aside the wreck ; if 
with broken limbs, yet with whole hearts ; and build, 
we say, in the name of Heaven, — ^till either the work 
do stand ; or else mankind abandon it, and the Con- 
stitution-builders be paid off, with laughter and 
tears? One good time, in the course of Eternity, it 
was appointed that this of Social Contract too should 
try itself out. And so the Committee of Constitution 
shiedl toil : with hope and faith ; — with no disturo- 
ance irom any reader of these pages. 

1381. To make the Constitution, then, and return 
home joyfiilly in a few months; this is the prophecy 
our National Convention gives of itself; by this 
scientific programme shall its operations and events 
go on. But from the best scientific programme^ in 


\ CBM, to fbe actual f\il&llmeiit, wtiat ft SiSiBr- 
Every reanion of meo, is it not, ea wr oftni 
leonion of incalcnlable laflaences ; every Duit 
I microcosm of Influences ;— of which how shall 
» calculate or prophesy ? Science, whicli can- 
>ith all its calcnlaBcs, diS'erential, integral and 
•iations, calculate the Problem of Three graei- 
; Bodies, ought t« hold her peace here, and say 
In this National Convention there are 749 
lingular Bodies, that gravitate and do mnch 
-vrho, probably in an amazing manner, will 
the appointment of Heaven. 
2. Of National Assemblages, Parliaments, Om- 
S, which have long sat, wliich are of saturine 
lament ; above all, which are not " dreadfully 
nest ;" something may be computed or conjee- 
: yet even these are a kind of Mystery in pro- 
— whereby accordingly we see the Jonroalist 
ter find livelihood : even thew jolt madly ont 
! rnta, from time to time. How much more a 
National Convention, of French vehemence; 
on at such velocity ; without routine, without 
ack or landmark, and dreadfliHy in eamefit 
man of them! It is a Parliament literally 
ia there was never elsewhere in the world. 
selves are new, unarranged; they are tbe Heart 
residing center of a France fallen wholly into 
«t disarrangement. [From all cities, hamlets, 
.he utmost ends of this France with its 25,000,- 
hementsoula, thick-streaming influences storm- 
that same Heart, in the Salle de Manage, and 
'Ont again : snch fiery venons-arteriid drcula- 


tfon is the function of that Heart. Seven-hundred 
and Forty-nine human individuals, we siQr, never 
9at together on our.Barth under more original cir- 
eumstances. Common individuals most of them, or 
not far from common : yet in virtue of the position 
they occupied, so notable. How, in this wild piping 
of the whirlwind of human passions, with death, 
victory, terror, valor, and all height and all depth 
pealing and piping, tiiese men« left to„ their own guid> 
anoe, will speak and act ? 

1383. headers know well that this French National 
Convention (quite contrary to its own Programme) 
became the astonishment and horror of mankind ; a 
kind of Apocalyptic Convention, or black Dream &€- 
come real ; concerning which History seldom speaks 
except in the way of interjection: how it covered 
France with woe, delusion and delirium ; and from 
its bosom there went forth Death on the pale Horse. 
To hate this poor National Convention is easy; to 
praise and love it has not been found impossible. It 
is, as we say, a Parliaipent in the most original cir- 
cumstances. To us, in these pages, be it as a fuligi- 
nous fiery mystery, where Upper has met Nether, 
and in such alternate glare and blackness of dark- 
ness poor bedazzled mortals know not which is 
Upper, which is Nether ; but xage and plunge dis- 
tractedly, as mortals in that case will do. A Con- 
vention which has to consume itself, suicidally ; and 
become dead ashes — with its World ! Behooves us, 
not to enter ezploratively its dim embroiled deeps ; 
yet to stand \\ ith unwavering eyes, looking how it 
welters ; what notable phases and occurrences it will 
successively throw up. 


1384. One general superficial circumstance we re- 
mark with praise : the force of Politeness, to such 
depth has the sense of civilization i)enetrated man's 
life ; no Drouet, no Legendre, in the maddest tug of 
war, can altogether shake it off. Behates of Senates 
dreadfhlly in earnest are seldom given frankly to 
the world ; else perhaps they would surprise it. Bid 
not the Grand Monarque himself once chase his 
Louvois with a pair of brandished tongs ? But read- 
ing long volumes of these Convention Dehates, all in 
a foam with furious earnestness, earnest many times 
to the extent of life and death, one is struck rath^ 
with the degree of continence they manifest in 
speech ; and how in such will ebullition, there is 
still a kind of polite rule struggling for mastery, and 
the forms of social life never altogether disappear. 
These men, though the menace with clenched right'- 
hands, do not clutch one another by the collar; they 
draw no daggers, except for oratorical purposes, and 
this not often : profane swearing is almost unknown, 
though the Reports are frank enough ; we find only 
one or two oaths, oath by Marat, reported in all. 

1386. For the rest, that there is "effervescence" 
who doubts ? Effervescence enough ; Decrees passed 
by acclamation to-day, repealed by vociferation to- 
morrow ; temper fitful, most rotatoiy-changeful, al- 
ways headlong ! The ** voice of the orator is covered 
with rumors ;" a hundred " honorable Members rush 
with menaces toward the Left side of the Hall f 
President has " broken three bells in succession," — 
claps on his hat, as signal that the country is near 
ruined. A fiercely effervescent Old-Gallic Assem^ 


b]4ge.t— Ali> bow the load sick sounds of Debate, aad 
o£ Life, which is a dtMi^^ sink silent, one after an- 
other; so loud now, and in a little while so low! 
Brennus,- and those antique Gael Captains, in their 
way to ,^nie, to Galatia and such places, whither 
they were in the habit of inarching in the most fiexy 
manner, had Debates as effervescent, doubt it not ; 
though no Honiteur has reported them. They 
scolded in Celtic Welsh, those Breimuses; neither 
were they Sansculotte; nay rather breeches (braccse, 
say of felt or rough-leather) were the only thing they 
had; being, as Livy testifies, naked down to the 
haunches; — ^aud, see, it is the same sort of work and 
of men stUl, now when they have got coats, and 
speak nasally a kind of broken Latin ! But, on the 
whole, does not Time envelop this present National 
Convention ; as it did those Brennuses, and ancient 
august Senates in felt breeches ? Time surely : and 
also Eternity. Dim dusk of Time, — or noon which 
will be dusk ; and then there is night, and silence ; 
and Time with all its sick noises is swallowed in the 
still sea. Pity thy brother, O son of Adam I The 
angriest frothy jargon that he utters, is it not proi)- 
erly the whimpering of an iuiant which cannot 
speak, what ails it, but is in distress clearly, in the 
inwMds of it; and so must squall and whimper con- 
tinually, till its Mother take itj and it get — to sleep ! 
1386. This Convention is not four days old, and 
the melodious Melibcean stanzas that shook down 
Royalty are still fresh in our ear, when there bursts 
out a new diapason, — ^unhappily, of Discord, this 
time. For speech has been made of a thing difficult 

248 ::r: RmJtemK, 

to speak of well : th^ September MafiBacre9* How 
deal with tbeoe September Maaeacres; witb. the 
Paris Commune that presicied over them ? A Paris 
Commtine hateful-terrible; before which the poor 
effete Legislative had to quail, aud sit quiet. And 
now if a young omnipotent Conventiun will not so 
quail and sit, what steps shall it take ? Have a De* 
partmental Guard in its pay, answer the Glrondms 
and Friends of Order ! A Guard of Nati(mal Volnn* 
teers, missioned from all the Eighty- three or Eighty- 
five Departments, for that express end ; these will 
keep Septemberers, tumultuous Communes in a due 
state of submissiveness, the Convention in a due 
state of sovereignty. So have the Friends of Order 
answered, sitting in Committee, and reporting ; and 
even a Decree has been passed of the required tenor. 
Nay certain Departments, as the Var or Marseilles, 
in mere expectation and assurance of a Decree, have 
their contingent of Volunteers already on march ; 
brave Marseilles, foremost on the 10th of August, 
will not be hindmost here : ''Fathers gave their sons 
a musket and twenty-five louis," says Barbaroux,'' 
^' and bade them march." 

1387. Can anything be properer? A Republic 
that will found itself on justice must needs investi- 
gate September Massacres; a Convention calling 
itself National, ought it not to be guarded by a Na- 
tional force?— 'Alas, Keader, it seems so to the eye : 
and yet there is much to be said and argued. Thou 
beholdest here the small beginning of a Controversy, 
which mere logic will not settle. Two small well- 
springs, September, Departmental Guard, or rather 


at bottoifii t&e^ are but on« and the same small well- 
spring ; which will swell and widen* into waters of 
bitterness ; all manner of subsidiary streams and 
brooks of bitterness flowing in, from this side and 
that ; till it become a wide river of bitterness, of 
rage and separation, — w^ich can subside only into 
the Catacombs. This Departmental Guard, decreed 
by ot€rwh^ming majorities, and then repeeded for 
peaee^ sake^ and not to insult Paris, is again decreed 
more thau once ; nay it is partially executed, and 
the very men that are to be of it are seen visibly 
parading the Paris streets, — shouting once, being 
Overtaken with liquor: " A bas Marat (Down with 
Marat) V* Nevertheless, decreed never so often, it , 
is repealed just as often; and continues, for. some 
seven months an angxy noisy Hypothesis only: a 
fair Possibility struggling to become a Reality, but 
which €^11 never be one; which, after endless 
struggling, shall, in February next, sink into sad 
rest, — dragging much along with it. So singular are 
the ways of men and h<morable Members. 

1388. But on this fourth day of the Convention's 
existence, as we said, which is the 25th of Septem- 
ber, 1792; there comes Committee Report on that 
Decree of the Departmental Guard, and speech of 
repealing it; there come denunciations of Anarchy, 
of a Dictatorship, — which let the incorruptible 
Robespierre consider : there comes denunciations of 
a certain Journal de la R<^publique, once called Ami 
de Peuple; and so thereupon there comes, visibly 
stepping up, visibly standing aloft on the Tribune, 

* ** Histoire Parlementalre/' xx. 184. 


ready to speak, — the Bodily Spectrum of PeopleV 
Friend Marat ! Shriek, ye 749 ; it is verily Marat, 
he and not another. Marat is no phantasm of the 
hrain, or mere lying impress of Printer^s l*ypes ; bnt 
a thing material, of joint and sinew, and a certain 
small stature ; ye behold him there, in his blackness, 
in his dingy squalor, a living fraction of Chdos and 
Old-Kight ; visibly incarnate, desirous to speak. " It 
appears," says Marat to the shrieking Assembly, 
"that a great many persons here are enemies of 
mine." — ^''All! all!" shriek hundreds of voices: 
enough to drovm any People's-Friend. But Marat 
idll not drown ; he speaks and croaks explanation ; 
croaks with such reasonableness, air of sincerity, 
that repentant pity smothers anger, and the shrieks 
subside, or even become applauses. For this Con- 
vention is unfortunately the crankest of machines: 
it shall be pointing eastward with stiff violence this 
moment ; and then do but touch some spring dex- 
terously, the whole machine, clattering and jerking 
seven-hundred-fold, will whirl with huge crash, and, 
next moment, is pointing westward ! Thus Marat, 
absolved and applauded, victorious in this turn of 
fence, is, as the Debate goes on, prickt at again by 
some Dexterous Girondin ; and then the shrieks rise 
anew, and Decree of Accusation is on the point of 
jmssing; till the dingy People^s-Friend bobs aloft 
once more; croaks once more persuasive stillness, 
and the Decree of Accusation sinks. Whereupon he 
draws forth — a Pistol ; and setting it to his Head, 
the seat of such thought and prophecy, says : " If 
they had passed their Accusation Decree, he, the 


People^firFricmd, would have blown his brains out." 
A PeopleVFriend has that faculty in him. For the 
rest, as to this of the 260,000 Aristocrat Heads, 
Marat candidly says, " Cest U mon avis (Such is my 
opinion)." Also is it not indisputable : *' No power 
on Earth can prevent me from seeing into traitors, 
and unmasking them," — ^by my superior originality 
of mind ?* An honorable member like this Friend 
of the People few terrestrial Parliaments have had. 
1389. We observe, however, that this first on- 
slaught by the Friends of Order, as sharp and 
prompt as it was, has failed. For neither can Hobes- 
pierre, summoned out by talk of Dictatorship, and 
greeted with the like rumor on showing himself, be 
thrown into Prison, into Accusation ; not though 
Barbarous: <^nly bear testimony against him, and 
sign it on paper. With such sanctified meekness 
does the Incorruptible lift his sea-green cheek to the 
smiter ; lift his thin voice, and with Jesuitic dexterity 
plead, and prosper ; asking at last, in a prosperous 
manner : " But what witnesses has the Citoyen Bar- 
baroux to support his testimony?" "Moi!" cries 
hot Rebecqui, standing up, striking his breast with 
both hands, and answering " Me !"f Nevertheless 
the Sea-green pleads again, and makes it good, the 
long hurly-burly, " personal merely," while so much 
public matter lies fallow, has ended in the order of 
the day. O Friends of the Gironde, why will you 

*Monfteur newspaper, Nos. 271,280,294. Ann^e pre- 
miere; Moore 8, *'JoumaL" il. 21, 157, etc. » (which, how- 
ever, may perhaps, as in similar cases, be oniy a copy of 
the newspaper). 
. t Moniteur, ut supr&: Stance du 25 Septembre. 

352 iEQltSDE. 

occupy otir angnst seauous with mero paltc^^ Person- 
I, while the grand NittiouiiJiiy lies in snch a 
? — The Gironde has touched, this day, on the 
>lack-siK)t of its fair Convention Domain; haa 
en on it, and yet not trodden it down. Alas, it 
ell-apring, as we said, this black-spot; and will 
ead down 1 


9. May we not conjecture therefore that mund 
■rand enterprise of Making the Conatitntion, 
will, as heretofore, very strange embroilments 
and questions and interests complicate them- 
Bo that after a few or even several months, 
nvention will not have settled everything? 
a whole tide of questions comes Tolling, boil- 
growing ever wider, without end! Among 
, apart IVom this question of September and 
by, let us notice three, which emerge oftener 
the others, and promise to become Leading 
ioua: Of the Armies; of the Sobsistences ; 
y, of the Dethroned King. 
I. As to the Armies, Public Defease mnst evi- 
' be put on a proper footing ; for Europe seems 
cing itself again ; one is apprehensive even 
nd will join it. Happily Dumonriez prospers 
3 North ; — nay, what if he should prove loo 
TOQS, and become Liberticide, Murderer of 
nm ! — Dnmouiiez pnepers, through this winter 


season ; jet sot witlK>ut lamentable camplaints. 
Sleek Pache, the Swiss School-master, he that sat 
frugal ill his Alley, the wonder of neighbors, has got 
lately — whither thinks the Reader ? To be Minister 
of War ! Madame Koland, struck with bis sleek ways 
recommended him to her husband as Clerk ; the 
sleek Clerk had no need of salary, being of true 
Patriotic temper ; he would come with a bit of bread 
in his pocket, to save dinner and time ; and munch- 
ing incidentally, do three men's work in a day ; 
punctual, silent, frugal, — the sleek Tartuflfe that he 
was. Wherefore Koland, in the late Overturn, recom- 
mended him to be War- Minister. And now, it would 
seem, he is secretly undermining Roland ; playing 
into the hands of your hotter Jacobins and Septem- 
ber Commune ; and cannot, like strict Roland, be the 
Veto des Coquins!* 

1392. How the sleek Pache might mine and under- 
mine, one knows not well ; this however one does 
know: that his War-Office has become a den of 
thieves and confusion, such as all men shudder to 
behold. That the Citizen Hassenfratz, as Head- 
Clerk, sits there in bonnet rouge, in rapine, in vio- 
lence, and some Mathematical calculation ; a most 
insolent, red-nightcapped man. That Pache munches 
his pocket-loaf, amid head- clerks and sub-clerks, and 
has spent all the War-Estimates. That Furnishers 
scour in gigs, over all districts of France, and drive 
bargains. And lastly that the Army gets next to no 
furniture : no shoes, though it is winter ; no clothes ; 
some have not even arms ; " In the Army of the 

* Uaaame Roland, -'Memoires/' ii. 237, etc. 


" comp.aiiiB an honorable Hanber, " tbeie are 
pairs of breeches wanting," — a most scan- 

. E<dand'e etrictsonl is sick to see tbeconrM 

take : bnt what can he do 1 Keep bis own 
;ment strict; rebake, and repress wboeoerer 
e ; at lowest, complain. He can complain in 

tdter Letter, la a National Convention, to 
1, to Posterity, the Univeree ; grow erer mors 
ons-indignant ; — till at lost, may he not grow 
>nie ? For la not this continniJ text of his, at 
I, a rather barren one; How astonishing that 
me of Revolt and abrogation of all Law bnt 
a Law, there should be anch UnlawAilness? 
id Veto-of-Sconndrels, nairow-faitlifiil. Te- 
lle, methodic man, work tbou in that manner, 
happil; it is tbj manner, and wear thyself 

thotigb ineffectnal, not profitless in it — then 
•w ! — The brave Dame Solond, bravest of all 
t women, begins to have mi^Tings: The 
)f Dimton has too mnch of the " Bardanspaloa 
ter," at a Bopublican Rolandin Dinner-table ; 
.Speaker of Mankind, proses sad stnff about 
reisal Republic, or union of all Peoples and 
^ in one and the same Fraternal Bond ; of 

Bond, how it is t« be tied, one unhappily aeea 

. Jt is also an indisputable, unaccountable or 
table tiict, that Grains are becoming scarcer 
»rcer. Eiols for grain, tumultuous Aasem- 
demanding to have the price of grain fixed. 
1 far and near. Tbe Mayor of Paris and other 


poor Mayors are like to bave their difficultieB. 
P^tioii was re-elected Mayor of Paris; but has de- 
clined; being now a Convention Legislator. Wise 
L cmrely to decline : for, besides this of Grains and all 
the restj there is in these times an Improvised In- 
surrectionary Commune passing into an Elected one ; 
getting their accounts settled, — not without irri- 
. tanoy ! Pdtion has declined : nevertheless many do 
; covet and canvass. After months of scrutimzing, 
baUotiog, arguing and jargoning, one Doctor Cfaam- 
bon gets the post of honor : who will not long keep 
it} but be^as we shall see, literally crushed out of 

1395. Think also if the private Sansculotte has 
not his difficulties, in a time of dearth ! Bread, ac- 
cording to the Pcople's-Friend, may be some " six 
sous per pound, a day's wages some fifteen ;" and 
.grim winter here. How the Poor Man continues 
living, and so seldom starves ; by miracle ! Happily, 
in these days, he can enlist, and have himself shot 
by the Austrians, in an unusually satisfactory man- 
ner : for the Bights of Man. — But Commandant San- 
terre, in this so straitened condition of the flour- 
market, and state of Equality and Liberty, proposes, 
through the Newspapers, two remedies, or at least 
palliatives : First that all classes of men should 
live two days of the week on potatoes ; then, second, 
that every man should hang his dog. Hereby, as 
the Commandant thinks, the saving, which indeed 
he computes to so many sacks, would be very con- 
siderable. Cheerfuler form of inventive-stupidity 
* ** Diotiomiaire des flommes Marquans," I Chambon. 


than Commandant Santerre's dwells in no human 
soul. Inventive-stupidity, imbedded in health, cour- 
age and good-nature : much to be commended. " My 
whole strength," he tells the Convention once, "is 
day and night, at the service of my fellow-citizens : 
if they find me worthless, they will dismiss me ; I 
will return and brew beer.* 

1396. Or figure what correspondences a poor Ro- 
land, Minister of the Interior, must have, on this of 
Grains alone ! Free-trade in Grain, impossibility to 
^m the Prices of Grain ; on the other hand, clamor 
and necessity to fix them : Political Economy lectur- 
ing from the Home Office, with demonstration clear 
as Scripture ;— ineffectual for the empty NatiomU 
Stonach. The Mayor of Chartres, like to be eaten 
himself, cries to the Convention; the Convention 
sends honorable Members in Deputation; who en- 
deavor to feed the multitude by miraculous spiritual 
methods; but cannot. The multitude, in spite of 
all Eloquence, come bellowing round; will have the 
Grain-Prices fixed, and at moderate elevation ; or else 
— ^the honorable Deputies hanged on the spot 1 The 
honorable Deputies reporting this business admit that 
on the edge of horrid death, they did fix, or effect to 
fix the Price of Grain : for which, be it also noted, 
the Convention, a Convention that will not be 
trifled with, sees good to reprimand them.f 

1397. But as to the origin of these Grain-Riots, is 
it not most probably your secret Royalists again? 
Glimpses of Priests were discernible in this of Char- 

 Moniteur <ln " Hjstolre Parlementaire.*' xx. 412). 
t '* Histoire Parlemcntaire/* xx. 431-440. 


tres,— to the eye of Patriotism. Or indeed may not 
**the root of it all lie in the Temple Prison, in the ^ 
heart of a perjured King" well as we guard him?* 
Uuhappy perjured King! — And so there shall be 
Bakers' Queues by and by, more sharp- tempered than 
ever : on every Baker's door-rabbet an iron ring, and 
coil of rope; whereon, with firm grip, on this side 
and that, we form our Queue : but mischievous de- 
ceitful persons cut the rope, and our Queue become^ 
a rayelment: wherefore the coil must be made of 
iron chain.f Also there shall be Prices of Grain well 
fixed; but then no grain purchasable by them: 
bread not to be had except by Ticket from >he Mayor, 
few ounces per mouth daily; after long swaying, 
with firm grip, on the chain of the Queue. And 
Hunger shall stalk direful ; and Wrath and Suspi- 
cion, whetted to the Preternatural pitch, shall stalk; 
as those other preternatural "shapes of Gods in their 
wrathfulness" were discerned stalking, "in glare and 
gloom of that fire ocean," when Troy Town fell ! — 



1298. But the question more pressing than all on 
the Legislator, as yet, is this third : What shall be 
done with King Louis? 

King Louis, now King and Majesty to his own 
family alone, in their own Prison Apartment alone, 

* •*Hi8tolreParlemehtaire," rx.40O. 
t Mercier, "Xopveau Paris.** 


sotlM past, been mere Louis Capet and tfae 
rtonith the rest ot France. Shut in his 
the Temple, be lioa heaidand seen the 
I of things; ^ella of September Mtissacres 
: ffar-thnndere d^ing off in disaster and 
re; hepoosive, a epectattv merely; wait- 
er it wonld pleaae to irbirl with him. 
I neighboring vindows; the carioiu, not 
ity, might see him walk daily, at a certain 
le Temple Garden, with his Qaeen, Sister 
bildren, all that now belongs to blm OQ 
* Qnietly he walks and waits: for he ie 
ly feelings, and la of a devout heart. The 
reacdnte has, at least, no need of resolving 
dally meals, leaaoos to his Son, daily 
e Garden, daily game at ombre ordntngbts 
day the morrow will provide for itaelf. 
le morrow indeed ; and yet how ? Lonts 
? France, with perhaps stilJ more solid- 
How? A King dethroned by insnrreo- 
rily not easy to dispose of. Keep him 
e is a secret center for the Disaffected, for 
its, attempts and hopes of theirs. Banitih 
ur open center for them ; his royal war- 
ritb what of divinity it has, iinrolla itself, 
J the world. Pnt him to death ? A omel 
le extremity that too: and yet the like- 
lese extreme circumstances, of insnrree- 
n, whose own life and death lies naked : 
r it is said, from the last step of the throne 
of the scaffold there ia Ouat distance. 
1 m: 11. m.eto. 


1400. Bift, on the whole, we will r^aark here that 
this budiness of Loais looks altogether different now, 
as seen over Seas and at the distance of Ibrty-four 
years, from what it looked then, in France, and 
Mmggling confused all roun^ one. For indeed it is 
a most lying tiling that same Past Tense always: so 
Iteantifhljsad, almost. Ely siau'-sacred, "in the moon? 
light ^f- Memory," it seems ; and «eem«; only. For 
4hiser\^e« always one most important element is surr 
r^ptitionsly (we not noticing it) withdrawn from the 
Past Time: the haggard element of Fear! Not 
lA«re does Fear dwell, nor Uncertainty, nor Anxiety ; 
-hut it dw^ls kert ; haunting us, tracking us ; run- 
like an aocorsed ground-discord through all the 
tnastc tones of our Existence ; — making the Tense a 
mere Present one ! Just so is it with this of Louis. 
Why smite the fallen? Ask Magnanimity, out of 
danger now. He has fallen so low this once-high 
man ; no criminal nor traits, how far from it ; but 
themihappiest of Human Solecisms, whom if abstract 
Justice had to pronounce upcm, she might well be- 
come concrete Pity, and pronounce only sobs and 
dismissal ! 

1401. So argues retrospective Magnanimity: but 
Pusillanimity, present, prospective? Header, thou 
hnst never lived, for months, under the rustle of 
Prussian gallows-ropes ; never wert thou portion of 
a National Sahara-waltz. Twenty-five millions run- 
ning distracted to fight Brunswick t Kuights Errant 
themselves, when they conquered Giants, usually 
slew the Giants; quarter was only for other Knights 
Errant, who knew courtesy and the laws of battle. 

g60 Ji EG WIDE, 

The French Nation, in simultaneoaS) deperate dxdd- 
|>ull. and {IS if by miracle of madness, ha9 palled 
down the most dread Goliath, hdge with the growth 
of ten centuries; and cannot believe, thongh his 
giant bulk, covering acres, lies prostrate, bound with 
peg and pack-thread, that he will not rise again, 
man-devouring; that the victory is not partly a 
dream. Terror has its skepticism; miraculous vic- 
tory its rage of vengeance. Then as to criminality, 
is the prostrated Giant, who will devour us if he rise, 
an innocent Giant ? Curate Gr^goire, who indeed is 
now Constitutional Bishop Gr^goire, asserts, in the 
heat of eloquence, that Kingship by the rery nature 
ot it is a crime capital ; that King's Houses are as 
Mrild-beasts dens.* Lastly consider this: that there 
is on record a Trial of Charles First! This printed 
**Tiial oi Charles First" is sold and read everywhere 
at present-f— Quel spectacle! Thus did the English 
-Feople judge their Tyrant, and become the first of 
Free Peoples: which feat, by the grace of Destiny^ 
fiiayilot France now rival? Skepticism of terror, 
irage of miraculous victory, sublime spectacle to the 
universe, — all things point one fatal way. 

1402. Such leading questions, and their endless 
incidental ones, — of Septenfiber Anarchists and De- 
partmental Guard: of Grain-Riots, plaintive Interior 
Ministers; of Armies, Hassenfratz dilapidations: and 
' what is to be done with Louis, — beleaguer and em- 
broil this. Convention ; which would so gladly make 
the Constitution rather. All which questions, too, 

 Montteur, S^anoe du 21 Septemore^ An l« CX*?^* 
t Moore'a ••Journal.*' \i 156* 


as we oflen utgeof BBch things, are in growth,' they 
grow in ev«ry French head ; and can be seen growing 
also, very curiously, in this mighty welter of Pailia- 
mentary Debate, of Public Business which the Con- 
vention has to do. A question emerges, so small at 
first; is put off, submerged ; but always rercmerges 
bigger than before. It is curious, indeed an in- 
describable sort of growthiwhich such things have. 

1403 We perceive, however, both by its frequent 
re-emergenoe and by its rapid enlargement of 
bulk, that this Question of King Louis will take the 
lead of all the rest. And truly, in that case, it will 
take the l^d in a much deeper sense. For as Aaron^s 
Hod swallowed all the other serpents; so will the 
Foremost Qnestionr, whichever may get foremost, 
c^MK^rb' all other qaestions and interests ; and from it 
and the decision of it will they all, sotospeak^be 
5om, or new-born, and have shape, physiognomy 
and destiny corresponding. It was appointed of 
Fate that, in this wide-weltering, strangely growing, 
monstrous stupendous imbroglio of Convention Busi- 
ness, the grand First Parent of all the questions, cou. 
troversies, measures and enterprises which were to 
be evolved there to the world's astonishment, shonld 
be tlus Qoestiou of King Louis. 



1404. The 6th of November, 1792, was a great day 
for the Republic : outwardly, over the Frontiers ; in- 
wardly, in the Salle de Manage. 


y, tor Dnmouriei!,overmnninf{ thaNeftier; 
in that day, come in csntact with Snxe. 
i the AustriiiDS; Dumouricz wide-wiuged, 
ivinged; nt and around Ilie villngo of 
nenr Mons. And flve-hnil ie nhistliiig 
e there, the gveot guns playing, nnd the 
many green Heighia getting fiingtij 
^ with red Fire. And Diiniouriez is 
I on this wing, and swept bacl; ua 
is like to be swept buck utterly ; 
■oshes np in person, the prompt Poly- 
JtB a prompt word or two; and theOi 
teoor-pipe, "uplifts the Hymn of the 
(entonna la Marseillaise),"" 10,000 ten(« 
;b joining ; or say, some 40,000 in all ; for 
leaps at the Bonnd ; and so with rhythmic 
ly, waxing ever quicker, todonbleandto 
, they rally, they advance, they mah,death- 
tndevoaring; carry batteries, redoubls, 
is to be carried; and, like the fire whirl- 
all manner of Anstri.ins from the ecene 
Thus, throngh the hands of Dnmonriez, 
. de Liile, in flgnrativc speech, be said to 
, mir.icnlously, like another Orphens. by 
fse flddle-strinjrs (fidibua canoria), a Vic- 
ippes; and conqitered fbc Low Countries, 
n^Gienerai Egalite, it wonld seem, shone 
;; the bravest on this occasion. Doubt- 
^galil6; — whom however doos iiotDnm- 
^rtalkof oftener thanneedwere? The 
ety has her own thonghts. As for the 
>z. >■ M6DioIreB."ill. Vli. 

TRE LOSES PAra. 263 

elder Sgalit^, be flies low at the time ; spears in 
the Convention for some half-hour daily, with lubi- 
CHiid, pre-occupied or impassive qiiaBi-contemptLioua 
oouiitenaiice ; aud then takes himself ftwuj,'' The 
Netlietlauda are conquered, at least overrun. Jaco- 
bin missionaries, your Prolja, Pereiras, follow in tho 
train of the Armies; also Convention Commissioners, 
melting churcb-plate, revolutionizing and remodel- 
ing,— among whom Daufon, in brief space does im- 
mensities of business; not neglecting hisown Wi^jea 
and trade-profits, it is thought Hassenfralz dilapi- 
dates at liome ; Dumouriezgrumhlesand they dilap- 
idate abroad: withm tlie walla there is sinning Dnd 
wilhoatthe walls there is sinning. 

1406. But in tiie Hall of the Convention, at the 
4ame hour with this victory of Jeiuappea, there 
went another thing forward : Report, of greatlengtb, 
&om the proper appointed Committee, on the crimes 
of Louis. The Gnlleriesiisten breathless: tokecom- 
fort, ye Galleries: Deputy Valaz^, Keporter on tbia 
ocension, thinks Louis very criminal : and thnf, if 
cojivenient, he should be tried,— poor GiTOndin 
Vitlaa^, who may be tried himself, one d.iyt Com- 
fortable so far. Nay here comes a. second Commit- 
tee-reporter, Deputy Maiihe, with a Legal Argument, 
very prosy to-read now, very refreshing to hear then, 
That by the Law of the Country, Louis Cnpet was 
only called Inviolable by n figure of rhetoric ; but at 
bottom was perfectly violable, triable: that ho cnn, 
and even shonid be tried. This Question of Lonis, 
emerging bo oft«n as an ougiy, cootbsed possibility, 
• Uoore. It. 118. 

29^ REQiemE. 

9xA sulmiexgiiig again, has tmergedi mm in an arfaoi- 
late shs^. 

1407. Patriotism growls indignant joy. The so- 
called reign of Equality is not a mere name, then 
but a thing ! Try Louis Capet? scornfully ejaculates 
Patriotism. Mean criminals go to the gallows for a 
purse cut; and this chief criminal, guilty of a France 
cut ; of a France slashed asunder with Clotho-scissors 
ai)d Civil war ; with his victims " 1200 on the Tenth 
of August alone " lying low in the Catacombs, fatten- 
ing the passes of Argonne Wood, of Valmy and far 
Fields ; /te, such chief criminal, shall not even come 
to the bar ? — For, alas, O Patriotism ! add we, it was 
from of old said, The loser pays! It is he who has to 
pay all scores, run up by whomsoever: on him must 
all breakages and charges fall ; and the 1200 on the 
Tenth of August are not rebel traitors, but victims 
and martyrs : such is the law of quarrel. 

1408. Patriotism, nothing doubting, watches over 
this Question of the trial, now happily epierged in 
an articulate shape ; and will see it to maturity, if 
the gods permit. With a keen solicitude Patriotism 
watches ; getting ever keener, at every new difficulty, 
as Girondins and false brothers interpose delays ; till 
it get a keenness as of fixed-idea, and will have this 
Trial and no earthly thiug instead of it, — if Equality 
be not a name. Love of Equality ; then skepticism 
of terror, rage of victory, sublime spectacle to the 
universe : all these things are strong. 

But indeed this Question of the Trial, is it not to 
all persons a most grave one; filling with dubiety 
many a Legislative head! Regicide? asks the 01- 


tonde Bespectability. To kill a klngf and become 
the horror of respectable notions and persons ? But 
then also, to save a king ; to lose one's footing with 
the decided Patriot ; the undecided Patriot, thouj];h 
never so respectable, being mere hypothetic fpotli and 
no footing ? — The dilemma pressessore ; and between 
the horns of it you wriggle round and round. Deci* 
sion is nowhere, save in the Mother Society and her 
Sons. These have decided, and go forward: the 
others wriggle round uneasily within their dilemnu^ 
hams, and make way nowhither. 



1409. But how this Question of the Trial grew 
laboriously, through the weeks of gestation, now that 
it has been articulated or conceived, were snperfluous 
to t^race here. It emerged and submerged among the 
infinite of questions and embroilments. The Veto of 
Scoundrels writes plaintive Letters as to Anarchy; 
"concealed Royalists," aided by Hunger, produce 
Riots about Grain. Alas, it is but a week ago, these 
Girondins made a new fierce onslaught on the Sep- 
tember Massacres ! 

1410. For, one day, among the last of October, 
Robespierre, being summoned to the tribune by some 
new hint of that old calumny of the Dictatorship, 
Was speaking and pleading there, with more and 
more comfort to himself; till rising high in heart, li^ 

26d MEorciDE. 

died ont valiantly : Is there any man here that 
dare specifically accuse me ? " Moi ! " exclainied 
one. Pause of deep silence: a lean angry little 
Figure, with broad bald brow, strode swiftly toward 
the tribune, taking papers from its pocket : " I ac- 
cuse thee, Robespierre," — I, Jean B«iptiste Louvet ! 
The sea-green became tallow-green ; shrinking to a 
corner of the tribune : Danton cried, " Speak, Robes- 
pierre ; there are many good citizens that listen ; " 
but the tongue refused its office. And so Louvetj 
with a shrill tone, read and recited crime aftercrime: 
dictatorial temper, exclusive popularity, bullying at 
elections, mob-retinue, September Massacres; — till 
all the Convention shrieked again, and had almost 
indicted the Incorruptible there on the spot. Never 
did the Incorruptible run such a risk. Louvet, to 
his dying <lay, will regret that the Gironde did not 
take a bolder attitude, and extinguish him there and 

1411. Not so, however: the Incorruptible, about to 
be indicted in this sudden manner, could not be re- 
fused a week of delay. That week be is not idle ; 
nor is the Mother Society idle, — fierce-tremulous for 
her chosen son. He is ready at the day with his 
written Speech ; smooth as a Jesuit Doctor's ; and 
convinces some. And now ? "Why now lazy Verg- 
niaud does not rise with Demosthenic thunder ; poor 
Louvet, unprepared, can do little or nothing: Bar- 
r^re proposes that these comparatively despicable 
" personalities " be dismissed by order of the day ! 
Order of the day it accordingly is. Barbaroux cau- 
not even get a hearing ; not though he rush down to 




the Bar, cuid dematid to be heard there as a petitioner** 
The Convention, eager for public business (with that 
first articulate emergence of the Trial just coming 
on), dismisses these comparative miiK^res and despica- 
bilities: isplenetic LouVet must digest his spleen, 
regretfully forever : Robespierre, dear to Patriotism, 
is dearer for the dangers he has run» 

1412, This is the secohd grand attempt of our Gi* 
rondin Friends of Order to extinguish that black spot 
in their domain ; and we see they have made it far 
blacker atid wider than before! Anarchy » Septem- 
ber Massacre : it is a thing that lies hideous in the 
general imagination; very detestable to the Undecided 
Patriot, of Resjjectability : a thing to be harped on 
as often as need is* Harp on it, denounce it, trample 
it, ye Girondin Patriots : — and yet behold, the black 
Spot will Uot trample down \ it will only, as we say, 
trample blacker and wider r fools, it is no black spot 
of the surface, but a well-spring of the deep I Con» 
sider rightly, it is the Apex of the everlasting Abyss, 
this black spot, looking up as water through thin 
ice ; — say, as the region of Nether Darkness through 
your thin film of Gironde Regulation and Respecta- 
bility : trample it not, lest the film break, and then — ! 

1413. The truth is, if our Gironde Friends had an 

understanding of it, where were French Patriotism, 

with all its eloquence, at this moment, had not that 

same great Nether Deep, of Bedlam, Fanaticism and 

Popular wrath and madness, risen unfathomable on 

the Tenth Of August ? French Patriotism were an 

* liouvet, *'M6moire8," (Paris, 1823). p. 62; Monlteur 
(Stance du 29 Octobre, 5 Novembre. 1702); Moore» ii. 178* 

Kemiiiiioenoe ; wringing on Fnifisiau glb< 
f, nrhsK, in feir niQDtlis, were it Gtill, 
I BamegreatSethorDeepaubside?— Hay,88 
New^Htpen preienil toiecoUect, thi^liate' 
tbe September Miuattcre ia itself partly an 
;ht; readers of tlie Newspiqiet's oau quote 

I TariauB Brislotiaa approving oi the Sep' 
iisncre, at the time it happenal j and call' 
Intat^ Tengeatice.* So that the real grief, 
rere not ra much rlgbteoua horror, aa ^ief 
omi power was departing 7 Uuhappy G-i* 

the Jaeobtn Society, tbezefore, the decided 
nplalns that here are iiien wlio with tlioil 
rbitims and anlnHHiitles will min Liberty 
nd BrollieThood, all three : they check the 
niTiotism ; throir Btumbling-blodis in ila 
instead of pnsliingon,all riiouldersat tbe 

II stand idle there, epUefully clamoring 
mts there are, nhat rude .jolts we give ' 

Ihe Jacobin Society auaweis with angry, 
h nngry shriek, for there are Citoyennea 
crowded In the galleries here. Cituyenoea 
their seam with them, or their knitting- 
nd shriek or knit aa the cB«e ne«ds ; famed 
i. Patriot knitters ; M£re Dncheiae, or the 
ah and Mother of the Fanbourga, giving 
le. It is a. changed Jacobin Society \ .ijid 
igiog. WhereMolher DucheasBits,anlhen- 
ses have sat. High-rouged dames went 
stoire Perienienf4lrp,"][vil. (Oil newtpspers 


once in j^swete find Bppaglfie ; now, instead of jewels^ 
you may take the knitting-needles mid leave the 
rouge : the rouge -will gradually give placet© natural 
brown J clean washed or even unwashed : and De* 
moiselle Th^roign© herself get scandalously fUstigated* 
Strange enough ; it is the same tribune raised in mid* 
air, where a high MitabeaU) a high Barnave and 
Aristocrat Lameths once thundered ; whom gradu* 
ally your Brissots, Guadets, Vergniauds» a hotter 
style of Patriots in bonnet rouge, did displace; red 
heat, as one may siiy, superseding light. And now 
your Brissots in turn, and Brissotins, Rolandins, <Sri* 
rondins, are becoming supernumerary : must desert 
the sittings^ or be expelled : the light of the Mighty 
Mother is burning not red but blue!— Provincial 
J&aughter Societies loudly disapprove these things ; 
loudly demand the swift reinstatement of Such elo* 
quent Girondins, the swift ** erasure of Marat (radia* 
tion de Marat)." The Mother Society, so far as natu- 
ral reason can predict, seems ruining herself. Never* 
theless she has at all crisis seemed so ; she has a j»fe- 
fernatural life in her, and will not ruin. 

1415. But^ in a fortnight more, this great Question 
of the Trial, while the £t Committee is assiduously 
but silently working on it, receives an unexpected 
Stimulus. Our readers remember poor Louisas turn 
for smith work : how, in old happier days a cenain 
Sieur Gamain of Versailles was wont to come ovei 
and instruct him in lock -making ;*^often scolding 
him, they say, for his numbness. By whom, never- 
theless, the royal Apprentice had learned something 
Of that craft Hapless Apprentice: perfidious Masr 

270 nEGIOIDE. 

ter-Smith! For now, on this 20th of iTotemberi 
1792, dingy Smith Gamain comes over to the PaiiS: 
Municipality, over to Minister Roland, with hints 
that he, Smith Gamain, knows a thing; that) in May 
hast, when traitorons Correspondence was so brisk^ 
he and the royal Apprentice fabricated an **IJNm; 
Press (Armoire de Fer)," cunningly inserting the 
same in a wall of the royal chamber in the Tiiilenc8$ 
invisible under the wainscot ; where doubtle» it stiU- 
aticks ! Perfidions Gamain, attended by the pro|>er 
Authorities, finds the wainscot panel whidi none 
else can find; wrenches it np; discloses the Iron. 
Press, — full of Letters and Papers? Roland clntehes 
them out ; conveys them over in towels to the fit acH 
siduous Committee, which sits hard by, in towels we 
say, and without notarial inventory ; an oyersigh^on 
the part of Roland. 

1416. Here, however, are Letters enough: which 
disclose to a demonstration the Correspondence of e 
traitorous self-preserving Court ; and this not with 
Traitors only, but even with Patriots so-called! Bar- 
nave's treason, of Correspondence with the Queen, 
and friendly advice to her, ever since that Varenne^ 
Business, is hereby manifest: how happy that we 
have him, this Barnave, lying safe in the Priscm of 
Grenoble, since September last, for he had long been 
suspect! Talleyrand's treason, many a man's trea- 
son, if not manifest hereby, is next to it. Mirabeau's 
treason : wherefore his Bust in the Hall of the Con- 
vention " is veiled with gauze," till we ascertain. 
Alas, it 3s too ascertainable ! His Bust in the Hall 
of the Jacobins^ denonnced by Robespierre from the 


tdbtitMin fnid^air, ia not veiled, it ie instantly broken 
to shreds; a Patriot mounting swiftly with a ladder, 
and shivering it down on the floor; — it and others : 
amid shouts.* Buch is their recompense and amount 
of w^es^ at this date : on the principle of supply and 
demand. Smil^ Gamtuu, inadequately recompensed 
^ ike present, comes, some fifteen months after, 
tirith a humble Petiti<m ; setting forth that no sooner 
waat^at important Iron Press finished off by him, 
fliiin (as ke now bethinks himself) Louis gave him a 
Iftfge glass ®f ^iftQ. Which large glass of wine did 
prbduee in the stoipach of Sieur Gamain the t^iribiest 
^ects, evidiently tending toward deaths ?ind was 
^en brought up by an emetic; but has, notwith- 
i^ndiag) entirely ruined the constitution of Sieur 
6«niaifi; so that he cannot work for his family (as 
he now bethinks himself). The recompense of which 
is " Pension of 1200 francs," and " honorable men- 
tiocl.^ So different is the ratio of demand and sup- 
ply at different times» 

1417. Thus, amid obstructions and stimulating 
furtherances, has the (Juestion of the Trial to grow ; 
emerging and submerging; fostered by solicitious 
Fcitriotism, Of the orations that were spoken on it, 
of the painfully devised Forms of Process for manag- 
ing it, the Law Arguments to prove it lawful, and all 
the infinite floods of Juridical and other ingenuity 
and oratory, be no syllable reported in this History. 
Lawyer ingenuity is good: but what can it profit 
here? If the truth must be spoken, O august Sena- 

* " Journal des D^bats des JaooblUB " (in *^ HiStoire Vta* 
lementaire/' zxii. 296); 

4W JRWGlCiDE. . 

tors, the only law in this case is: Vie victis (The 
loser pays) \ Seldom did Robespierre say a i^viser 
word than the hint he gave to that effect) in his ora* 
iion, That it was needless to spealc of Law f that 
here, if never elsewhere, our liight was Might An 
oration admired almost to ecstacy by the Jacobin 
Patriot : who shall say that Hobespierre is not a 
thorough-going man ; bold in Logic at least? To 
the like effect, or still more plainly, spake young 
•Saint-Just, the black-haired, mild-toned youth. 
Banton is on mission in the Netherlands, during this 
preliminary work. The rest, far as one reads, welter 
amid Law of Nations, Social Contract, Juristics, 
SyllogiBties ; to us barren as the East wind. In fact, 
what can be more unprofitable than the sight of 649 
ingenious men struggling with their whole force and 
industry, for a long course of weeks, to do at battom 
this; To stretch out the old Formula and Law 
Phraiseology, so that it may cover the new, contra- 
dictory, entirely ^ncoverable Thing ? Whereby the 
poor Formula does but cracky^s honesty along 
with ii! The thing that is palpably Aot, burning, 
wilt thou prove it, by syllogism, to be a freezing- 
mixture? This of stretching out Formulas till they 
crack, is, especially in times of swift change, one of 
the sorrowfalest tasks poor Humanity has. 

Af TBM BAR. 273^ 


1418. Meanwhile, in a space of some five weekis, 
we have got to another emerging of the Trial, and a 
xnofe practical one than ever. 

On Tuesday, 11th of December, the King's Trial 
has emerged^ very decidedly: into the streets of 
Paris ; in the shape of that green Carriage of Mayor 
Chambon, within which sits the King himself, with 
attendants, on his way to the Convention Hall ! At- 
tended, in that green carriage, by Mayots Chambon, 
Piocarenrs Chaiimette ; and outside of it, by Com- 
mandants Santerre, with cannon, cavalry, and double 
iow of infantry; all Sections under arms, strong 
Patrols scouring all streets; so lares he, slowly 
through the dull drizzling weather : and about two 
o'clock we behold him, " in walnut-colored great-coat 
(redingote noisette)," descending through the Place 
Vendome, toward that Salle de Man(^ge ; to be in- 
dicted, and judicially interrogated. The mysterious 
Temple Circuit has given up its secret; which now, 
in this walnut-colored coat, men behold with eyes. 
The same bodily Louis who was once Louis the De- 
sired, fares there : hapless King, he is getting now 
toward port; his deplorable farings and voyagings 
draw to a close. What duty remains to him hence- 
forthf that of placidly enduring, he is fit to do. 

1419. The singular Procession fares on ; in silence, 
:fiay8 Prudhomme, or amid grow lings of the Mar- 
seUlese Hymn ; in silence, ushers itself into the Hall 
of the Convention, Santerre holding Louis's arm with 

af74 BEGimDK 

hishaBd. Louis looks nxuad him, vith composed 
air, to see what kind of CJoavention and Parliamout 
it is. Much changed indeed: — since February gone 
two years, when our Constituent, tlicn busy, spread 
fleur-de-lis velvet for us ; and we came over to say a 
kind word here, and they all started up swearing Fi- 
delity ; and all Francestarted up swearing, and mdd^ 
H a Feast of Pikes ; which has ended in this I Barrt^, 
who once " wept^' looking up firom his Editor'a-Dosk^ 
looks down now from his Preadent's Chair, with a 
list of FlAy^seven Questions; and says, dry-eyed; 
'^ Louis, you may sit down." Louis sits down : it Is 
the very seat, they say, same timber and stuffln^ 
from which he accepted the Constitution, amid daa<^ 
ing and illumination, autumn gone a yean So much 
woodwork remains identical; so much else is, not 
identical. Louis sits and listens, with a composed 
look and mind. 

1420. Of the Fifty-seven Questions we_ shall no* 
give so much as one. They are questions captiously 
embracing all the main Documents seized on the 
10th of August, or found lately in the Iron Press ; 
embracing all the main incidents of the Revolution 
History; and they ask, in substance, this: Louisi 
who wert King, art thou not guilty to a certain ex- 
tent, by act and virritten document, of trying to con- 
tinue King ? Neither in the Answers is there much 
notable. Mere quiet negations, for most part ; an 
accused man standing on the simple basis of Ko : I 
do not recognize that document ; I did not do that 
act ; or did it according to the law that then was. 
'Whereupon the Fifty-seven Questions^ and Docu- 

menti to the number of 163, being exbaoBted m ibis 
manner, Barrv^e finUbes, after some three bouie, witb 
his : " Louis, I invite yon to withdraw.'' 

1421. Lonis withdraws* nnder Municipal escort 
into a neighboring Committee-room ; having first, in 
leaving the bar, demanded to have Legal Counsel, 
He declines refreshment, in this Committee-room ; 
then, seeing Chanmette busy witb a small loaf which 
s^grenadier had divided with him, says, he will take a 
bit of bread. It is five o'clock ; and he had breakfasted 
but dightly, in a morning of such drumming and 
alarm. Chanmette breaks his half-loaf: the King 
eats of the crust ; monnts the green Carriage, eating ; 
asks now. What he shall do with the crumb ? Chau- 
mette's clerk takes it from him ; flings it out into 
the street. Louis says, It is pity to fling out bread, 
in a time of dearth. 'VMy grandmother," remarks 
Chanmette, ** used to say to me. Little boy, never 
wast© a crumb of bread ; you cannot make one." 
" Monsieur Chanmette," answers Louis, " your grand- 
mother seems to have been a sensible woman."* Poor 
innocent mortal ; so quietly he waits the drawing of 
the lot;— fit to do this at least well ; Passivity alone, 
without Activity, sufilcing for it ! He talks once of 
traveling over France by and by, to have a geographi- 
cal and topographical view of it ; being from of old 
fond of geography.— The Temple Circuit again re- 
ceives him, doses on him ; gazing Paris may retire 
to its hearths and coffee-houses, to its clubs and the- 
aters: the damp Barkness has sunk, and with it the 
drumming and patroling of this strange Day. 

* PnidiiQmme*s newspaper (in *^ HlBtoire Parlemen- 
tair8;*'xxl 314). 

^ 14^ LoukifiiMiiw separated IBtom Idft Queen and 
Family; given up to his simple reflectioBS and re* 
sourceSt Dall lie theae stone walls f onnd him \ eC 
his loted ones none with him. ** In this stateof nn* 
certainty/* providing fbr the worsts he writes his 
Will : a Paper which ean still be read ; mU of plad- 
ditj, simplicity, pious sweetness. The Convention, 
after debate, has granted him Legal Connseh of his 
own choosing. Advocate Target f^els himself ''too 
old," being turned of fifty-four; and declines. He 
had gained great honor once, defending Rohan the 
Necklace-Cardinal ; but will gain none here. Advo- 
cate Trorichet, soMe ten years older, does not decime. 
Nay behold, good old'Malesherbes steps forwawtvcj- 
untarily ; to the last of his field?, the good old hero ! 
He is gray with seventy years : he says, " I was twiee 
called to the Council of him who was my Master, 
when all the world coveted that honor ; and I owe 
him the same service now, when it has become one 
which many reckon dangerous.** These two, witlr a 
younger Bes^ze, whom they will select for pleading, 
are busy over that Pifty»and-seven-fold Indictment, 
over the Hundred and Sixty-two Documents j Louis 
aiding them as he can. 

1433. A great Thing Is now therefore In open pro- 
gress ; all men, in all lands watching it» By what 
Forms and Methods shall the Convention acquit 
itself, in such maimer that there rest not on it even 
the suspicion of blame ? Difficult that will be ! The 
Convention, really much at a loss, discusses and de- 
liberates. All day from morning to night, day lUltcr 
day, the Tribune drones with oratory on this matter ; 

one ffit»fe fttfefdr tbe did Formula to eo^er t^ iiei^ 
^ing. The Patriots of the Moaiitaiii, whetted el^a? 
keieney, damor for dispatch ftbove all ; the only good 
Form will be a a will one. Nevertheless the Convea*» 
tion detiberatea ; the Tribane dronea, — drowned in<* 
deed in tenor, and even in treble, from time to time* 
the whole Hall shrilling tip ronnd it Into pretty fre* 
qnent wrath and provocation. It baa droned and 
ahrilled well-nigh a fortnight^ before we can decide) 
thia ahrilineas getting ever shriller, That ott Wednes- 
day, 26th of Beeember, Lonis shall appear and plead* 
His Adtocates complain that it is iatally eooa.; 
which they well might as Advocates: but witbcuit 
remedy; to Patriotism it seem endlessly late. 

1424. On Wednesday therefore, at the cold dadt 
hour of eight in the morning, all Senators ure at theit 
post. Indeed they warm tlie cold •honr, as we find) 
by a violent efiTervtiscence, such as is too common 
'now; some Louvet or Buzot attacking some Talliel^t 
Chabot; and so the whole Mountain effervesciog 
against the whole Gironde. Scarcely is this done^ftt 
liine, when Lonis and his three Advocates^. escort^ 
by l^e clang of arms and Santerre's National fof cO} 
enter the HalL 

1426. I>e8S2e ttnfbMs his papers : honorably fulfill- 
ing his perilous ofiUce, pleads for the space of three 
hours. An honorable Pleading/^ composed almost 
overnight;'' courageous yet discreet; not without 
ingenuity) and soft pathetic eloquence 'y Louis fell on 
his neck, when they had withdrawn, and said with 
tears, " Mon pauvre Bes^ze ! " Louis himself, bp- 
fc»e withdrawing, had added a few words, ** perhaps 

978 RBQICIDE. . 

the last he woi^ld utter to them ; '^ how it pained hifl 
heart, ahove all things, to he held guilty of that 
bloodshed on the 10th of August; orojfever shed" 
ding or wishing to shed Frencli blood. So saying, he 
witlidrew from that Hall ; — having indeed finished 
his work there. Many are the strange errands he 
has had thither ; but this strange one is tlie last. 

1426. And now, why will the Convention loiter^. 
Here is the Indictment and Evidence ; here is the 
Pleading: does not the rest follow of itself ? The 
Mountain, aiKl Patriotism in general, clamors still 
loader for dispatch; for Permanent-session, till the 
task be done. Nevertheless a doubting, apprehensive 
Convention decides that it will still deliberate first; 
that all Members, who desire it, shall have leave to 
speak. — To your desks, therefore, ye eloquent Mem- 
bers! Down with your thoughts, your echoes and 
hearsays of thoughts; now is the time to show one- 
self: France and the Universe listens ! Members are 
not wanting: Oration, spoken Pamphlet follows 
spoken Pamphlet, with what eloquence it can : Presi- 
dent's List swells ever higher with names claiming 
to speak ; from day to day, all days and all hours, 
the constant Tribune drones ; — shrill Galleries sup- 
plying, very variably; the tenor and treble. It were 
a dull tone otherwise. 

1427. The Patriots, in Mountain and Galleries, or 
taking counsel nightly in Section-house, in Mother 
Society, amid their shrill Tricoteuses, have to watch 
lynx-eyed ; to give voice when needful ; occasionally 
very loud. Deputy Thuriot, he who was Advocate 
Thuriot, who was Elector Thuriot, and firom the top 

AT TBE BAS. 279 

«f the Bastille saw Saint-Anloine rising like the 
ocean ; this TllurEot can stretch a Fonnnla as heart- 
ily ns moat men. Cruel BillaucI is not siler* ■*■ -"~ 
incite him. Nor is cruel Jean- Bon silent ; 
Jesnit he too; — write him not, as the Dii 
too often do, Jnmbon, whieh signifies mere 
. 1428. But on the whole, let no man » 
possible that Lonia is not gailty. The only 
&t a reasonable man is or was: Can the C< 
jhdge LoDJB? Or mnst it be the whtde P 
Primary Assembly, and with delay? Alwf 
ye OiroDdins, felse bommea d'fetat 1 so 
Patriotiam, its patience almost Ikiling. — Bn 
if we consider it, what shall these poor ( 
do ? Speak their conviction that Louis is a 
or War i and cannot be put to death witho 
tiee, Bolecism, peril? Speak such convict 
lose otterly yonr footinj; with the decided 
Nay properly it is not even a convjctioa, Ir 
Jectnre and dim puzzle. How many poor ( 
are sure of but one thing : That a man «i 
din ought to have fooling somewhere, and 
firmly on it; keeping well with the Sei 
Classes! This is what eonviclion and aasi 
fiiith they have. They nrast wiggle paini 
tween their dilemma-homa.* 

1429. Not is France idle, nor Europe. 
Heart this Convention, as we said, which s 
influences, and receives them. A King's E 
call it Martyrdom, call it Punishment, were 


dgO &EQ1CIDE. 

ence !•— Two notable i&duenee» this Oonireiition has 
already seat forth oter all Nations ; ititieh to its own 
detriment On the 19th of November, it emitted a 
Decree, and has since confirmed and unfolded the de- 
tails of it, That any Nation which might see good to 
shake off the fetters of Despotism was thereby, so to 
speak, the 8ister of France, and should have help 
and conntenahce. A Decree much noised of by Di- 
plomatists, Editors, International Lawyers ; sueh a 
Decree as no living Fetter of Despotism, nor Person 
in Authority anywhere, can approve of I It was 
Deputy Chambon the Girondin who propounded this 
Decree j — at bottom perhaps as a flourish of rhetoric. 

1430. The second influence we speak of had a still 
poorer origin : in the restless loud-rattling plightly- 
fumished head of one Jacob Dupont from the Loire 
country. The Convention is speculating on a plan of 
National Education : Deputy Dupont in his sj>eech 
says, " I am free to avow, M. le President, that I for 
my part am an Atheist,"* — thinking the world 
might like to know that. The French world received 
it without commentary; or with no audible com- 
mentary, BO laud was France otherwise. The For- 
eign world received it with confutation, with horror 
and astonishment ;t a most miserable influence this \ 
And now if to these two were added a third influ- 
ence and sent pulsing abroad over all the Earth : 
that of Regicide ? 

1431. Foreign Courts interfere in this Trial of 

* Monlteur, Stance du U Decembre 1792. 
t Mrs- Hannah More, "Letter to Jacob Dupont" (Lon- 
don, 1793); etc, etc. 



Louis; fipaio, GoglBnd: not to be lifrten 
though they oome, as it were, aX least Spain 
with the oliT^hranch in one baud, and the 
without acab'nard ia the other. But at hon 
i^om out ol* tliis cii-eumaiiibient Fiiris and ] 
what influences come thiclc-pulsing ! Petilioi 
in ; pleudiiig Ibr cqnul jastice, in a reign of so 
Equality. The living Potriot pleads ; — ye N. 
Deputies, do not the dead Patriots plead? 
Twelve-hundred that lie in cold obstruction, 
they plead ; and petition, in Death's duml 
from their narrow houBe there, more eloquent! 
speech? Crippled Patriots hop on crutches 
the Salle de Manage, demanding justice. 
Woonded of the 10th of August, the Wido^ 
Orphans of tlie Killed petition in a body ; ai 
and defile, eloquently mnte, through the Ha 
wounded Patriot, unable to hop, is borne on I 
thither, and passes shouMer-bigh, in the her 
posture.* The ConTention Tribune, whi< 
paused at such sight, comoieiices again, — A 
mere Juristic Oratory, But out of doors Pa 
is piping ever higher. Bull-voiced St.-Hu. 
heard, and the hyeteric eloquence of Mother 
ess; " Vnrlet, Apostle of Liberty," with pi] 
red cap, flies hastily, carrying his oratorical f 
stool. Justice on the Tiaitoi ! cries all the 
world. Consider also this other cry, heard 1 
the streets : " Give us Bread, or else kill as !" 
and Equality; Justice on the Traitor, that w 
have Bread \ 
* " Hiatojre ParlementBlre," xiil. ]Bt; Hooro. el 


rhe Limited or undecided Patriot is set 
tlie Decided. Mayor Chavboii heard of 
riotiug at tUe Tlii^utre de la Nation ; it had 
rioting, ami even to fist-work, between tho 
tod tlie Uudecided, toucliiug a new Drama 
mi dcB Loia" ("Friend of the Laws)," One 
lorest Dramas ever written : but which had 
ipplications in it ; wherefore powdered wigs 
is of Order niid Uaek liair of Jneobin heada 
; tliere ; and Uayor Cliambon hastens with 

in hopes to qnell it. Far from quelling it, 
Hayoi gets so " squeesed," says the Beport, 
wise BO blamed and bullied, saj we, — that 
regret, quite the brief Mayoralty aitogetlier, 
^ being affected." This miserable " Ami 
' is debated of in the Convention itself; so 
nutnally-enraged, are tlie Limited Pati'iots 

Jetweeii which two classes, are not Aristo- 
lUgh, and Ciypto- Aristocrats, busy? Spies 
over from London with important Packets ; 
teiidiugto run! One of the latter, Vinrd 
lame of him, pretended to accnae Eolnnd, 

tiie Wife of Koland: to the joy of Chabot 
Moontain. Eat the Wife of Roland came, 
nmoned, on the instant, to the ConTCntton 
me, in her high clearness; and, with few 
■da, dissipated this Viard into despicability 
all Friends of Order applanding.f So, with 
riots, and "Bread, or else kill us;" with 


Rt^e, Hnnger, preternattiTnl SuspiciOD, 

wild Poris pipe. Roland grows ever more 
ID hi a Measles Bud Letter.^; rising aim 
byetericol pilch. Mornt, wliom no poirei 
can preveot seeing iuto tntttora aaCL Koln 
to-bed for tliree dnya; nlmost (lend, the 
People's-frieud, with henrt-lironk, Willi 
headaclie ; ''O People hnbillnrd, ei tu s.1' 
People of Babblers, if tliou coiilil.''t but att 

14:14. To ci'own all, victoriati? Dumourici 
New-yenr's days, is arrived in Pnris, — oni 
no good. He pretends to be com pi dining < 
Pacbe, and Hasaenfratz dilapidations ; to 1 
ing measnTes for the spring Campaign : 
him mncfa in the company of the Girond: 
ting with them against Jacobinism, againe 
ntid the punishinent of Lonis ? We hare 
his to the Convention itself. Will he net t 
fiiyette part, this new victorious General ? 
withdraw again ; not nndcnoDitced.''' 

1435. And still in the Convention 1 
drones continnnlly, mere JnriBtic Eloqo 
HypolheBis without action ; and there are 
on the President's List, Nay these Giro 
dents give their own party preference: ' 
they play foul with the List; men of the 
cannot be heard. And still it drones, a 
Doeeiuber into January and a New-year; a 
no cndl Paris pipes roniid it; multilndii 
higher, to the note of the whirlwind. 

* Duraoariez, " Hfinwires," Ul. 0. *. 


"bring oaiuKMi fFom Saiat-Demsf' tbfire is talk of 
"shutting the Barriers/'-rto Roland's horror. 

1436. Whereupon, behold, the Convention Tribune 
suddenly ceases droning ; we cut short, be on the 
List who likes; and make end. On Tuesday next, 
the 15th of January, 1793, it sh Jl go to tlie Vote, 
• name by name ; and one way or other, this great 
game play itself out ! 



1437. Is Louis Capet guilty of conspiring against 
Liberty ? Shall our Sentence be itself final, or need 
ratifying by Appeal to the People ? If guilty, what 
punishment? This is the form agreed to, after up^ 
roar and '^several hours of tumultuous indecision:?' 
these are the Three successive Questions, whereon 
the Convention shall now pronounce. Paris floods 
round their Hull ; multitudinous, mauy-soundiug. 
Europe and all Nations listen for their answer. 
Deputy after Deputy shall answer to his name; Gbuii- 
ty or Not Guilty. 

1438. As to the Guilt, there is, as above hinted, no 
doubt in the mind of Patriot men. Overwhelming 
majority pronounces Guilt; the unanimous Conven- 
tion votes for Guilt, only some feeble twenty-eight 
voting not Innocence, but refusing to vote at 
all. Neither does the Second Question prove doubt- 
ful, whatever the Girondins might calculate. Would 
not Appeal to the People be another name for civil 


war? MjfJ'odty of trw'o to one answers that there 
shall be no Appeal: this also is settled. Loud Pa- 
triotism, now at ten o'clock, may hush itself for the 
nipht; and retire to its bed not without hope. Tues- 
day lias gone well. On the morrow comes, What 
Punishment ? On the morrow is the tug of war. 

1439. Consider therefore if, on this Wednesday 
mornings there is an affluence of Patriotism ; if Paris 
stands a-tiptoe, and all Deputies are at their post! 
Seven-hundred and Forty-nine honorable Deputies ; 
only some twenty absent on mission, Duch^tel and 
some Seven others absent by sickness. Meanwhile 
expectant Patriotism and Paris standing a-tiptoe 
have need of patience. For this Wednesday aigain 
jyasses to debate .and effervescence ; Girondins pro- 
posing that a "majority of three-fourths" shall be re- 
^uiried ; Patriots fiercely resisting theni. Danton, 
who has just got back from mission in the l^ether- 
lands, does obtain "order of the day" on this Giron- 
dih proposal; nay he obtains farther that we decide 
aans d^semparer, in Permanent-session, till we have 

1440. And so, finally, at eight in the evening this 
Third stupendons Voting, by roll-call, orappel nom- 
inal, does begin. What punishment? Girondins 
undecided, Patriots decided, men afraid of Royalty, 
men afraid of Anarchy, must answer here and now. 
Infinite Patriotism, dusky in the lamp-light, floods 
all corridors, crowds all galleries; sternly waiting to 
hear. Shrill-sounding Ushers summon you by 
Name and Department; you must rise to the Tribune 
and sa^. 


E;a-witn»aee have re^fiseirted this scene of 
rd Voting, and of the votings that grew ottt 
, scene protracted, like to be endless, lasting, 
V brief interrols, Smra Wednesday till Snn- 
:ning, — aa one of the strangest seen in the 
ioa. Long night wears itself into tlu}', tiiom- 
leness is spread over all faces ; aud again the 
jhadoiTs sink, and the dim lunpeorelit: bat 
I daj nnd night and the vicissitudes of boms, 
rafter Member is monntittg continoallj those 
:-sl«ps , pausing aloA there, in the cleai«r 
iglit, to speak his Fate-word; then diiing 
[to the dusk and throng again. Like Fhan- 
the honr of midnight ; most spectral, pctndc 
Never did President Vergniaud, or anj 
ial Freaideiit, snperintend the like. A King's 
d ao much else that depends thereon, liangs 
Qg in the balance. Man after man mounts; 
z hoshes itself till he have spoken: Death; 
oent; Imprisonment till the Peaces Many 
ith ; with what cautious well-stddied phrases 
agraphs they conld devise, of explanation, of 
rnent, of faint recommendation to men^. 
too say, Banishment; something short of 

The balance trembles, none oan yet gnees 
fward. WherentnnxioDS Patriotism bellows; 
sibJe by Ushers 

The poor Girondins, many of them, under 
rce bellowing of Patriotism, say Death ; jnat- 
motivant, that most miserable word of theirs 
le brief casuistry and Jesuitry. Ve^iniand 
' says, Death ; jnatifying by Jesuitry. £icb 


Le^letier SaintrPai^geau bad been of the Noblfeaese, 
and then of the Patriot Left Side, in the Constitueut; 
and had firgued and reported, there and elsewhere, 
notalittle^ against Capital Punishment: neverthe* 
less he now says, Deatli ; a word which may cost him 
dear. Manuel did surely rank with the Decided in 
August last ; but he has been sinking and backslid- 
ing ever since September and the scenes of Septem- 
ber. In this Convention, above all, no word he could 
wgexSn would find favor; he says now, Banishment ; 
and in mute wrath quits the place forever, — mudi 
hustled in the corridors. Philippe Egalite votes, in 
his soul and conscience. Death : atthesoqndofwhich 
and of whom, even Patriotism shakes its head ; and 
there runs a groan and shudder through this Hall of 
^ Doom. Robespierre's vote cannot be doubtful ; his 
speech is ^ong. Men see the figure of shrill Sieyes 
, ascend ; hardly pausing, passing merely, this figure 
says, ** La Mort sans phrase (Death without phrases) ;'> 
and fares onward and downward. Most spectral, 

144a. And yet if the Reader fancy it of a fdnereab 
sorrowful or even grave cliaracter, he is fiir mistaken : 
'*the Ushera in the * Mountain quarter,' says Mer- 
ger, " had become as Box-keepers at tne Opera ;'» 
opening and shutting of Galleries for privileged per- 
sons, for " D'Orl^ans figalit^'s mistresses^" or other 
high-dizened women of condition, rustling with laces 
and tricolor. Gallant Deputies pass and repass 
thitherward, treating them with ices, refreshments 
and small talk ; the high-dizened heads beck respon- 
sive ; some have their card and pin, pricking down 

888 - - ' SEOICIBB. " 

the Ayes and Hoes, as at a gaine of Bsoge-^t-Hoif: 

Br aloft reigna MSie Dacfaesse with heriin-- 
1 Aiivazona; ahe cannot be prevented makiug 
£ii-lms, wiiLii tlr'5 vote ia not J^i Mort. In tlie:jC 
ies there is relictiuii, dviukiiig of wine iiud 
f '-as in open tavern (eu pleiiietiibagie)," Bet- 
oeBon in all coSee-housM of tlie neigliborliood. 
rithin doors, liitdgue, impatience, uttermost 
lessstlfi now on all visages; lighted up oolj' 
ime to lime b; turns of the game, Memben 
alien asleep; Ushera coma and awaken Uiem 
i: other MemberscftlCOlate whether UieyehoU 
ve time to run and dine. Fignres rise, lite 
ims, pale in the duaky lamp-light; titter from 
'ribnne, only one word ; Death. " Tout est 
e," says Mercier, "The world is all an optical 
V."* Deep in the Thnraday night, when the 
; is done, and Secretaries are eummiug it up, 
)uchfltel, more spectral than another, cornea 
on a chair, wrapped in blankets, in " night- 
md nightcap," to vote for Mercy; one vote it 
ight may turn the scale. 

. Ah no! In profonndest silence. President 
iaud, witha voice full of sorrow, has to say; 
tare, in the nan^e of the Convention, that the 
iment it pronounces on Louis Capet is that of 
." Death by a. small majority of Fifty-three. , 
f we dednct fi-om the one side, and add to the 
a certain Twenty-six, who said Death but 

KitT. " Nouveau Parte." vl. IW-IGS; HimtgalUaid. 


eoapkd soBste faintest ioeffectual suxmise of mercy in 
it, the majority will be but One. 

1445. Death is the seutenoe \ but its execution ? 
It is not executed yet ! Scarcely is the vote declared 
when Louis's Three Advocates enter ; with Protest 
in his name, with demand for Belay, £or Appeal to 
the People. For this do Des^ze and Trouchet plead, 
with brief eloquence : brave old Malesherbes pleads 
for it with eloquent want of eloquence, in broken 
sentenees, in embarrassment and sobs ; that brave 
time-honored face, with its gray strength, its broad 
sagacity and honesty, is mastered with emotion, 
melts into dumb tears.* — They reject the Appeal to 
the People ; that having been already settled. But 
aa to tiie Delay, what they call Sursis, it shall be con- 
sidered; shall be voted for to-morrow; at present 
we adjourn. Whereupon Patriotism " hisses" from 
the Mountain ; but a ^' tyrannical majority" has so 
decided, and adjourns. 

1446. There is still this fourth Vote, then, growls 
indignant Patriotism: — this vote, and, who knows 
what other votes, and adjournments of voting ; and 
the whole matter still hovering hypothetical ! And 
at every new vote those Jesuit Girondins, even they 
who voted for Death, would so fain £nd a loop-hole ! 
Patriotism must watch and rage. Tyrannical ad- 
journments there have been ; one, and now another 
at midnight on plea of fatigue, — all Friday wasted in 
hesitation and higgling ; in re-counting of the votes, 
which are found correct as they stood ! Patriotism 

• Monttetir(in "HJstolre Psrlementaire. *• xxtlt 210). 
BeeBoissy d'AofirUs^ ** Vie 4e Malesherbes." ii. 139. 


lercer than en'er ; Patriotism, bf long Tatoblng 
ecome red-eyed, almost ttkaA, - , 

7. "Delay : yea or no ?" men do vote it finely, 
itarday, alt day and nif^t Men's nerves are 

ont, men's hearts are desperate ; now shall it 
Vergntaad, spite ofbaying, ventniM to my, YA, 
' ; tbottgb he had voted Deatb. Philippe Egb 
i^B, in his sonl and oonscience, No. The next 
lier monnting: ''Since Philippe says No, I for 
art say Yes (Moi je dis Oni)." The h^ance 
Tembles Till finally, at three o'clock on Snn- 
lOmiiiKi we have : No Delay, by a M^ority of 
ity : Death ivithin faur-and-tmerUy hovrs I 

8. Gorat, Minister of Justice, has to go to the 
lie with this stern message; he qacnlateB re- 
aiy, "Qnelle commission afirense (What a 
ial fnncHonlP* Louis begs for a Confeeaor; 
rt three flays of life, to prepare himself to die. 
[lOnl'essor is granted ; the three days and all re- 
are refused. 

9. There is no deliverance, then? Thick stone 
answer. None. Has King Lonis no iKends? 

>f action, of conrage grown desperate, in this 
ttreme need ? King Lonis's friends are feeble 
a. Not even a voice in the coffee-houses rises 
m. At M^t the Bestonrateur's no Captain, 
iraarlin now dines ; or sees death-doing vrhis- 
does on furlough exhibit daggers of improved 
nre. Moot's gallant Boyalists on ftarlough are 
ross the marches ; they are wuidering distracted 
ihe world : or their bones lie whitenii^ Argon- 
Hograpbie d^ Mlnletres," p. ISt. 


tie Wood. Only some weak Priests ^^leave Pamph- 
lets on all the boorn-stoaes,'' this night calling for 
ft rescue : calling for the pious women to rise ; or are 
taken distributing Pamphlets, and sent to prison.* 

1450. Kay tliere is one death-door, of the ancient 
M^ot sort, who, with effort, has done even less and 
worse; slain a Deputy, and set all the Patriotism of 
Paris on edge ! It was five on Saturday evening 
when Lepelletier Saint-Fargeau, having given his 
vote, No Dday, ran over to F6vrier*s in the Palais 
Royal to snatch a morsel of dinner. He had dibed 
and was paying. A thickset man *^ with black hair 
and blue beard." in a loose kind of frock, stept up to 
him: it was, as F^vrier and the bystanders be- 
thought them, one Pdris of the old King's*Guard. 
"Are you Lepelletier?" asks he. — "Yes." — "You 
voted in the King's Business—?'*—"! voted Death." 
— "Sc^^rat, take that !" cries P4ris, flashing out a 
saber ftom under his frock, and plunging it deep in 
Lepelletier's side. F^vrier clutches him: but he 
breaks off; is gone. 

] 451. The voter Lepelletier lies dead ; he has ex- 
pired in great pain, at one in the morning : — two 
hours before that Vote of A^o Delay was fully summed 
up. Guardsman P4ris is flying over France; can- 
not be taken; will be found some months after, 
self-shot in a remote inn.t — Robespierre sees reason 

* 8e© Prudhomme's newspaper. Revolutions de Paris 
(In »• Histoire Parlementaire," xxiii. 318). 

t " Histolre Parlementaire,'* xxtil. 375, 318; Felix Le- 
pelletier, *' Vte de Michel Lepe letter son Fr6re,'*p* 61, 
etc. F6<ix, with due love of the miraculous, win have it 
that the filicide in the inn was not Paris, but some douhlef 
ganger ot his. 

to thijik tlifit Pxince d'Artois himself is piiyately in 
Town; that the Convention will be bntchered in the 
lamp. Patriotism sounds m^re wail and vengeance; 
Santerre doubles and trebles all his patrolSi Pity is 
lost in rage and fear; and Convention has teteed 
th^ three obiys of life and all respite. 



1452. To this conclusiou, then hast thon eome, O 
hapless Louis ! The Son of Sixty Kings is to die on 
the Scaffold by fbrm of Law. Under Sixty Kingis this 
same form of Law» form of Society, has been fashioning 
itself together these thousand years; and has become, 
one way and other, a most strange Machine. Surely, 
if needful, it is also frightful, this Machine ; dead, 
blind; not what it should be; which with swift 
stroke, or cold slow torture, has wasted the lives and 
souls of innumerable men. And behold now a King 
himself, or say rather King-hood in his person, is to 
expire here in cruel tortures, — like a Plialaris shut 
the belly of his own red-heated Brazen Bull! It is 
ever so; and thou shouldst know it, O haughty 
tyrannous man: injustice breeds injustice; curses 
and falsehoods do verily return "always Aowe,'' wide 
as they may wander. Innocent Louis bears the sins 
of many generations : he too experiences that man^s 
tribunal is not in this Earth; that if he had no 
Higher one, it were not well with him. 

1453. A King dying by such violence appeals im- 
pressively to the imagination ; as the like must do, 


and ougbi to da And yet atrtMttom it is not the 
^ing dying, bat the man ! Kingship is a coat : the 
grand k)ss is of the skin. The man fxom \rhom you 
take his Life, to him can the whole Combined world 
do moref haXly went on his hnrdle; his month 
filled m^ a gag. Misecablest mortals, doomed far 
picking poekets, have a whole ftve-act Tragedy in 
tii6m< in that dnmh pain, as they go to the gallows, 
nnregard^d ; . thfigp consnme^ the cap ^' trembling 
down to the leeai For Kings and for begg^xs, for 
the justly doomed and the unjustly, it is a hard 
thing to die. Pity them all : thy iitmost pity, with 
all aids and appliance and throne-aud-scafibld con- 
trasts, how far short is it of the thing pitied ! 

1454. A Confessor has come ; Abb6 Edgeworth, of 
Ijish esti!act&on, whom the king knew by good re- 
port, has come promptly on this solemn mission. 
Leave the Sarth alone, then, thon hapless King; 
it with its malice will go its way, thon also canst go 
Inline. A haacd scene yet remains : the parting with 
our loved ones. Kind hearts, environed in the same 
grim peril with ns ; to be left here ! Let the Reader 
look with the eyes of Valet Cl^ry through these 
glass-doors^ where also the Mnnicipality watches ; 
and see the ornelest of scenes : 

1455. At half-past eight, the door of the ante«room 
opened : the Queen appeared first, leading her Son 
by the hand ; then Madame Boyale and Madame 
Elizabeth : they all fiung themselves into the arms 
of the King* Silence reigned for some minutes; 
interrupted only by sobs. The Queen made a move- 
ment to lead his Majesty toward the inner room. 


^here M. Edgeworth was waiting aaknown to them: 
'No/ said the King, Uet us go into the dining-rooni ; 
it is there only that I can see yon. They entered 
there ; I shut the door of it, which was of glass. The 
King sat down, the Qneen on his left hand, Madame 
Elizabeth on his right, Madame Boyale almost in 
front ; the young Prince remained standing between 
his Father's legs. They all leaned toward him, and 
often held him embraced. This scene of woe lasted 
an hoar and threerqoarters ; daring which we could 
hear nothing ; we could see only that always when 
the King spoke, the sobbing of the Princesses re- 
doubled, continued for some minutes ; and that then 
the King began again to speak.^" And so our meeting? 
and our partings do now end ! The sorrows wegave each 
other; the poor joys we £uthfnlly shared, and ail 
our lovings and our sujQferings, and confused toilings 
under the earthly Sun, are over. Thou good soul, I 
shall never, never through all ages of Time, see thee 
any more !— Nbvke ! O Header, knowest thou that 
hard word ? 

1456. For nearly two hours this agony lasts ; th«i 
they tear themselves asunder. "Promise that you 
will see us on the morrow." He promises : — Ah yes, 
yes ; yet once ; and go now, ye loved ones; cry to God 
for yourselves and me ! — ^It was a hard scene, but it 
is over. He will not see them on the morrow. The 
Queen, in passing through the anteroom, glanced at 
the Cerberus Municipals ; and, with woman's vehe- 
mence, said through her tears, '^Yous ^tes tous de» 

♦Clery'fl "Narrative" (London, 1798), cited in Weber, 
111* oiZ* 


King Louis slept sonnd, till five in the morning, 
when ClSry, te he had been ordered, awoke him» 
Cl^ry dressed his hair: while this went forward,Louis 
took a ring from his watch, and kept trying it on his 
finger; it was his wedding-ring, which he is now to 
return to the Qneen as a mnte &rewell. At half- 
past six, he took the Sacrament; and continued in 
devotion, and conference with Abb^ Edgeworth. 
He will not see his Family: it were too hatd to 

1457. At eight, the Municipals enter, the King 
gives them his Will, and messages and effects ; which 
they, at first, brutally reftise to take charge of: he 
gives them a roll of gold pieces, 125 louis; these are 
to be returned to Malesherbes, who had lent them. 
At nine, Santerre says the hour is come. The King 
begs yet to retire for three minutes. At the end of 
tiiree minutes, Santerre again says the hour is come. 
'^Stamping on the ground with his right-foot, Louis 
answers : 'Partons (Let us go).' " — How the rolling 
of those drums come in through the Temple bastions 
and bulwarks, on the heart of a queenly wife ; soon 
to be a widow ! He is gone, then, and has not seen 
us? A Queen weeps bitterly; a King's Sister and 
Children. Over all these Four does Death also 
hover ; all shall perish miserably save one ; she, as 
Buchesse d'AngoulSme, will live, — not happily. 

1458. At the Temple Gate were some faint cries, 
perhaps firom voices of pitiful women : "GrAce ! 
Gr&ce !" Through the rest of the streets there is 
silence as of the grave. No man not armed is al- 
lowed to be there: the armed, did not even pity, 


dare not express it^ «ach man cven^nmA liiy all his 
neighbots. Alt windows art doWn, none seen loolEmg 
through them. All shops are shut. No wheel-car- 
riage rolls, this morning, in these streets but on« 
only. EightyHhousand armed men stand ranked, 
like armed statues of men ; cannons bristle, cur- 
Boneers with match burning, but no word or moveJ- 
rtient : it is as si city enchanted into silence and 
stoue ; One carriage With its eseott, slowly rumbling, 
is the only sound. Louis reads, in his Book of De- 
votion, the Prayem of tihe Bying: clatter of death- 
march falls sharp on the ear, in the great silence > 
but the thought would fain struggle heavenward, 
and forget the Earth. 

1459. As the Clocks strike ten, behold the Place 
de la Revolution, once Place de Louis Quinze ; the 
Guillotine, mounted near the old Pedestal where 
once stood the Statue of that Louis ! Far round, aH 
bristles witlk cannons and armed men: spectatoi^ 
crowding in the rear; D^Orl^ans Egalit6 there in 
carbrolet. Swift messengers, hoquetons, speed to 
the Town-hall, every three minutes: near by it is 
the Convention sitting-avengeful for Lepelletier. 
Heedlessof all, Louis reads his Prayers of the Dy- 
ing ; not till five minutes yet has he finished ; then 
the Carriage opens. What temper he is iA ? Ten dif- 
ferent witnesses will give ten different accounts of it. 
He is in the collision of all tempers ; arrived now at 
the black Mahlstrom and descent of Death : in sor- 
row, in indignation, in resignation struggling to be re- 
iHgned. *^Tak« cai^ of M. Edgeworth," he straitly 
eharges the Lietitenast who is sitting with them : 
then they two descend* 


X460, The druias are l^eat^Qg: "Taiaez-votte (Si- 
lence) !" he <jrie8 *'in a terrihle voice (d'ane voix 
terrible)." He mounts the scaffold, not without de- 
lay ; he is in puce coat, breeches of gray, white stock- 
ings. H« stripe off the coat; stands disclosed in 
a sleeve-waistcoat of white flannel. The Execu- 
tioners approach to bind himj he spurns, resists ; 
Abb^ £dgeworth has to remind him how the 
Saviour, in whom men trust, submitted bound. 
His hands ai^ tied, his head bare; the ^tal moment 
ia come. He advances to the e^ge of the Scaffold, 
*'iiis iaoe very red," and says ; "Frenchmen, I die 
innocent: it is from the Scaffold and near appearing 
befoie God that I tell you so. I pardon my enemies ; 

I desire that France - — -" A General on borse- 

baok, Santerre or another, prances out, with uplifted 
hand : "Tambours !" The drums drown the voice. 
"Executioners, do your duty!" The Executioners, 
dfspesi^ lest tlieniselves be murdered (for Sauterre 
and h£3 Armed Ranks will strike, if they do not)) 
fiei^e the hapless Louis: six of them desperate, him 
singly desperate, stru^ling there ; and bind him to 
thfibr plank. Abbj6 Edgeworth, stooping, bespeak^ 
him : "Son of Saint Louis, ascend to Heaven." The 
Axe elaaks down; a King's Life is shorn away. It 
is Monday, the 21st of January, 1793. He was aged 
Thirty-eight years, four jnonths and twenty-eight 

1461. Executor .Samson shows the Head: ^erce 

• Newspapers, municipal -records, etc., etc. (in"Hl8- 
toire Parlementaire," xxiii. 298-349); »'Deux AmU," ix- 
909-873; Mercler, "NcLUyeau Paris," ill- 3-a 

t4tf« BEGICIDE. 

shouts of Vive la E^publique rises, and swells; aQ« 
raised on bayonets, hats waving : students of the Col- 
lege of Four Nations take it up, on the far Quais; 
fling it over Paris. D'Orl^ans drives off in his cab- 
riolet: the Town-hall Councilors rub their hands, 
saying. "It is done, It is done.^' ^here is dipping 
of handkerchiefs, of pike-points in the blood. Heads- 
man Samson, though he afterward denied it,^ sells lockd 
of the hair : fractions of the puce coat are long after 
worn in rings.t — And so, in some half-hour it is 
done; and the multitude has all departed. Pastry- 
cooks, coffee-sellers, milkmen sing out their tidvial 
quotidian cries : the world wags on, as if this were a 
common day. In the coffee-houses that evening, 
says Prudhomme, Patriot shook hands with Patriot 
in a more cordial manner than usual. Not till some 
day after, according to Mercier, did public men see 
what a grave thing it was. 

1462. A grave thing it indisputably is ; and will 
have consequences. On the morrow morning, Ro- 
land, so long steeped to the lips in disgust and 
chagrin, sends in his demission. His accounts lie all 
ready, correct in black-on-white to the utmost farth- 
ing; these he wants but to have audited, that he 
might retire to remote obscurity, to the country and 
his books. They will never be audited, those ac- 
counts; he will never get retired thither. 

1463. It was on Tuesday that Roland demitted. 
On Thurday comes Lepelletier St. Fargeau's Funefi^l, 

* His letter In the newspapers (" Hlstolre Parlemen- 
taire," ubi auprfi). 

t Forster's ** Brief wechsel, 'I. 473. 


aud passage, to the Pantheon of Great Men. Notable 
as the wild pageant of a winter day. The Body is 
borne aloft, half-bare; the winding-sheet disclosing 
the death wonnd saber and bloody clothes parade 
themselves; a "lugubrions music" wailing harsh 
n»ni». Oak-crowns showered down from windows ; 
President Vergniaud walks there, with Convention 
>vith Jacobin Society, and all Patriots of every color 
all mourning brother-like. 

1464. Notable also for another thing this Bnnal of 
Lepelletier : it was the last act these men ever did with 
concert! AU parties and figures of Opinion, that 
agitate this distracted France and its Conven- 
tion, now stand, as it were, face to face, and dagger 
to dagger; the King's Life, round which they all 
struck and battled, being hurled down, Bumour- 
iez, conquering Holland, growls ominous discontent, 
at the head of Armies. Men sayDumounez wi 1 
have a King ; that young D'Orl^ans Egalit6 shall 
be his King. Deputy Fauchet, in the Journal des 
Amis, curses his day, more bitterly than Job did 
invokes the poniards of Reg^des, of Ams 
Vipers" or Robespierres, of Pluto Dantons, of horrid 
Bu^hers Legendre and Simulacra ^ Herbo^^^^^ 
send him swiftly to another world than ^'''^* ^^ 
is Te-Deum Fauchet, of the Bastille Victory, of he 
Cercle Social. . Sharp was the ^eath-hail rattling 
round one's Flag-of-truce, on that Bastille day , but 
it was soft to such wreckage of high Hope as this . 
one's New Golden Era going down on ^^^^ ^J^^^^ 
and sulphurous black of the Everlasting Darkness . 

 ''HlBtolre Parlementalre," ubi suprfi. 


^^^vf :'■ 

88b BEGICiDE. 

1465. At home this KUliiig oi' a King has divided 
all firiends; and abroad it has united all enemies. 
Fiaternity of Pe<^e, Reyolutionaiy Propagandism ; 
Atheism, Regicide ; total destmction of social order 
in this world ! All Kings; and lovers of Kings, and 
haters of Anmchy, tant in colition ; as in a war for 
life. E&gland signifi^ to Citizen Chaavelin, the 
Ambassador or rather Ambassador 's-Cloak, that he 
must quit the country in eigtit days. Ambieissador's- 
Cloak and Ambassador, Qismvelin and Talleyrand, 
depart accordingly. Talleyrand,^ implicated in that 
Iron Press of the Tnikdes, thinks it isafest to make 
for Americik 

1466. England hascast out the Embassy: i^figland de- 
clares war, — ^being shocked principally,it would seem, 
at the condition of the Hiver Scheldt. Spain delclares 
war ; being shocked principally at some other thing ; 
Which doubtless the Manifesto indicates.! Kay we 
find it was not England that declared war first ; or 
Spain first, that France herself declares war first on 
both oi them ;t- a point of immense Parliamentary 
amd Journalistic interest in those days, but wliich 
has become of no interest whatever in these. They 
all declare war. The sword is drawn, the scabbard 
thrown away. It is even as Danton said, in one of 
itll-too gigantic fignies: *'The coalesced Kings 
threaten <us ; we hurl at their feet, aa gage of battle 
the Head of a King." 

^ "Annutil Register " of 1798, pp. U4r-V». 

t ZSdMareh (''Annual Register." p. 161). 

t tet'Februaiy; 7th Marcli (MOniteur of these dates). 


TME mRQffpji;^s, 


1467, This.huge Insurrectionary Movement, which 
we liken to a breaking-out of Tophet and the Abyss, 
has s;wept away Royalty, Aristocracy, and a King's 
life. Th^ question is, What will it next do ; how 
will it henceforth shape itself? Settle down into a 
reign of Law and Liberty ; according as the habits, 
persuasions and endeavors of the educated, moneyed, 
respectable class prescribe? That is to say : the vol- 
canic lava-flood, bursting up in the manner described, 
will explode and flow according to Girondin Formula 
and pre-established rule of Philosophy ? If so, for 
pur Girondin friends it will be welL 

1468. Meanwhile were not the ptophecy rather, 
that aa no external force, Royal or other, now 
remains which could control this Movement, 
the Movement will follow a course of its own; 
probably a very original one! Farther, that 
whatsoever man or men can best interpret the in- 
ward tendencies it has, and give them voice and activ- 

302 THE GIK0ND1N8. 

ity, will obtain the lead of it ? For the rest, that as 
a Xhm^wifhout order, a thing proceeding from b&> 
yond and beneath the [region of order, it must work 
and welter, not as a Regularity but as a Chaos ; de- 
structive and self-destructive ; always till something 
that Ac» Older arise, strong enough to bind it into 
suljection again ? Which something, we may far- 
ther ooi^ectuTe> will not be a Formula, wth philo- 
sophical propositions and forensic eloquence; but a 
Keality, probably with a sword in its hand I 

1469. As for .the Gurondin Formula, of a respect- 
able Republic for the Middle Classes, all manner oi 
Aristocracies being now sufficiently demolished, 
there seems little reason to expect that the business 
will stop there. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, these 
are the words ; enundative and prophetic. Repub- 
lic for the respectable washed Middle Classes, how 
can that be the MfUlment thereof? Hunger and 
nakedness, and nightmare oppression lying heavy on 
25,000,000 hearts ; this, not the wounded vanities or 
contradicted philosophies of philosophical Advocates, 
rich Shop-keepers, rural Noblesse, was the prime 
mover in the Fr^ach Revolution ; as the like will be 
in all: such Revolutions, in all countries. Feudal 
Fleur-de-lis had become an insupportably bad march- 
ing-banner, and needed to be torn and trampled ; but 
Money-bag of Mammon (for that, in these times, is 
what the respectable Republic for the Middle Class- 
es will signify) is a still worse, while it lasts. Prop- 
erly, indeed, it is the worst and basest of all banners 
and symbols of dominion among men ; and indeed 
is possible only in a time of general Atheism, and 


Unbelief in anything save in brute Force and Sen- 
sualism J pride of birth, pride of office, any known 
kind of pride being a degree better than purse pride. 
Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood : not in the Money- 
bag, but far elsewhere, will Sansculottism seek these 

1470. We say therefore that an Insorrectlonaiy 

France, loose of control irom without, destitute of 
supreme order from within, will form one of the 
most tumultuous Activities ever seen on this Earth ; 
such as naGirondin Formula can regulate. An im- 
measurable force, made up of forces manifold, hetero- 
geneous, compatible and incompatible. In plainer 
words, this France must needs split into Parties; 
each of which seeking to make itself good, eontrar 
diction, exasperation will arise; and Parties on Par- 
ties find that they cannot work together, cannot ex- 
ist together. 

1471. As for the number of Parties, there will, 
strictly counting, be as many Parties as there are 
opinions. According to which rule, in this National 
Convention itself, to say nothing of France generally, 
the number of Parties ought to be 749; for every 
unit entertains his opinion. But now, as every unit 
has at once an individual nature or necessity to fol- 
low his own road, and a gregarious nature or neces- 
sity to see himself traveling by the side of others, — 
what can there be but dissolutions, precipitations, 
endless turbulence of attracting and repelling ; till 
once the master-element get evolved, and this wild 
alchemy arrange itself again ? 

1472. To the length of 749 Parties, however, no 


Nation waa ever yet seen to go. Nor indeed mucli 
beyond the length of Two Parties ; two at a time ; — 
so invincible is man's tendencyto nnite, with all the 
invincible divisiveness he has I Two Parties, w« 
say, are the usual number at one time ; let these two 
%ht it oat| all minor shades of party tallying under 
the shade likest them; when the one has foi^ht 
down the other, then it, in its tui&f may divide, self- 
destructive; and so the process, continue, as tax as 
needful. This is the way of . Beyoliitions« which 
spring up as the French one has done; when the so- 
called Bonds of Society snap asunder ; and all Laws 
that are not Laws of Nature become naught and For- 
mulas merely. 

1473. But, quitting these somewhat abstract opn- 
sideratioQS, let History note this concrete reality 
which the streets of Paris exhibit, on. Monday the 
25th of February, 1793. Long before . daylight that 
morning, these streets are noisy and angry. Petition* 
ing enough there has been ; a Convention often solic- 
ited. It was. but yesterday there came a Deputa- 
tion of Washerwomen with Petition; complaining 
that not so much as soap could be had ; to say noth- 
ing of bread, and condiments of bread. The cry of 
women, round the Salle de Manage, was heard plain- 
tive: ^'Du pain et du savon (Bread and soap).''* 

1474. And now from six o'clock, this Monday 
morning, one perceives the Baker's Queues unusually 
expanded, angrily agitating themselves. Not the 
Baker alone, but two Section Commissioners to help 

* Monitvur, etc. (•••Histolre Parlementaire," xxiv. 338- 



him, maaage with diAcnlty thfe daily distribution ot 
loaves. Solt^spoken assiduous, in the ^rly candle- 
light, are Baker and Commissioners: and yet the 
pale chill February sunrise discloses an unpromising 
scene. . Indignant Female Patriots, partly supplied 
with bread, rush now to the shops, declaring that 
they Will have groceries. Groceries enough : sugar- 
barrels rolled forth into the street, Patriot Cito- 
yennes weighing it ottt at a just rate of eleven-pence 
a pound ; likewise cofTeeTchests, soap^chests, nay cin- 
namon and oloves-ch^stb, with aquavitee and other 
forms of alccdiol,^— at a just rate, which some do not 
pay; the pale-feoed Grocer silently wringing his 
hands ! What help ? The distributive Citoyennes 
are of violent speech and gesture, their long Eumen- 
ides-hair hanging out of curl ; nay in their girdles 
pistols are seen sticking : some, it is even said have 
heardi, — ^xnale Patriots in petticoats and mob-cap. 
rnius, in the street of Lombards, in the street of 
Five-Diamonds, street of Pulleys, in most streets of 
Paris do*s it effervesce, the live-long day; no Mu- 
nicipality, no Mayor Pache, though he was War- 
Minister lately, sends military against rfc, or au^ht 
a^inst it but persuasive-eloquence, till seven at 
night, or later. 

1475. On Monday g<>ne five weeks, which was the 
2Ist of January, we saw Paris, beheading its ICing, 
stand silent, like a petrified City of Enchantment : 
and now on this Monday it is' so noisy, selling sugar! 
Cities, especially Cities in Revolution, are subject to 
these alternations-; the secret courses of Civic busi- 
ness and existence effervescing and efflorescing, in 


this manner, as a concrete Phenomenon to the e]^e. 
Of which Phenomenon, when secret existence be- 
coming public effloresces on the street, the philosoph- 
ical caose and effect is not so easy to find. What, 
for example, may be the accurate philosophical 
meaning, and meanings of this sale of sugar ? These 
things that have become visible in the street of Pul- 
leys and over Paris, whence are they, we say .; and 
whither ? — 

1476. That Pitt has a hand in it, the gold of Pitt : 
so much, to all reasonable Patriot men, may seem 
clear. But then, through what agents of Pitt? 
Vorlct, Apostle of Liberty, was discerned again of 
late, with his pike and red nightcap. Deputy Marat 
published in his Journal, this very day, complaining 
of the bitter scarcity, and sufferings of the people, 
till he seemed tx) get wroth : " If your Rights of 
Man were anything but a piece of written paper, the 
plunder of a few shops, and a forestaller or two hung 
up at the door-lintels, would put an end to such 
things.^ Are not these, say the Oirondins, pregnant 
indications? Pitt has bribed the Anarchists; Marat 
is the agent of Pitt: hence this sale of sugar. To 
the Mother Society, again, it is clear that the scarcity 
is factitious : is the work of Girondins, and such- 
like ; a set of men sold partly to Pitt ; sold wholly 
to their own ambitions and hard-hearted pedantries ; 
who will not fix the grain-prices, but prate pedan- 
tically of free-trade ; wishing to starve Paris into 
violence, and embroU it with the Departments: 
hence this sale of sugar. 

 •• Hlstol'-e Parl-mentaJre." xxlv. 353-366. 

CA USE AND effect: 307 

1477. And, alas, if to these two notabilities, of a 
Phenomenon and such Theories of a Phenomenon, we 
add this third notability. That the French Nation 
has believed, for several years now, in the possibility, 
nay certainty and near advent, of a universal Mil- 
lenniam, or reign of Freedom, Eqnallty, Fraternity, 
wherein man shonld be the brother of man, and sor- 
row and sin flee away ? Not bread to eat, nor soap 
to wash with; and the reign of Perfect Felicity 
ready to arrive, dne always since the Bastille fell ! 
How did onr hearts bnrn within ns, at that Feast of 
Pikes, when brother flung himself on brother^s 
bosom ; and in sunny jubilee, 25,000,000 burst forth 
into sound and cannon -smoke ! . Bright was onr 
Hope then, as sunlight; red-angry is our Hope 
grown now, as consuming fire. But, O Heavens 
what enchantment is it, or devilish legerdemain, of 
such effect, that Perfect Felicity, always within 
arm's length, could never be laid hold of, but only in 
her stead Controversy and Scarcity? This set of 
traitors after that set ! Tremble, ye traitors ; dread 

iA People which calls itself patient, long-suffering; 
but which cannot always submit to have its pocket 
picked, in this way, — of a Millennium! 

1478. Yes, Reader, here is the miracle. Out of 
that putrescent rubbish of Skepticism, Sensualism, 
Sentimentalism, hollow Machiavelism, such a Faith 
has verily risen ; flaming in the heart of a People. 
A whole People, awakening as it were to conscious- 
ness in deep misery, believes that it is within reach of 
a Fraternal Heaven-on-£arth. With longing ^rms, 
it struggles to embrace the Unspeakable, cannot 

806 THE mRONDim 

eazibrace it, owing te ceitalti cauaea.-*-Seldotii do 'we 
find that a whole People can be said to have any 
Faith at all ; except in things which it can efeit and 
handle. ' Whensoever Jt gets any Faith, its history 
becomes spirit-stirring, noteworthy. But since the 
time when steel Europe shook itself simultaneously 
at the word of Hermit Peter, and rushed toward the 
Sepuldiier where Ood had lain, there was no uni- 
versal impulse of Faith that one could note. Since 
Protestantism went silent, no Luther's voice, no 
Zisca's dram any longer proclaiming that God's 
Truth was not the BeviPs Lie ; and the Last of the 
Cameronians (Renwick was the name of him; honor 
to the name of tha brave !) sank, shot, on the Castle^ 
bill of Edinburgh, there was no partial impulse of 
Faith among Nations. Till now, behold, once more, 
this French Nation believes! Herein, we say, in 
that astonishing Faith of theirs, lies the miraele. It 
is a Faith undoubtedly of the more prodigious sort, 
even among Faiths ; and will embody itself in prodi* 
gies. It is the soul of that world-prodigy named 
French RevolaticHi ; whereat the world still gaees . 
and shudders. 

1479. But, for the rest, let no man ask History to 
explain by cause and effect how the business pro- 
ceeded henceforth. This battle of Mountain and 
Gironde, and what follows, is the battle of Fanati- 
cisms and Miracles ; unsuitable for cause and effect. 
The sound of it, to the mind, is as a hubbub of voices 
in distraction ; little of articulate is to be gathered 
by long listening and studying ; only battle-tumult, 
shouts of triumph, shrieks 7of impair. The Mount- 

ain has left na Memoirs; the Girondins have left 
Memoirs, which are too often little other thaa long- 
drawn lnte]jectioii8, oi* Woe is m^, and (Mrsed be jfe. 
So soon as Histoxycan philosophically delineate the 
conflagration of a kindled Fire-Tshipj she may try 
this other task. Here lay the hitumen-stxatum, 
there the hnmstcme one ; so ran the vein of powde^ 
of nitre, terebinth and foul grease: this, were she 
inquisitive enough, History might partly know. But 
how they acted and xeacted beljow decks, one ^e- 
stratum playing into the other, by its nature and the 
art of man, now when all hands ran raging, and the 
flames lashed high over shrouds and topmast: this 
let not History attempt. 

1480. The Fiyenship is old France, the old French 
Form of Life ; her crew a Creneration of men. Wild 
are their cries and their ragings there, like spirits 
tormented in that flame. But, on the whole, are 
they not gone^ O Eeader ? Their Fire-ship and they, 
lightening the world, have sailed away \ its flames 
and its thunders quite away, into the Deep of Time. 
One thing therefore History will do : pity them all; 
for it went hard with them all. Not even the sea- 
green Incorruptible but shall have some pity, some 
human love, though it takes an effort Ajid, now, so 
much once thoroughly attained, the rest will become 
easier. To the eye of equal brotherly pity, innu- 
merable pervermons dissipate themselves; exaggera- 
tions and execrations fall off, of their own accord. 
Standing wistfully on the safe shore, we will look, 
and see, what is of Interest to us, what is adapted to 




1481. Gironde and Mountain are now in itill qnar* 
rel ; their mutual rage, says Toulongeon, is growing 
a ** pale ^ rage. Carious, lamentable : all these men 
have the -word Kepublic on their lips ; in the heart 
of every one of them is a passionate wish for some- 
thing which he calls Republic : yet see their death- 
quarrel! So, however, are men made. Creatures 
who live in confusion ; who, once thrown together, 
can readily fall into that confusion of confusions 
which quarrel is, simply l)eGau8e their confusions 
differ from one another; still more because they seem 
to differ ! Men^s words are a poor exponent of their 
thought , nay their l^oueht itself is a poor exponent 
of the inward unnamed Mystery, wherefrom both 
thought and action have their birth. No man can 
explain himself, can get himself explained ; men see 
not one another, but distorted phantasms which they 
call one another ; which they hate and go to battle 
with : for all battle is well said to be misunderstand' 

1482. But indeed that similitude of the Fire-ship . 
of our poor French brethren, so fiery themselves, 
working also in an element of fire, was not insignifi- 
cant. Consider it well, there is a shade of the tru<li 
in it. For a man once committed headlong to re- 
publican or any other Transcendentalism, and fight- 
ing and fanaticising amid a Nation of his like, be- 
comes as it were enveloped in an ambient atmos- 
phere of Transcendentalism and Delirium : his indi- 


vidnal self is lost in someUung that is not himself, 
bat foreign though inseparable from him. Strange 
to think of, the man^s cloak still seems to hold the 
same man ; and yet the man is not there, his voli- 
tion is not there ; nor the source of what he will do 
and devise ; instead of the man and his volition 
there is a piece of Fanaticism and Fatalism incar- 
nated in the shape of him. He, the hapless incar- 
nated Fanaticism, goes his road ; no man can help 
him, he himself least of all. It is a wonderful, 
tragical predicament; — such as human langnage, 
unused to deal with thes6 things, being contrived for 
the uses of common Hie, struggles to shadow out m 
figures. The ambient element of material fire is not 
wilder than this of Fanaticism , nor, though visible 
to the eye, is it more real. Volition bursts forth 
involuntary-voluntary; rapt along; the movement 
of free human minds becomes a raging tornado of 
fatalism, blind as the winds; and Mountain and 
Gironde, when they recover themselves, are alike 
astounded to see where it has flung and dropt them. 
To such height of miracle can men work on men ; 
the Conscious and the Unconscious blended inscru^ 
tably in this our inscrutable Life ; endless Necessity 
envir<ming Freewill! 

1483. The weapons of the Girondins are Political 
Philosophy, Respectability and Eloquence, Elo- 
quence, or call it rhetoric, really of a superior order; 
Vergniaud, for instance, turns a period as sweetly as 
any man of that generation. The weapons of the 
Mountain are those of mere Nature : Audacity and 
Impetuosity which may become Ferocity, as of men 

nay of me&^iD acMie ensis, ^v^o^aa&^itonbeMxsiadast 
either par&vail •or {>eriirii. The gtaond t» t>e Icm^^ 
for is Popnlocity : jQucthcr y<m may either sedt Popi^ 
larity with the iriend^ of Freedom and Order, or 
with the £EieQda-4>f Freedom Bimple ; to seels it with 
both has tiohistppily heeome impeflsible. "With l^e 
former »ort, and generality rwitii. the Authorities of 
the Departments, and ftueh i».B6ad ^aa^mmentsaey 
Debates, and are of Respeetahility, and of a peaoe* 
loving moneyed natare, the Ginmdins oariy it* 
With the extreme Patriot again, with the indigeiit 
Millions, especially with the Bf^sulatioa of Parhi 
who do not read so much m. hear aadsee^ theCrixoa* 
dins altogether lose i^ and the Moontaia jooorries it. 
1484. Egoism, nor meaaoess o£ mind,, la not .want* 
ing on either side. Surely not on the Oixondin side ; 
wh«?eiB fact the instinct of aelf^resennation, too 
prominently nnlblded by circmnstanoes, eats almost 
a sorry fignxe; where also a certain finesse, to the 
length even of shuffling and shamming, now and 
then shows itself. Xh^ ase nven skilliul in AdTO* 
cate^feuoe. They have been c£dled the Jesuits of the 
Kevokition f bat that is too ha]>d a saax&e. it must 
be owned likewise that this rude blnsteciBg Monntaia 
has a sense in it of what the.fierolatioii means; 
which these eloquent Giroadins as« totaUy void of. 
Was the Bevolution made, and fought for, against the 
world, these four weary years, that a Formula might 
be substantiated; that Soci^ might become me- 
thodic, demonstrable by logic ; and the old Noblesse 

cuL0T23xr ANH^ SAmewLoma ais 

witfet tiieir pK/bemasm vaidl^? Or odght ft net 
wttbal W laii^ some glimmering^ lightund idlerviy 
atioa to the ^^090,000, MYio sat in darkness, heavy- 
ladeii« tUi they rose wi«h pikes in tlteir&aiids? At 
least loid lo'weat, on« wosld think, it ediioeM kring 
them A i^OPoportioa «f btead to 1iv« «ti ? There is ia 
the M^HUitaiB heie azKi th«re; in .Marat' Peopled 
firiend; in the intoeru^itile 8ea*gfeeii hiacMSelf, 
though othermse so leini «nd fiyrmulary, a heartftft 
knowledge 6f this hi4;ter Ihct ^— Ht^ithoat whidi 
knowledge all other kiMWle^ge here ii nAtight, and 
theclMieeat/oreiisio etoqitenee is as soundmg hraiSB 
and » tinkling eymbaL Most eold, on the other 
hand, most paitnmieing, nnsnbetantiail is the tone of 
the Giroodinstowatd ^ oar poorer hrethren ;*' — those 
biediren whom one often heam of nnder the eolleet- 
tive name of ** the mass^,^' as if thej were no per- 
sons at all, but mounds of eombnstrble explosiv^e 
material, for blowing down Bastilles with ! In very 
truth, a&eTolationist of this kind, ishe not a Solecism? 
Disowned by Nataie and Art ; deserving only to be 
erased, and disaj^tear! Sai«ly,to our poorer breth- 
ren of Pans, all this Girondin patronage sounds 
deadening and kilKngt if fine-spoken and incontro- 
vertible hi logics then all the &]ser, all the hatefoler 
in fact. 

1485. Nay doubtless, pleading for Popularity, here 
among oar poorar brethren of Paris, the Girondin 
has a hard game to play. If he gain "Ae ear of the 
Respectable at a distance, it is by insisting on Sep- 
tember and sneh-like; it is at the ^zxiense of this 
Paris where he dwells and pcrorateB. Hard to pero- 


rate in sach an auditoiy ! Wherefore the qneeiion 
' arises^ Coald not we get onrselves oat of this Paris? 
Twiee or oftener snch an attempt is made. If not we 
onrselyea, thinks Guadet, then at least ourSuppl^ns 
might do it. For every Bepnty has his Suppliant, 
or Substitute, who will take his place if need be: 
might not these assemble, say at Bourges, which is a 
quiet episcopal Town, in quiet Bern, forty good 
leagues off? In that case, what profit were it for the 
Paris Sansculottery to insult us; our Suppl^ans sit- 
ting quiet in Bourges, to whom we could run ? Nay« 
even the Primary electoral Assemblies, thinks Gua- 
det, might be reconvoked, and a New Ccmvention got, 
with new orders from the Sovereign People; and 
right glad were Lyons,, were Bourdeaux, Bouen, Mar- 
seilles, as yet Provincial Towns, to welcome us in 
their turn, and become a sort of Capital Towns; and 
teach these Parisians reason. 

1486. Fond schemes; which all misgo ! Ifdecreedi 
in heat of eloquent logic, to-day, they are repealed' 
by clamor and passionate wider considerations, on 
the morrow.* Will you, O Girondins, parcel us into 
separate Bepublics, then ; like the Svriss, like your 
Americans ; so that there be no Metropolis or indi- 
visible Fiench Nation any more? Your Depart- 
mental Guard seemed to point that way ! Feden^l 
Republic? Federalist? Men and Knitting-women 
repeat F^d^raliste, with or without much Dictionary- 
meaning ; but go on repeating it, as is usual in such 
cases, till the meaning of it becomes almost magical, 
fit to designate all mystery of Iniquity; and F^^nd- 
* Monlteur. 1793» No. 140, etc. 

cuLorric and sansculottic. ais 

iste baa grown a word of Exorcism anfl Apage-Sftt- 
anas. But fiirthermore, consider what " poisoning 
of public opinion" in the Departments, by these, 
Brissot, Gorsas, Caritat-Condorcet Newspapers ! And 
then also what counter-poisoning, still feller in qual-^ 
ity, by a P^re Duchesne of Hubert, bmtalest News- 
paper yet published on Eartii ; by a Rougiff of Guff- 
w>y> by the "incendiary leaves of Marat''! More 
than once, on complain-given and effervescence ris- 
ing, it is decreed that a man cannot both be Legisla- 
tor and Editor ; that he shall choose between the 
one function and the other.* But this too, which 
indeed could help little, is revoked or eluded; re- 
ma:in8 a pious wish mainly. 

1487. Meanwhile, as the sad fruit of such strife, be- 
hold, O ye National Representatives, how, between 
the friends of Law and the friends of Freedom every- 
where, mere heats and jealousies have arisen ; fever- 
ing the whole Republic! Department, Provincial 
Town is set against Metropolis, Rich against Poor, 
Culottic against Sansculottic, man s^ainst man. 
From the Southern Cities come Addressed of an al- 
most inculpable character; for Paris has long suf- 
fered Newspaper calumny. Bourdeaux demands a 
reign of Law and Respectability, meaning Girondism, 
with emphasis. With emphasis Marseilles demands 
the like. Nay, from Marseilles there come two Ad- 
dresses: one Girondin; one Jacobin Sansculottic. 
Hot Rebecqui, sick of this Convention-work, has 
given place to his Substitute, and gone home ; where 
also, with such jarrings, there is work to be sick of. 

• "Hlstolre Parlementalre," xxv. 25. etc. 

316 "Tflir GisoNmim: 

14^. Lyoins, a place of eapitaKstaimd Anstocmts, 
is in still "worse state; almost in revolt. Ch«£er 
the Jacobin Town-Councilor has got, tooliteniTly, to 
daggers-drawn with Nidvre-Ghol the Mod^ratin 
Mayor ; one of your Moderate, perhaps Aristocrat, 
Royalist Or Federalist Mayors! Chalier^ who pQ- 
grimed to Paris "to behold MtHWt and- the- Mofnnt- 
ain,"has verily kindled hinwelf at their sacred nm: 
for on the Oth of Pelwuary- last, History or Rumol: 
has seen him haranguing his Lyons Jacobins in a 
quite transcendental manner, with a drawn dagger in 
his hand ; recommending (they say) sheer September 
methods, patience being worn out; and that the 
Jacobin Brethren should, impromptu, work the Guil- 
lotine themselves ! One sees him stiM) in Ei^pav- 
ings^ mounted on a table; foot advanced, body con- 
torted ; a bald, rude, slope-browed) infuriated visage 
of the eaiitne species, the eyes starting from their 
sockets ; in his puissant right-hand the brandished 
dagger, or horse-pistol, as some give it ; other dog- 
risi^es kindling under him : — a man not likely to 
end well ! However, the Guillotine was not got to- 
gether impromptu, that day, ^^on the Pont Saint* 
Clair,'' or elsewhere; but indeed continued lying 
rusty in its loft :* Ni^vre-Chol with military went 
about, rumbling cannon, in the most confused man- 
ner; and the "900 prisoners" received no hurt. So 
distracted is Lyons grown, with its cannons rum- 
bling. Convention Commissioner must be sent thith- 
er forthwith : if even they can appease it, and keep 

the Guillotine in its lofk. 

*"HiBtoiro Parlementaire/' xxiv. 385-393; xxvi* WH,- 

1480L donsidet^aUy i^ on all these mad janmgB 
ofthie'SoutJaerB Cities, and of France generally, a 
traitorous Orypto-Rojali^t class is not looking and 
watebing ; ready to strike in, at the right season ! 
Neither is th^« hread; neither is there soap; se^ 
tlie Patriot women selling out sugar, at a just rate 
of tnfciity-«two sous per pound 1 Citizen Representa- 
tives^ it were rerilj well tliat your quarrels jfiniahed, 
and the leign of Perfect JE'elicity began. 



2490. On the whole, one cannot say that the Giron- 
dins ar^ wanting to themselves, so far as good-will 
might go. They prick assiduously into the sore- 
places of the Mountain ; £rom princiide, and also 
flrom Jesuitism. 

1491. Besides September, of which there is uow 
little to be mad^ e^cc^pt effervescence, we discern 
two sore-places where the Mountain often suffers: 
Marat, and OrliSans Egalit^. Squalid Marat, for his 
own sake and for the Mountain's, is assaulted ever 
and anon ; held up to France, as a squalid blood- 
thirsty Portent, inciting to the pillage of the shops ; 
of whom let the Mountain have the credit! The 
Mountain murmurs, ill at ease : this "Maximum of 
Patriotism," how shall they either own him or dis- 
own him? As for Marat personally, he, with his 
fixed-idea, remains invulnerable to such things ; nay 
the People's-Friend is very evidently rising in im* 


portance, as his befriended People rises. No idirieks 
now, when he goes to speak: occasional applauses 
rather, furtherance which breeds confidence. The 
day when the Girondins proposed to "decree him ac- 
cused" (d^cr^ter d'accusation. as they phrase it) for 
that February Paragraph /of "hanging up a Forestall- 
er or two at the door-lintels," Marat proposes to 
have them "decreed insane;" and, descending the 
Tribune-steps, is heard to articulate these most un- 
senatorial ejaculations, "Les cochons, les imb^eilles 
(Pigs, idiots) r' Oftentimes he croaks harsh sarcasm, 
having really a rough rasping tongue, and a very 
deep fund of contempt for fine outsides ; and once or 
twice, he even laughs, nay "explodes into laughter 
(rit aux ^lats)," at the gentilities and superfine airs 
of these Girondin **men of statesmanship," with 
their pedantries, plausibilities, pusillanimities: 
"These two years," says he, "you have been whining 
about attacks, and plots, and danger from Paris; 
and you have not a scratch to show for yourselves."* 
— Banton gruffly rebukes him, from time to time: a 
Maximum of Patriotism whom one can neither own 
nor disown ! 

1492. But the second sore-place of the Mountain is 
this anomalous Monseigneur Equality Prince d'Or- 
l^ans. Behold these men, says the Gironde ; with a 
whilom Bourbon Prince among them: they are creat- 
ures of the D'Orl^ans Faction ; they will have PhiUj)- 
pe made King; one King no sooner guillotined than 
another made in his stead ! Girondins have moved, 
Buzot moved long ago, from principle and also fiom 

* Moniteur, Stance du 20 Mai 1798. 

Q&O Wim SHRILL. 319 

Jesuitism, that the whole race of Bourbons should be 
xnardied forth from the soil of France ; this Prince 
Egalit^ to bring up the rear. Motions which might 
produce some effect on the public \ — ^which the 
Mountain, ill at ease, knows not what to do with. 

14d3. And poor Orleans Egalit^ himself, for cme 
begins to pity ev^i him, what does he do with them ? 
The disowned of all Parties, the rejected and foolish* 
ly bedrifted hither and thither, to what comer of 
Nature can he now drift with advantage! Feasible 
hope remains not for him : unfeasible hope, in pallid 
doubtful glimmers,, there may still come, bewilder- 
ing, not cheering or illuminating, — from the Dumou- 
riez quarter; and how if not the time-wasted, 
Orleans Egalit^, then perhaps the young unworn 
Chartres Egalii;^ might rise to be a kind of King ? 
Sheltered, if sheltered it be, in the clefts of the 
Mountain, poor Egalit^ will wait: one refuge in 
Jacobinism, one in Dumouriez and Counter-Revo- 
lution, are there not two chances ? However the 
look of him, Dame Gr^ilis says, is grown gloomy; 
sad to see. Sillery also, the Genlis's Husband, who 
hovers about the Mountain, not on it, is in a bad way. 
Dame Genlis is come to Baincy, out of England and 
Bury St. Edmunds, in these days ; being summoned 
by Egalit^ with her young charge, Mademoiselle 
Egalit^ — that so Mademoiselle might not be counted 
among Emigrants and hardly dealt with. But It 
proves a raveled business : Genlis and charge find 
that they must retire to the Netherlands ; must wait 
on the Frcmtiers, for a week or two ; till Monseig- 
neur, by Jacobin help, get it wound up. "Next 

320 THE GTBONDim- 

moTningi'" says DomeGeDlis, "Monseignenr, gloomier 
than ever, gave me his arm, to lead me to the oax- 
riage. I was greatly troubled ; Mademoiselle burst 
into tears ; her Father was pale and trembling. Af- 
ter I had got seated, he stood immovable at the car" 
rias;e-door, with his eyes fixed on me ; his mournful 
and painful look seemed to implore pity ; — * Adieu, 
Madam !' said he. The altered sound of his voioe 
completely overcame me; unable to utter a word, I 
held out my hand ; he grasped it close ^ then turn- 
ing, and advancing sharply toward the postilions, l]Le 
gave them a sign, and we rolled away."* 

1494. Nor are Peace -makers wanting; of whom 
likewrse we mention two ; one fast on the crown of 
the Mountain, the other not yet alighted anywhere: 
Danton and Barr^re. Ingenious Barrdre, Old-Constit- 
uent and Editor, from the slopes of the Pyrenees, is 
one of the usefulest men of this Convention, in his 
way. Truth may lie on both sides, on either side, or 
on neither side; my friends, ye must give and take; 
for the rest, success to the winning side ! This is the 
motto of Barr^re. Ingenious, almost genial; quick- 
sighted, supple, graceful ; a man that will prosper. 
Scarcely Belial in the assembled Pandemonium was 
plausibler to ear and eye. An indispensable man : in 
the great Art of Varnish he may be said to seek his 
fellow. Has there an explosion arisen, as many do 
arise, a confusion, unsightliness, which no tongue can 
speak of, nor eye look on ; give it to Barr^re ; Bar- 
r^re shall be Committeer-^Heporter of it ; you shall 
see it transmute itseli into a regularity, into the very 
* OenliB, " M Moires " (London, 1825>, iv. llS. 


beauty and improvement that wa^ needeiL lYithout 
one suxjh man, we say, how were this Convention 
bested ? Call him not, as exaggerative Mercier does, 
" the greatest liar in France : " nay it may be argued 
there is not truth enough in him to make a real lie 
of. Call him, with Burke, Anacreon of the Guillo- 
tine, and a man serviceable to this Convention. 

1495, The other Peace-maker whom we name is 
Danton. Peace, O peace with one another ! cries 
Banton often enough : Are we not alone against the 
world ; a little band of brothers ? Broad Banton is 
loved by all the Mountain ; but they think him too 
easy-tempered, deficient in suspicion : he ha& stood 
between Bumouriez and much censure, anxious not 
to exasperate our only General : in the shrill tumult 
Banton's strong voice reverberates, for union and 
pacification. Meetings there are ; dinings with the 
Girondins : it is so pressingly essential that there be 
union. But the Girondins are haughty and respecta- 
ble : this Titan Banton is not a man of Formulas, 
and there rests on him a shadow of September. 
" Your Girondins have no confidence in me : " this is 
the answer a conciliatory Meillan gets from him ; to all 
the arguments and pleadings this conciliatory Meillan 
can bring, the repeated answer is, "lis n'ont point 
de confiance."* — The tumult will get ever shriller ; 
rage is growing pale. 

1496. In fact, what a pang is it to the heart of a 
Girondin, this first withering probability that the 
despicable unphilosophic anarchic Mountain, after 

* **Memoire8 de MelUan, Bepr^sentant du Peuple" 
(Paris, 1^23), p. fil. 


2K^ fHE &lBONDim 

all, may trimnpli ! "Brutal S^ptemberers, p fifth-floor 
Tallien *' a Robespierre without au idea in his head," 
as Condorcet says, " or a feeling in his heart : " and 
yet ive, the flower of France, cannot stand ag^ainarf 
them ; behold the scepter departs from us ; from us 
aiidgced to them! Eloquence, Philo^ophisn^, lie* 
spectabriity avail not : ** against' Stupidity flie vei:^' 
gods fight to no purpose, 

*« Mitder Dummheit kampfen Gotter selbst vergebensP 

Shrill are the plaints of Louvet ; his thin existence 
all acidified into rage and preternatural insight o{ 
suspicion. Wroth is young Barbaroux ; wroth and 
scornful. Silent, like a Queen with the aspic on her, 
bosom, sits the wife of Roland; Roland's Accounts 
never yet got audited, his name become a byword. 
Such is the fortune of war^ especially of revolution. 
The great gulf of Tpphet and 10th of August opened 
itself at the magic of your eloquent voice : and 16 
Xiow, it will not close at your voice ! It is a danger- 
ous thing such magic. The Magician's Famulus got 
hold of the forbidden Book, and summoned a goblin : 
Plait-U (What is your will) ? said the Goblin, The 
J'amulus, somewhat struck, bade him fetch water ; 
the swift goblin fetched it, pail in each hand : but lo, 
would not cease fetching it ! Desperate, the Famu- 
lus shrieks at him, smites at him, cuts him in twa; 
lo, tioo goblin water-carriers ply ; and the house will 
be' swum away in Deucalion Deluges. 




1497. Qr rather we will say, this Senatorial war 
inight have jasted long ; and Party tngging and throt- 
tling with Party might have suppressed and smothered 
one another, in the ordinary bloodless Parllnmentary 
way; on one condition; that France had been at 
least able to exist, all the while. But tlus Sovereign^ 
People has a digestive faculty, and cai>not do with* 
oat bread. Also we are at war, and must have vie- 
Jory; at war with Europe, with Fate and Famine ^ 
and behold, in the spring of the year, all victory de- 
serts us. 

^493. Dumouriez bad his outposts stretched as 
px as 4if*li^-Chapelie, and the beautifulest plan fot 
ponncing on Jlolland, by stratagem, flat-bottome(JL 
boats and rapid intrepidity ; wherein too he had 
prospered so far; but unhappily could prosper no 
farther. Aix-la-Chapelle is lost ; Maastricht wiU not 
surrender to mere smoke and noise : the flat-bot- 
tomed iboats have to Jaunch themselves again, and 
return the way they came. Steady now, ye rapidly 
in^epid men; retreat with firmness, Pathian-like ! 
Alas, were it (rcneral Miranda^s fault; were it the 
JVar-minister's fault; or were it Dumouriez's own 
^ult and that of Fortune : enough, there is nothing 
for it but retreat, — well if it be not even flight ; for 
already terror-stricken cohorts and stragglers pour 
off, not waiting for order ; flow disastrous, as many 
as 10,000 of them, without halt till they see 

France again.^ Nay worse : Dumouriez himself is 
• Pumouriez, iv. 16-73. 


scretly turning tnubiT? Teiy tharp is tli« 
licb hewritcstooiirCommiUceB. CommiB- 
d Jaoobia Pillagers liave done such iucal- 
aischiet'i Hasseot'rai^ sends neither eax- 
r clothing 1 shoes we have, deceptively 
th wood and pasteboard." Nothing in 
rijjlit. Dantou and Lacroix, when it wus 
were ComtnisBionei-s, wodM needs join 
to France ; — of ivhich Dumonrieg: might 
) the prettiest little Duchy Ipr bis own 
loof : With all these things the General is 
id writca to ns in a sharp tone. Who 
bat this bet little General is meditating? 
% INike or Belgium or Brabant ; and n^, 
le yonnger King of France : there were an 
DOT BerolntitHil — Committee of Defense 
shakes its head : who except Danton, de- 
snspicion, could still atruf^e to be of 

nd Genera! Custine is rolling back flxnn 
CoDotry; conquered Meotz will be recon- 
e Prussinns giithering ronnd to bombard it 
and shell. Alentziiiay resist. Commissioner 
e Thionviller, "making sallies, at Ihe head 
eged ;"— resist to the death ; but not longer 
How Bad a reveise for Menfz ! Braro 
rave Lax planted Liberty -trees, amid pi- 
iic, in the Hiioiv-Btnsh of last winter, there ; 
! Jacobin Societies; and got the territory 
ed witli France; they came hitherto Paris, 
s or Delegates, and have their eighteen 
ay ; but see, before ouoe tbe Liberty-trea 


isrg<>tr>gbt}7 in leaf^ Mentz is changiog^ intft nai^f- 
plosive crater; vomiting fire, bevomited witli firel 

1500. Neitker of Uiese men shall again see Ment^ ; 
they have come hither only to ale* Forster has been 
round the Globe ; he saw Cook perish under Owhy- 
hee clubs ; but like ihis Paris he has yet seen or suf- 
fered nothing. Poverty escorts him ; from home 
there can uolhiug come, except Job's news: the 
eighteen daily francs, which we here as Deputy or 
Dekgate with difficulty "touch," are in paper assign- 
ats, and sink fast in value. Poverty, disapx>ointment, 
inaction, obloquy ; the brave heart slowly breaking ! 
Such is Foi-ster's lot. For the rest, Demoiselle The- 
Toigne smiles on yon in the Soirees; "a beautiful 
brown-locked face," of an exalted temper ; and con- 
trives to keep her carriage. Prussian Trenck, the 
poor subterranean Baron, jargons and jangles in an 
unmelodious manner. Thomas Paine's face is red- 
pustuled, "but the eyes uncommonly bright." Con- 
vention Deputies ask you to dinner : very courteous; 
"we all play at plump-sack."* "It is the Explorfon 
and New -creation of a World," says Forster, "and 
the actors in it, such small mean objectS| buzzing 
round one like a handful of flies." 

1601. Likewise there is war with Spain. Spain 
will advance through the gorges of the PjTcnees; 
rustling with Bourbon banners, jingling with artil- 
lery and menace. And England has donned the red 
coat; and marches, with Royal Highness of York, — 
whom some once spake of. inviting to be our King. 
Changed that humor now : and ever more changing » 

* Forster's '' Briefwechsei," li. 514, 400, 681. 

p26 mf ^iuo]sdi2j:s. 

till no hatefuler thing walk tjiis Earth than a deni-. 
zen of that tyrannous Island ; and Pitt >3e "declared" 
and decreed, with effervescence, "L'ennemi du ^enre 
huniain (The enemy of mankind);" and, very singu-' 
lar to say, you make order that no Soldier of Liberty 
give quarter to an Engiishman. Which order, how- 
ever, the Soldier of Liberty does but partially obey. 
We will take no Prisoners tben, say the Soldiers of 
Liberty ; they shall all be "Deserters" that we take* 
It is a frantic order; and attended with inconven- 
ience. For surely, if you give no quarter, the plain 
issue is that you will get none ; and so the business 
become as broad as it was long. — ^^Our "recruitment of 
300,000 men," which was the decreed force for this 
year, is like to have work enough laid to its hand. 

1502. So many enemies come wending on ; pene- 
tratiujr through throats of mountains, steering over 
the salt sea ; toward all points of our territory ; rat- 
tling chains at us. Nay, worst of all : there is an 
enemy within our own territory itself. In the early 
days of March the Nantes Post-bags do not arrive ; 
there arrive only instead of them Conjecture, Appre- 
hension, bodefnl wind of Rumor. The bodeful est proves 
true. Thos3 fanatic peoples of La Vend(?e will lio 
longer keep under: their lire of insurrection, heretofore 
dissipated with difficulty, blnzcs out anew, after tho 
King's Death, as a wide conflagration ; not riot, but 
civil war. Your Cathelineaus, your Stofflets. Charet- 
tes, arc other men than was thought: behold ho\v 
their Peasants, in mere russet and hodden, with 
their rude arms, rude array, with their fanatic Gaelic 
/ • See Dampmartin, " Ev<§nemen9." ii. 813-230, 

FA ITTEItlA^n I^ DANGER. 327 , 

frenzy and wild-yelling battle-cry of God and> the 
£ing, dasH at lis lilife a dark whirlwind ; and blow 
the best-disciplined Nationals we can get into panic 
aiid sauve-qui-pent! Field after field is theirs; one 
sees not where it will end. Commandant Santerro 
may be sent there; but with non-eflect; he might as 
well have returned and brewed beer. 

1503. It has become peremptorily necessary tliat a 
National Convention cease arguing, and begin ' act- 
ing. Yield one party of you to the other, and do it 
swiftly. No theoretic outlook is here, but the close 
certainty of ruin ; the very day that is passing over 
us must be provided for. 

1504. It was Friday the Eighth of March when 
this JobVpost from Dumouriez, thickly preceded and 
escorted by so many other Job*s-posts, reached the 
National Convention. Blank enough are most faces. 
Little will it avail whether our Septemberers be pun- 
ished or go unpunished ; if Pitt and Cobourg are 
coming in, with one punishment for us all; nothing 
now between Paris itself and the Tyrants but a 
doubtful Dumouriez and hosts in loose flowing loud 
retreat! — Dauton the Titan rises in this hour as 
always in the hour of need. Great is his voice, re- 
verberating from the domes : — Citizen-Representa- 
tives, shall we not, in such crisis of Fate, lay aside 
discords? Reputation: O what is the reputation of 
this man or of that? "Que mon nom soit fl(^tri; 
que la France soit libre (Let my name be blighted ; 
let France be free) ! " It is necessary now again that 
France rise, in swift vengeance, with her million 
right-hands, with her heart as of one maxL Instan- 


«(xiiitment in Paris ; let every Section of 

1Mb ItsthonBauds; ever; Section of FrauceJ 
i. Couiiiiiseioners ur us, two fur eadi Section 
riy-ciglit. tliey must go loriliuiili, uud tull 
t tlie Couutry needs ol' liei'. Let Eiglity 
9 beaent, post-haste, over France; tosptead 
03B, to c.ill forth the luiglit of tucii. Let 
Y also be on the road, belbra this sitting 

them go. Bud think what their errand is. 
imp of 50,000 between Paris and the North 

for Paris will pour forth her volunteers! 
to shoulder, one strong death-de- 
;nnd rushing; we shall hurl back these 
ight yet again ; and France, in spite of the 
ree!-— So sounds the Titau'a voice; into all 
rases ; into nil Frencli hearts. Sections sit 
neuce, Ibv recniitmcnt, enrolliuent, that 
it. Couvention Commission eis, on swill 
e carrying tiio fire-cross from Towo to Town, 

ud BO there is F\n% of Fatherland ia Danger ' 
>iii tlie Towii-hall, Black Flag from the top 
3anie Cathedral ; there is Proilaiuation, hob 
; Purls rushing out oiiee again to strike its 
own. That, in such tircnnistauces, Paris 
mild -humor can be conjectured. Agitated 
ill more agitated round the Salle de Ma- 
in iUans-Termce crowds ilself wilh angry 
angrier CitizeneKses ; Varlet peranihnlates 
table chair; ejaculations of no measured 
to perfldious fine-spoken Homroes d'etrt, 
ur(ln"Hlatolre Pariementatie."xzr,e(. 


ftiends of Duuooilez, eec)reb-&iendH of Pi 
bourg, burst JYom tbe lieaitsaod lips of 
figjit the enemy ? Yes, and even to " freeie 
terror (glacer d'eflVoi)," but first to have 
Traitors punislied ! Wbo are tbey tbat, cs 
qoairelinij;, in their Jesuitic moat modernte 
to Bhaekle the Patriotic movement? Tl 
Frauce against Paris, oud poison public i 
the Departments ? Tliat wlieu ne ask fot 
a Maximum liiLCiI price, treat us with l 
Free-tradeingrains? Can tbebuman stomi 
itself with lectures on Frec-tr.ule ; aud 
flgbt the Angtriaus in a moderato maiine 
immoderate 1 Tliis Convention must be p 

1506. "Set np a swift TribunnI for 1 
Maximum for Grains : " tlius speak with < 
Patriot Volunteers, as they defile through 
Teution Hall, just on the wiug to the Fi 
pewrating in that heroicai Comhyses's veiu 
beshouled by the Galleries and Monntaii 
mured by the Right-aide aud Plain. Nor 
giea wanting: lo, while a Captain of tl 
Poiaaonnifire perorates with vehemence i 
mouriez, Maximum and Crypto-Boyalist 
and bis troop beat chorus with him, wa 
Banner orerhead, the eye of a Deputy d 
this aamc Banner, that the cravatesor strei 
havcliojal fleur-de-lia! The Sectiou-Oipta 
his troop shriek, borror-slrutk, and " li 
Banner under foot:" seemingly the worl 
Crypto-Koyalist Plotter? Most probable ; 

• ''Cl>olxdesKapports."xl. 21T. 

33pi me Qieomxm 

haps at bottom, only the old Banner of the Section, 
manufactured prior to the Tenth of August, when 
such streamers were according to rule !* 

15D7. History, looking over theGirondin Memoirs, 
anxious to disentangle the truth of them from the 
hysterics, finds these days of March, especially this 
Sunday the 10th of March, play a great part. Plots, 
plots ; a plot for murdering the Qirondin Deputies ; 
Anarchists and Secret- Hoy alists plotting, in hellish 
concert, for that end ! The far greater part of which 
is hysterics. AVhat we do find indisputahle is, that 
Lou vet and" certain Girondins were apprehensive they 
might be murdered on Saturday, and did not go to 
the evening sitting; but held council with one 
another, each inciting his fellow to do something 
resolute, and end these Anarchists; to which, how- 
ever, Potion, opening the window, and finding the 
night very wet, answered only, " lis ne feront rien,!' 
and *• composedly resumed his violin,'' saj'S Louvet yf 
thereby, with soft Lydian twecdlc-deeing, to wrap 
himself against eating cares. Also that Louvet felt 
especially liable to being killed ; that several Giron- 
dins went abroad to seek beds : liable to being killed; 
but were not. Farther that, in very truth. Journal- 
ist Peputy Go^'sas, prisoner of the Departments, he 
and his Printer had their houses broken into (by a 
tumult of Patriots, among whom red-capped Varlet, 
American Fournier loom forth, in the darkness of the 
rain and riot); had their wives put in fear; their 
presses, types and circumjacent equipments beaten 

* '*nistoire Pariementaire," xxv. 72. 
t Louvet, "Memoires. '"p.72. ' 

tprub^ no Mayor interrediig in time ;G<?rsas him- 
self escaping, pistQlin liaud, * along the coiMng of the 
back wari.'* Farthov that Sunday, tlie morrow, was 
not a work-day; ntid the streets were inore agitated 
than ever; Is. it a new September, then, th tit these 
Anarchists intend ?. Finally that no September came } 
r-and also jthnt hysterics, not unnaturally, had 
reached almpst their acmei^ .^ 

ISbsi' Vergniaud Renounces niid deplores; in 
sweetly turned periods^ Section Bonconseil, Good'' 
^Qtimel 80-namect, not >{aticonseil or Jfll-eomsel as it 
ance was, does a far notabler thing: demands that 
Vercniaud* Brissot, Guadet.and other denunciatory, 
pne spoken Oirondins, to the number of Twenty- 
twoj be p.ut under ^rrest ! BeCtion Good-counsel, go 
named ever since the lOtli of August, is sharply re* 
bukei, like a Section of Ill-counsel if hut its word 
is spoken^ and will not fall tp the ground. 

1509, in fact, one tlung strikes us in these poor 
Girondins : their fatal shortness of vision; nay fatal 
poorness pf character,^ for that is the root of it. 
They are as strangers to. the People they would gov- 
ern J tO; the thitfg they have come to work in. Form- 
ulas,. Philosophies, Respectabilities, what has been 
written in Books, find the Cultivated 
Classes: ihis inadequate ^c/fcmc of Nature's working 
is all that Nature, let her work as she will, can re- 
veal to these men. So they perorate and speculate; 
and call on the Friends of Law, when the question 
is not Law or No-Law, but Life or No-Life. Pedants 

*. Mc^> ^..24;,Loavet.pp. 71-80 
t Moniteur (S^Sance du 12 Mars), 15 Marfi. 



of t!i« HeTolntioii, if not Jeauits of itl Their Fcffm- 
itlrsni 18 great ; great alao is their Egoistti. . FmncQ 
rising to fight Austria has been raised only by plo# 
of the loth of March, to kill Twenty-twoof r/tcw»/ 
This Revolntiou Prodigy, unfolding itself into ter- 
rific stature and articulation, by its own laws and 
Kature^s, not by the laws of Formula, has become 
Unintelligible, incredible as an impossibility, the 
*• waste chaos of a Dream." A Republic founded oil 
what they call the Virtues ; on what we call the De- 
cencies and Respectabilities: this they will have, 
and nothing but this. Whatsoever other Republic 
l^ature and Reality send, shall be considered as not 
sent ; as a kind of Kightniare Vision, and thing non* 
extant ; disowned by the Laws of Nature and of 
Formula. Alas, dim fbr the best eyes is this Real- 
ity ; and as for these men, they will not look at it 
with eyes at all, but only through " ikceted specta* 
cles" of Pedantry, wounded Vanity; which yield 
the most portentous fallacious spectrum. Carping 
and complaining forever of Plots and Anarchy, they 
will do one thing; prove, to demonstration, that the 
Reality will not translate into their Formula ; that 
they and their Formula are incompatible with the 
Reality : and, in its dark wrath, the Reality will extin- 
guish it and them! What a man hem he can. But 
the beginning of a man's doom is, that vision with- 
drawn from him ; that he see not the reality, but a 
false spectrum of the reality ; and following that, 
step darkly, with more or less velocity, downward 
to the utter Dark ; to Ruin, which is the great Sea 
of Darkness, whither all falsehoods, winding or di- 
rect, oontianally flow! 


161D. This 10th of Match we may mark as aa 
^0^411 the.Girondin4€Stmi€Si the ra^e so exa8« 
pi^rat^d itself, the misconeeption so darkened itself^ 
Matiy desert the sittiiigs; xnaQy come to them 
armed^* An honorable Deputy., setting out after 
bi«akfast, must now, besides taking his Notes, see 
whether his Priming is in order. 

1511. Meanwhile with Dumouriez in Belgium it 
litres e^er worse. Were it again General Miranda's 
fiuiltj or'some other's fault, there is no doubt what- 
ever but the ** Battle of Nerwinden," on the 48th of 
March, is lost; and our rapid ristreat has become a 
-fttf too rapid one. Victorious Cobourg, with his 
Austrian. prickers, hangs like a dark doud on th6 
rear of us ; Dumouriez never off horseback Bight or 
day ; engagement every three hours ; our whole dis* 
eomfited Host tolling rapidly inward, full of rage^ 
suspicion and sauvc^ui-peut ! And then Dumouriez 
himself, what his intents maybe? Wicked seem- 
ingly and not charitable ! His dispatches to Com* 
mittee openly denounce a factious Convention, for 
the woes it has brought on France and him. And 
his speeches — for the General has no reticence ! The 
execution of the Tyrant this Dumouriez calls the 
Murder of the King. Danton and Lacroix, flying 
thither as Commissioners cmce more, return very 
doubtful; even Danton now doubts. 

1512. Three Jacobin Missionaries, Proly, Dubuis- 
son, Pereyra, have flown forth ; sped by a wakeful 
Mother Society: they are struck dumb to hear the 
General speak. . The Conyentlonj according to this 

• MjBUlaiV"M6motreS»"pp, 85,24. .. 

334- TffE mMdi^bim: 

General, consists of 300 scoundrels and 400 fmlic- 
cHes : France cannot do without a King. " But we 
have executed our King." "And what is it to 
me," hastily cries Dumouriez, a General of no reti- 
cence, " Tvhethef the King's name he Ludovicus or 
Jacobus?" "Or Philippus!" rejoins Proly;— and 
hastens to report progress. Over the Frontiers sucli 
ho^eia tfiere. ' 



. 1513. Let US look, however, at thB grand internal 
Sansculottism and Revolution Prodigy whether it stirs 
and waxes: there and not elsewhere may hope stiU 
be for France. The Revolution Prodigy, as Decree 
after Decree issues from the Mountain, like creative 
flats, accordant with the nature of the Thing, — is 
shaping itself rapidly, in these days, into terrific 
stature and articulation, limb after limb. Last 
March, 1792, we saw all France flowing in blind ter- 
ror ; shutting town-barriers, boiling pitch for Brig- 
ands: happier, this March, that it is a seeing terror; 
that a creative Mountain exists, which can say flat! 
Recruitment proceeds with fierce celerity : neverthe- 
less our Volunteers hesitate to set out, till Treason 
be punished at home ; they do not fly to the fron- 
tiers ; but only fly hither and thither, demanding and 
denouncing. The Mountain must speak new flat SLxii 
nevf flats. 

1514. And does it not speak such ? Take, as first* 
example, those Comit^s B^voIutiQimaiirea for tSe £:• 

resttnenj of Persona Suspect, Revolutiouary Com- 
mittee, of Twelve chosen Patriots, sit in every Town- 
siiip of Fttinee ; csamiQJug tlie Suspect, seeking 
arms, making domidliory visits ttud arrestments; — 
caring, generally, that the Bepublic suffer no detri- 
ment. Chosen by universal sufTroge, e 
Section,. tSass -aib a. kind of elixir of J: 
Bome 44,000 of them awake and alive ovi 
In Paris and all Towns, e»<ry house-door 
the names of the iimiiites icgiWy printed 
9. height not eieeediag Eve feet trova th» 
ei'ery Citizen mnst prodace his certifieato 
Civisme, signed by Section-President; ev< 
(endy to give acconnt of the laith tliat 
persons Suspect hod ns well depart this t 
crfy ! And yet departure too is bad : all 
are declared Traitors, fheir property becoux 
tliey are " dead in Law," — save, indeed, tl 
behoof they shall " live yet fifty years in 
what heritages may fall to them in that ti 
National too! A mad vitality of Jacobi 
44,000 centers of activity, circulates tl 
fibers of I^ance. 

1515. Very notable also is the Tribnnal 
naire i* decreed by the Monntain ; some 
dissenting, for surely such a Court contra 
formula; — other Girondins assenting, nay 
ing, for do not we all hate Traitors, O y< 
Paris? — Tribunal of the Seventeenth, in A 
was swift; but this shall be swifter. Fi 
a standing Jury, which is named from Pa 
. •ll0Dlt8ur.II<>.»{dullUBn},lIo.Ta.eta. 


irhood, that tbere be not delay in naroing it: 
3 subject to no Appeal ; to hardly any Lnw> 
lUt inast"get tliemselves convinced" in oil 
I ways; and for Mcntity are bijnnd"to.rato 
;" audibly, In the hearing of a Paris Public. 
the Tribunal Extraordinaire; which, in a 
aths, getting into most lively action, shall be 
.Tribunal R(:volutionnaire ; as indeed It from 
/ flrst hasentitleil ilsell': nith a Merman or 
IS for J iidfie- President, Vfitb a Fouqnier-Tin- 
r Attomej-Oeneral, and a Jary of aiitli as 
Leroi, vrho has surnamed himself Dix-AoQl 
Aagusl- Tenth," it will become the wonder of 
Id. Herein has Sanscnlottism fashioned for 
Sword of Sharpness: a weapon mimical; 
id iu tbe Stygian hell-watets; to the edge of 
Tmor, and defense of strength or of cnnning 
iBOlt; it shall mow down Lives and Brazen- 
ind the waving of it shed terror through the 

Btit speaking of an amorphous SonscnlottlBm 
form, ought we not, above all tilings, to 
how the Amorphous gets itself a Head? 
t met^hor, this Hevoiution Government 
es hitherto in a very anarchic state. Execu- 
uucil of Ministers, Six in iiomber, there is; 
[■y, especially since Holand's retreat, have 
known whether they were Ministers or not. 
tion Committees sit supreme over them ; htit 
ich Committee as supreme as the others; 
;fee of Twenty-one, of Defense, of General 
: aimnltaneous or socce«sivei fur speciQc par- 


pones. The Convttilion alone is all-powerful,— espe- 
cially if the Commune go with it ; but it is too 
numerous for an administrative body. Wherefore, 
in this perilous quick-whirling condition of the Ke- 
public, before the end of March we obtain our small 
Comit6 de Salut Public;* as it were, for miscella- 
neous accidental purposes requiring dispatch ; — as it 
proves, for a sort of universal supervision, and uni- 
versal subjection. They are to report weekly, these 
new Committee-men ; but to deliberate in secret. 
Their number is Nine, firm Patriots nil, Danton one 
of them ; renewable every month ; — yet wliy not re- 
elect them if they turn out well ? The flower of 
the matter is, that they are but nine ; that they sit 
in secret. An insignificant looking thing at first, 
this Committee ; but with a principle of growth in 
it! Forwarded by fortune, by internal Jacobin en- 
ergy, it will reduce all Committees and the Conven- 
tion itself to mute obedience, the Six Minister to 
Six assiduous Clerks; and work its will on the 
Earth and under Heaven, for a season. A " Commit- 
tee of Public Salvation " whereat the world still 
shrieks and shudders. 

1517. If we call that Revolutionary Tribunal a 
Sword, which Sausculottism has provided for itself, 
then let us call the " Law of the Maximum " a Prov- 
ender-scrip, or Haversack, wherein, better or worse, 
some ration of bread may be found. It is true, Polit- 
ical Economy, Girondin free-trade, and all law of 
supply and demand, aro hereby hurled topsy-turvy : 
but what help? Patriotism must live ; the " cupid- 

• Moniteur, No. 93 (du 24 Mars 1793), Nps. (^6, fi8» 89, 100. 


* fonnere " seem to have no bowels. Whercfoie 
^\T of the Maximum, fixing the higheat price 
nins, in, Arith iiiRiiite effort, got passed;^ and 
grndnnlly exieuit ilself into a Mnximom for all 
ler of comestibles nnci commodities : with snch 
ibling nnd topsy-tnrvying as may 1>e fiincied! 
now if, f<ir example, the farmer will nttf sell? 
armer shall be forced to sell. An accnrate Ac<- 
t Of whht grain he has shall he delivered in to 
bnstitnted Authorities : let him see that he sey 
00 much; Ibr in tbatcase. his rents, taxes alid 
ibutions win rise proportionally: let bitn see 
he say not too little; Ibr, on or lielbre a set day, 
tail suppose In April, Ifsa than one-third of this 
red quantity must remain in his bams, more 
twn-tliirds of it moat have been thrastied and 

One can deuonnce him, and raise penalties. 
8. Bjsiicii inoxlrlcableorertnrnlng of all Com- 
inl relations will Sansculnttisni keep life in; 
not otherwise. On the whole, ns Camille Des- 
iiis says once, " while the Sanscnlottee light, the 
lieura mirst pay." So there come Impots Pro- 
ife (Ascending Taxes); ivhich consume, with 
ncreasing voracity, the " superfluous rerenne" 
en ; beyond fifty-ponods a year, yon are not ex- 

; ritiing into the hundreds, yon Meed freely; 
:he thotisands and tens of thonsands, yon bleed 
.ng. Also there come Beqnisitions ; there coraes 
ced-Loan of a Milliard," some 50,000,000 Steil- 

which of course they that have mnst lend. 
:ampled enough ; it has grown io be no conntiy 
onlteur. (da EO Avrll. etc.. toSO H«l 1TS3). 

fSS TJRA1T0M, i3d 

for the ]^icl), this; but a conntry fbr the Poor! And 
then if one fly, what steads it ? Dead in Law ; nay 
kept nlive fifty years yet, for their aceursed behoof! 
In this manner therefore it goes; topsy-turvying, 
ya-ira-iiig: — and wilhal there is endless sale of Emi- 
grant National-Property, there is Cambon with end- 
less cornncopia of Assignats. The Trade and Finance 
of Sansculottism ; and how, with Maximuni arid 
Bakers' queues, with Cupidity, Hunger, Denunciation 
and Paper-money, it led its galvanic-life, and began 
and ended,^— remains the most interesting of all 
Chapters in Political Economy : still to be written. 
I510. AH which things, are they not clean against 
Formula? Girondin Friends, it is not a Hepublic 
of the Virtues we are getting; but only a Eepublic 
of the Strengths, rirtuous and other ! 



1520. But Dnmouriez, with his fugitive Hosi^ 
with his King Ludovicus or King Philippus? There 
lies the crisis ; there hangs the question : Revolution 
Prodigy, or Counter-Revolution ?— One wide shriek 
covers that North-east region. Soldiers, full of rage, 
suspicion and terror, flock hither and thither; Dn- 
mouriez, the many-counseled, never off horseback, 
knows now no counsel that were not worse than 
none : the counsel, namely, of joining himself with 
Cobourg ; marching to Paris, extinguishing Jacobin- 
ism, and. with some new King Ludovicus or King 
Philippus,^ restoring the Constitution of 1*791 !* 

• Dumouriez, ."Mfimolres^" Iv. c. 7-10, 



ft46 rra? GIROKDINS. 

16211 is wisdom quitting Damouri^z^; t}ie herald 
of Fortune quitting bim ? Principle, faith politicai 
or other beyond a oertain faith of mess-rooms, and 
honor of an officer, liad him not to quit At any 
rate his quartern in the Burgh of Saint*Amaud ; his 
head-quarters in the Village of Saint- Amand des 
Bouee>) a short way off, — have become a Bedlam. 
National Representatives, Jacobin Missionaries ore 
riding and running ; of the ^^ three Towns/' liille, 
Valenciennes or ever Cond^^ which Duuiouries 
wanted to snatch ibr himselt'^not one can besnatchedi 
your Captain is admitted, but the Town*gate is closed 
on him, and then alas the Prison-gatC) aiMi **' bis mea 
wander about the ramparts^" Couriers gallop breath- 
less ; men wait, or seem waiting, to assassinate, to be 
assassinated ; Battalions nigh frantic with such sus- 
picion and uncertainty, with Vive-la-H^publiqueand 
Sauve-qui-peut, rush this way and that ; — Ruin and 
Desperation inthe shape of Cobourg lying entrenched 
close by. 

1523. Dame Genlls and her fair Princess d'OrK*ans 
find this Burgh of Saint- Amand no fit place for 
them ; Dumouriez's protection is grown worse than 
none. Tough Genlis, one of the toughest Women, a 
woman, as it were, with nine lives in her ; whom 
nothing will beat : she packs her bandboxes ; clear 
for flight in a private manner. Her beloved Princess 
she will — leave here, with the Prince Chartres Jt-gal- 
ite her Brother. In the cold gray of the April morn- 
ing, we find her accordingly established in her hired 
vehicle^ on the street of Saint- Amand; postillions 
just cracking their whips to go, — when behold the 


mS TMAJTOni 341 

y^Hlig Princeljr Brother, struggliDg hitherward 
^astUy calling: benriDg the jprmcess in his arxus ! 
Hastily he has clutched the poor young lady up, in 
her very night-gown, nothing saved of her goods ex- 
cept the watch from the pillow; with brotherly 
d<?spair he £ings her in, among the bandboxes, into 
Cienlis^s chase, into Genlis's arms : Leave her not, in 
the name of Mercy and Heaven ! A shrill scene, but 
a brief one -•--the postillions crack and g6> Ah, 
whither ? Through by-roads and broken hill-passes ; 
Seeking their way With lanterns ait^r nightfall; 
through perils, and Cobourg AustrianS} and suspi- 
cious French Nationals : Anally, into Switzerland ; 
safe though nigh moneyless.^ The brave young 
£galit4 has a most wild Morrow to look for ; but 
now only himself to carry through it-. 

1523. For indeed over at that Village named of 
the Mndbaths, Saint-Amand des Boues, matters are 
still worscr About four o^clock on Tuesday after- 
noon, the 2d of April, 1703, two Couriers come gal- 
loping as if for life ; Hon G^n^ral ! Four National 
Representatives, War-Minister at their head, are 
posting hitherward from Valenciennes ; are close at 
hand, with vrhat intents one may guess ! While the 
Couriers are yet speaking, War-Minister and National 
Representatives, old Camus the Archivist, for chief 
speaker of them, arrive. Hardly has Mon G^n^ral 
had time to order out the Hussar Regiment deBerch- 
igny ; that to take rank and wait near by. in case of 
accident. And so, enters War-Minister Beuruonville, 
with an embrace of friendship, for he is an old 

 Oenlfs, Iv. taft. 

friend; enter Archivist Camua and the other tllf^d 
following him* . , 

1524. They produce Papers, invite the Greneral to 
the bar of the Convention ; merely to give an expla- 
nation or two. The General finds it unsuitable, not 
to say impossible, and that "the service will suffer.*'. 
Then comes reasoning ; the voice of the old Archiv- 
ist getting loud.. Vain to reason loud with tfiis Du- 
mouriez, he answers mere angry irreverences. Andt 
so, amid plumed staff-ofiicers, very gloomy-looting, in 
ieopardy and uncertainty, these pool* National mes- 
sengers debate and consult, retire and re-enter, for 
the space of some two hours : without effect. Where* 
upon Archivist Camus, getting quite loud, proclaim^ 
in the name of the National Convention, for he has 
the power to do it. That General Dumouriez is 
arrested: **\Vill you obey the National niandate 
General!" — **Pas dans ce moment-ci (Not at this 
particular moment),*' answers the General also aloud: 
then glancing the other way, utters certain unknown 
vocables, in a mandatory manner .; seemingly a Get: 
man word-of-command.*., Hus9ars clutch the Four 
National Ilepresentatives, and Beurnonyille, the 
War-Minister ; pack them out of the apartment; out 
of the Village, over the lines to Cobourg, in two 
chaises, that very. night,r-as hostages, prisoners; to 
lie long in Maestricht and Austrian strongholdslf 
Facta est alea. 

l52o. This night 0umouriez prints Els ** Frocla- 

*Dumourie2,it;. 159,ctc. . -. 

t Their narrative, written by Camus (in Toulongeoo* 
Hi. app. 60-87). 


matlon ;." this night an^ the morrow the X)nniouriez 
Arinv, in such darkness visible, and rage of semi- 
desperation as there is, shall meditate what the Gen- 
eral is doing, what they themselves will do in it. 
Judge whether this Wednesday was of halcyon nat- 
ure, for any one! But on the Thursday morning, 
we discern Dumouriez with small escort, with Char- 
tres flgalite and a few staff officers, ambling along 
the Coude Highway: peihaps they are ibr Cond6, 
and trying to persuade the Oarrison there; at all 
events, they are for an interview with Cobourg, who 
Waits in the woods by appointment, in that quarter, 
i^igh tlie Village of Donmet, three National Bat- 
talions, a set of men always full of Jacobinism, 
sweep past us; marching rather swiftly, — seemingly 
in mistake by a way we had not ordered. The Gen- 
eral dismounts, steps into a cottage, a little from the 
wayside; will give them right order in writing. 
Hark ! what strange growling is heard ; what bark- 
ings are heard, loud yells of "TVajfora,'* of *' Arrest!'^ 
the National Battalions have wheeled round, are 
emitting shot! Mount, Dumouriez, and spring for 
life ! Dumouriez and Staff strike the spurs in, deep ; 
vault over ditches, into the fields, which prove to be 
morasses: sprawl and plunge for life; bewhistled 
-with curses and lead. Sunk to the middle, with or 
without horses, several Servants killed, they escape 
out of sliot-range, to General Mack the Austrian's 
quarters. Nay they return on the morrow, to Saint- 
Amand and faithful foreijrn Berchigny: but what 
boots it ? The Artillery has all revolted, is jingling 
off to Valenciennes: all have revolted, are revolting 

344 THE GIMONi>mS. 

except otily foreign Berchigny, to the extent of some 
poor 1500, none will follow Pumonriez against Framse 
and Indtviaible {tepnblic: Dumonfiez's occupatipn'a 
gou^,* ... 

1526. Such an instinct of Frenchhood and Sans- 
culottism dwells in these men ; they will follow no 
Dutnoiiriez nor Lafayette, nor any mortal on such 
errand. Shriek may be of Sauve-qni-pent, but will 
also be of Vive-la- Republique. New National Rep- 
resentatives arrive; new General Bampicrre, soon 
killed in battle; new General Custiue; the agitated 
Hosts draw back to some camp of Famars ; make 
head against Cobourg as they can. 

1527. And so Dumouriez is in the Austrian quar- 
ters ; his drama ended, in this rather sorry manner: 
A most shifty, wiry man; one of Heaven's Swiss; 
that wanted only work. Filty years of unnoticed 
toil and valor ; one year of toil and valor, not unno- 
ticed, but seen of all countries and centuries ; then 
thirty other years again unnoticed, of Memoir- writ- 
ing, English Pension, scheming and projecting to no 
purpose: Adieu, thou Swiss of Heaven, worthy to 
have been something else ! 

1528. His Stuff go different ways. Brave young 

ilgalite reaches Switzerland and the Genlis Cottage; 

with a strong crabstick in his hand, a strong heart in 

his body: his Princedom is now reduced to that. 

Egaiit6 the Father sat playing whist, in his Palais 

Egalit6, at Paris, on the 6th day of this same month 

of April, when a catch-pole entered. Citoyen Egalit^ 

is wanted at the Convention Committee If Exam- 

* "M^moires," iv. 162-180. 
"^ 3ee MontiraiUard. iv. lU. 

'INSIGHT, 345 

iDaticm, reqniHog Arrestment; 'finally requiring Im- 
ittnsonment, transference to Marseilles and the Castle 
df If ! Orl^ansdom has sunk in the black waters; 
Palais Egalite, which was Palais Royal, is like to be- 
come Palais National. 



1529. Our Republic, by paper Decree, may be 
"One and Indivisible;" but what profits it while 
these things are? Federalists in the Senate, rene- 
gadoes in the Army, traitors everywhere ! France, all 
in desperate recruitment since the 10th of March, 
does not fly to the frontier, but only flies hither and 
thither. This defection of contemptuous diplomatic 
Dumouriez falls heaAy on the fine-spoken high-snift- 
ing Hommes d'etat whom he consorted with; forms 
a second epoch in their destiny. 

1530. Or perhaps more strictly we might say, the 
second Girondin epoch, though little noticed then, 
began on the day when, in reference to this defec- 
tion, the Girondius broke with Dan ton. It was the 
1st day of April; Dumouriez had not yet plunged 
across the morasses to Cobourg, but was evidently 
menning to do it, and our Coininissioners were ojQf to 
arrest him ; when what docs tlie Girondin Lasource 
see good to do, but rise, and jesuitically question and 
insinuate at great length, whether a main accomplice 
of Dumouriez had not probably been — Danton ! Gi- 
ronde grins sardonic assent ; Mountain holds its 
breath. The figure of Danton, Levasseur says, 
while this speech went on, was noteworthy. He sat 


erect witli A kind of internal conTulsio^ strnggling 
to keep itself motionless; his eye from time to time 
flashing wilder, his lip curling in Titanic scorn.* La- 
source, in a fine-spoken attorney manner, proceeds:, 
there is this probahility to his mind, and there is 
that ; probabilities which press painfully op him, 
which cast the Patriotism of Dan ton under a pain- 
ful shade; — which painful shade, he, Lasource, 
will hope that Danton may find it not impossible to 
dispel. - . 

1531. " Les Sc^lerats ! " cries Danton, starting np, 
with clenched right-hand, Lasource having done; 
and descends from the Mountain, like a lava-flood : 
his answer not unready. Lasource's probabilities fly 
like idle dust ; but leave a result behind them. " Ye 
were right, friends of the Mountain," begins Dan- 
ton, " and I was wrong : there is no peace possible 
with these men. Let it be war, then ! They will 
not save the Republic with us: it shall be saved 
without them; saved in spite of them." Really a 
burst of rude Parliamentary eloquence this; which 
is still worth reading in the old Moniteur. With 
fire-words the exasperated rude Titan rives and 
smites these Girondins ; at every hit the glad Mount- 
ain utters chorus: Marat, like a musical bis. repeat- 
ing the last phrase.f Lasource's probabilities are 
gone: but Danton's pledge of battle remains lying. 

1532. A third epoch, or scene in the Girondin 
Drama, or rather it is but the completion of this sec- 

'■* *'M6moiresde R^n6 Lovasseur" (Bruxelles, 1 36), iV 
lo4. .. :. ::• ;- • '. • . ....■,.• . , ._■^ 

. t Stance du 1 Avril 1793 (in *• Histoire Parlementaire/* 
XXV 2i-6B). 


ond cpoc^, we reckon from the dny when tl 
f lence of rirluoUs Potion Cnally boiltil oVcf ; ai 
Giroiuiiiis, so lo speak, took up this baflie-plei 
Dnntoii's, and decreed Marat accused. It wj 
lltli or llie same month of A]>ril, on some oIT 
cciicc rising, such as often rose; and Presirten 
eovcrcd himself, mere Bedlam now ruling 
Mountain and Gironde tvere rushing on one an 
with clenched right-hands, aiid even wilh pist 
thcni ; vrlicn, beliold, the Giroudin Diipci'rct d 
eword ! Shriek of horror rose, iiistantly qnen 
all other cITervescence, at sifclit of the clear mt 
ous Bteel ; ivherenpon Dnperret returned it i 
leather again ; — confessing that he did indeed 
it, being instigated by a kind of encred mai 
"sainte ftireur"and pistols held ot hitn; but t 
he parricidally had elianeed to scratch the oii 
skin of National ReprcsenLitioii nith it, he to 
ried pistils, and wonld have blown Lis brains ( 
the spot." 

1333. But n ow in sneh posture of affairs, vir 
Pftion rose, next morning, to lament these cff 
ceneea, this endless Anarchy invading the Logis 
Sanctnnry Itself; ni>d here, being growled (I 
Itowled at by the Mountain, his patience, long 
did, ns we say, boil over; and he spake veliem 
in high key, with foam on his lips; "whence,' 
Marat, " I concluded lie had f;ot la rage," the : 
i(y, or diig-niadnesa. Rabidity smites othei's i 
BO there rises new foam-lipped demand to liav 
orchiats extinguished ; and specially to have ] 

• "HiBtolre Parlementatre." XV. 397. 

rsE aiJioNDiss. 

"tdet AcGusatioQ. Send a repreBGUtatiTe tn Ibe 
itionafj Tribunal? Violate tlie invioTiibHify 

[epreaeutalive ? Havoacarc, O Fiiends! TUia 
tarat has faults cnougli ; but Libtrly 
lality, wliat fliiilt? Tbat ho iioa lomt imd 
; for it, not wisely but too wtll. In ilungiMas' 
liars, in pincliing poverty, iiiiiier uualheui:i of 

even so, in siicb fitht, bus lie grown 80 Uiiisiy. 
d; even so .hr.sbisb<Edl-ct<.ii.i;u Siljlitiix-Le! 

on will fling to yoni' Kwoid of Sbarrness; 
Cobonrg and I^tt advance on ns, fire spitting? 
4. The Monntain is lond, the Girondc is loud 
!af; oil lips ore foamy. With "Permanent- 
n of twenty -fonr bonrs," with vole by roJl-cnll 
dead-lin effort, the Gironde carries it : Marat js 
:d to the Revolutionary Tribunal, to answer for 
"ebtuary Paragraph of ForestHllers atthe door- 

with other offenses ; and, after a little hesita- 
le obeys.* 
i. Tims is Danton's bnltle-pledge taken up; 

ia, as he said there would he, '■ ivar withont 
or treaty (ni trftve nl composition)." 'Wbere- 
close now with one another, Formula and 
y, in death-grips, and n-veslle it out; holli of 
lunot live, but only one ! 


3. It proves what strengib, were it only of in- 
tbere is in established Formulas, what ivenk- 
in nascent Realities, and iUu5trat«3 several 
inlteurldu IBAvrlllTBa. etseqq.). 


things, that this death-wrestle diould 
Insted mme six weeks or more. Nation 
(tiscnssioii of the Constitutional Act, fov 
tntioii slioiihl decidedly be got ready, pr< 
Willi it. We ereu change our Locality : 
ttic 10th of Maj, IVom the oiil Snlle de : 
our tiew Mall, Id the Pnlace, once a Kin< 
the Republic's, of ihe Tuillerica. Hop 
flickeriug agniust despair and lage, still 
the minds of men. 

1537. It is a most dark confused Ae. 
this of the six vreeks. Formalisl frei 
Realist jreozy ; Patriotism, Egoism, Pr 
Vanitj, Hope and Despair, all raised to 
pitch : Frenzy meets Frenzy, like da 
whirlwinds ; neither understand the 
weaker, one day, will nnderetand that 
swept down \ Oirondism is strong as 
Formula and Respectability: do not t 
Seveuty-two of the Depnrtmeots, or say 
Heads of Depart me iits, declare for us ? 
which loves its Buzot, will even rise i 
hint the Addresses; Marseilles, cradle of 
will riss ; Bonrdeaux will rise, and the ( 
partiiieut, 08 one man ; in r word, who \ 
were oar Representation Hationale to be 
one h;iir of a Deputy's lieiiil bHrmctl ! 1 
ain. again, is strong as Reality and Au 
the Reality of the Mountain are not nil 1 
things possible? A Dew lOtb of August, 
nay a new 2d of September \ — 

1536. But, on Wednesday, otlemoon, S 

35a THE diRONDiM 

April, year X7^3, what tamnlt as of fierce j&bUee is 
this ? It is Marat returning from the ReVoilutionary 
Tribunal ! A week or more of death-peril: and now 
there is triumphant acquittal; Revolutionai^y Trr-. 
bunal can find no accusation against this man. And 
so the eye of History beholds Patriotism, which liad 
gloomed unutterable things all week, break into loud 
Jubilee, embrace its Marat; lift him intaachair of- 
triumph, bear hini shoulder-high through the streets. 
Shoulder-high is the injured People's^frieud, crowned 
with an oak-garland ; amid the wavy sea of red 
night-cap, carmagnole jackets, grenadier bonnets and 
female mob-caps; far-sounding like aseii! The in- 
jured People's- friend has here reached his culminate 
ing point ; he too strikes th^ stars with his sublime 
}iead. :.- 

.1539. But the Reader can judge with what face 
President Lasonrce,he of the " painful probabiTrties," 
who presides in this Convention Hall, might welcome 
such jubilee-tide, when it got thither, and the De- 
creed Of Accusation floating on the top of it! A 
Ni^tional Sapper, spokesman on tixe occasion, says 
t)ie People know their Friend, and love his life as 
tJieir own; "Whosoever wants Marat's head must 
get the Sappei-'s first."- Lasource answered with 
some vague painful mumblement,— which, saj's Le- 
vasseur, one could not help tittering at.f Patriot 
Sections, Volunteers not yet gone to the Frontiers, 
come demanding the " purgation of traitors from 

* seance du 28 Avril, An ler in (Moniteur, No. 116). 
t Levasseur. "M^moires/M. c- 6. 

your own bosom f^ the expulsion, or even the trial 
and sentence, of a factious Twenty -two. 

1540. Nevertheless the Gironde has got its Conv 
mission of Twelve ; a Commission specially appointed 
for investigating these troubles of the Legislative 
Sanctuary : let Sausculottism say what it will, Law 
shall triun ph. Old-Coustitneut Kabaut- Saint- 
Etienne \ resides over this Commission : ** It is the 
last plank whereon a wrecked Republic may perhaps 
still save herself." Babaut and tliey therefore sit, 
intent; examining witnesses; launching arrestments; 
looking out into a waste dim sea of troubles,— the 
womb of Formula, or perhaps her grave ! Entei/not 
that sea, O Reader ! There are dim desolation and 
confusion: raging women and raging men. Sections 
come demanding Twenty-two; lor the mtmber first 
given by Section Bonconseil still holds, though the 
names should even var}'. Other sections, of the 
wealthier kind, come denouncing sucli demand ; nay 
the same Section will demand to-day, and denounce 
the demand to-morrow, according as the wealthier 
*it, or the poorer. Wherefore, indeed, tlie Giroudins 
decree that all Sections shall close "at ten in the 
evening ;" before the working people come: which 
Decree remains without effect. And nightly the 
Mother of Patriotism wails doleful ; doleful, but her 
eye kindling! And Fournier rAmericain is busy, 
and the two banker Frcys, and Varlet Apostle of 
Liberty; the bull-voice of Marquis St. Hurnge is' 
heard. And shrill women vociferate from all-Gal- 
leries, the. Convention ones and downward. Nay a 
"Central Committee " of all the Forty-eight Sections 

852 THE Gmom>INS, 

looms foith huge em^ dabioos ; sitting 91m in the 
Archeveche, sending Besolations, receiving thtem : a 
Center of the Sections; in dread deliberation as to a 
New lOtU of August! 

1541. One thiug we will specify, to throw light on 
many : the aspect under which, seen throogh the 
eyes of these Girondin Twelve, or even seen through 
one's own eyes, the Patriotism of the solter sex pre- 
sents itself! There are Female Patriots, whom the 
Girondins call Megseras, and connt to the extent of 
8,000 ; with serpent-hair, all out of curl ; who have 
changed the distaff for the dagger. They aa*e of " the 
Society called Brotherly," Fratemelle, say Sisterly, 
which meets under the roof of the Jacobins. *- Two 
thousand daggers," or ao, have been ordered, — doubt- 
less for them. They rush to Versailles, to raise more 
women ; but the Versailles women will not rise.* 

1542. Nay behold, in National Garden of Tuileries 
— Demoiselle Thferoigne herself is become as a brown- 
locked Diana (were that possible) attacked by her 
own dogs, or she-dogs ! The Demoiselle, keeping her 
carriage, is for Liberty indeed, as she has fall well 
shown ; but then for Liberty with Respectability : 
whereupon these serpent-haired Extreme She Patriots 
do now fasten upon her, tatter her, shamefully fusti- 
gate her, in their shameful way ; almost fling her 
into tlie Garden ponds, had not help intervened. 
Help, alas, to small purpose. The poor Demoiselle's 
head and nervous-system, none of the soundest, is so" 
tattered and fluttered that it will never recover ; but 

• Buzot, '^MSmoires." pp. 69,84; MolUan, "Memolres.** 

Sp. 192. 195, 196. See '' Commission des Douze *' (in *'Clioix 
es ^lapports," xii . 69-131) . 

flutter worse and worse, till it crack ; ami wittin 
year and day we hear of her in mad-honse and strait-- 
waistcoat, which proves permanent! — Such brown- 
locked Figure did flutter, and inarticulately jabber 
and gesticulate, little able to speak the obscure mean- 
ing it had, through some segment of Ihe Eigliteenth 
Century of Time. She disappears here from the 
Revolution and Public History forevermore * 

1543. Another thing we will not again specify, yet 
again beseech the Reader to imagine : the reign of 
Fraternity and Perfection. Imagine, we say, O 
Reader, that the Millennium were struggling on the 
threshold, and yet not so much as groceries could be 
had,—- owing to traitors. With what impetus would 
a man strike traitors, in that case! Ah, thou canst 
not imagine it ; thou hast thy groceries safe in the 
shops, and little or no hope of a Millennium ever 
coming ! — But indeed, as to the temper there was in 
men and women, does not this one fact say enough : 
th*», height Suspicion had risen to ? Preternatural 
we often called it ; seemingly in the language of ex- 
aggeration : but listen to the cold deposition of wit- 
nesses. Not a musical Patriot can blow himself a 
snatch of melody from the French Horn, sitting 
mildly pensive on the house-top, but Mercier will 
recognize it to be a signal which one Plotting Com- 
inittee is making to another. Distraction has pos- 
sessed Harmony Jierself ; lurks in the sound of 
" Marseillaise " and " Ca-ira."t Lou vet, who can see 

* "Deux Amis." vii. 77-80; ForsterJ. B14; Moore, 1. 70. 
She did not die till 1817; in the 6alpgtri6re, in t^e most 
abject state of insanitv: see Bsquirul, ^'Des Maladies 
Mentales" (Paris. 1838). f. 445-450. 

t Mercier, "Nouveau Paris," vl. 6B. 


354 Tm GIBONmm> 

a3 deep intp a mill-stone as tUe nxost, discerns that W6 
shall he invited.hack to our old Hall of the Manage, 
hy a Deputation ; and then the Anarchists will mas- 
sacre Twenty-two of us, as we walk over. It is Pitt 
and Cobourg; the gold of Pitt.— Poor Pitt! They 
little know what work he has with his own Friends 
of the People ; getting them bespied, beheaded, their 
habeas-corpuses suspended, and his own Social Order 
and strong-boxes kept tight,— to fancy him raising 
mobs among his neighbors ! 

1544. But the strangest fact connected with French 
or indeed with human Suspicion, is perhaps tJ^is of 
Camille Desmoulins. Camille's head, one of the 
clearest in France, has got itseli' so saturated thrungh 
every fiber with Pret«rnaturalism of Suspicion, that 
looking back on that 12th of July, 1789, when the 
thousands rose round him, yelling responsive at his 
word in the Palais-Royal Garden, and took cockades, 
he finds it explicable only on this hypothesis. That 
they were all hired to do it, and set on by the For- 
eign and other Plotters. " It was not for nothing," 
says CamUle with insight, " that this multitude burst 
up round me when I spoke !" No, not for nothing. 
Behind, around, before, it is one huge Preternatural 
Puppet-play of Plots ; Pitt pulling- the wires.* Al- 
most I conjecture that I, Camille myself, am a Plot 
and wooden with wires. — The force of msight could 
no farther go. 

1545. Be this as it will, History remarks that the 
Commission of Twelve, now clear enough as to the 

• See •• Histoire des Rrissotlns," par CamlUe Desraou- 
lin? (a pampblet of Camille'» Paris, 1798). 

•1 £..-.. V-. rt- 1 


'. :■ "i •• •■■■ 


iPlotel ^nd luckily having "got the threads of tliem 

all by the end," as they say, — are launching Mandates 
of Arrest rapidly in these May days ; and carrying 
matters with a high hand ; resolute that the sea of 
troubles shall be restrained. What chief Patriot, 
Section-President even, is safe? They can arrest 
him ; tear him from his warm bed, because he has 
made irregular Section Arrestments! They arrest 
Varlet Apostle of Liberty They arrest Procureur- 
Substitute Hubert, P^re Duchesne ; a Magistrate of 
the People, sitting in Town-hall; who, with high 
solemnity of martyrdom, takes leaTC of his col- 
leagues; prompt he, to obey the Law ; and solemnly 
acquiescent, disappears into prison. 

1546. The swifter fly the Sections, energetically 
demanding him' back ; demanding not arrestment of 
popirtar 'Magistrates, but of a traitorous Twenty-two. 
Section comes flying after Section; — defiling ener- 
getic, with their Cambyses-vein of oratory ; nay the 
Commune itself comes, vnth Mayor Pache at its 
head; and with question not of Hubert and the 
Twenty-two alone, but with this ominous old ques- 
tion made new, ** Can you save the Republic, or must 
we do it?** To whom President Max Isnard makes 
fiery answer : If by fatal chance, in any of those 
tumults which since the 10th of March are ever re- 
turning, Paris were to lift a sacrilegious finger 
against the National Representation, France would 
rise as one man, in never-imagined vengeance, and 
shortly " the traveler would ask, on which side of 
the Seine Paris had stood V^ Whereat the Mountain 

• Moniteur. SSknce du 25 Mai 1793. 





bellows only louder, and every Gallery j Patript 
Paris boiling round. * . 

1547. And Giroodin Valaze has nightly conclaves 
at his house ; sends billets, " Come punctually, and 
well armed, for there is to be business." And Me- 
gaera women perambulate the streets; with flags, with 
lamentable alleleu * And the Convention-doors are 
obstructed by roaring multitudes: fine-spoken 
hommes d'etat Jire hustled, maltreated, as they pass: 
IVIarat will apostrophize you, in such death-peril, and 
say. Thou too art of them. If Roland ask leave to 
quit Paris, there is order of the day. What help ? 
Substitute Hebert, Apostle Varlet, must be given 
back ; to be crowned with oak-garlands. The Com- 
mission of Twelve, in a Convention overwhelmed 
with roaring Sections, is broken; then on the mor- 
row, in a Conventioii of rallied Girondins, is jein- 
sfated.- Dim Chaos, or the sea of troubles, is strug- 
gling through all its elements ; writing and chafing 
toward soine Creation. 



1548. Accordingly, on Friday the 31st of May, 
1793, there comes forth into the summer sunlight 
one of the strangest scenes. Mayor Pache with 
Muncipality arrives at the Tuileries Hall of Con- 
vention j sent for, Paris being in visible ferment; and 
gives the strangest news. 

1549. How, in the gray of this morning, while we 
sat Permanent in Town-hall, watchful for the com- 

* Melllan, '*Memoires/'p. 195; Buzot, pp. 69, 84. 


mouweal, there entered, precise!;' as on a 1 
August, some Ninety^ix extmneans person: 
declared themselves to be in a stale of insum 
Xo be plenipotentiary Commissioners from the 
eigbt Sections, sections or members or the So> 
People, all in a state ot' Inaurrection ; and 1 
that we, in the name of said Sovereign in Ini 
tion, were dismissed from office. How we the: 
laid off our sashes, and withdrew into the ac 
Saloon of Liberty. How, in a moment or t 
were called back; and reinstated: Che Sa\ 
pleasing to think us still worthy of conf 
Whereby, having taken new oath of office, v 
endden find ouiselvea Insorreetionary Magit 
with eztraueous Committee of Ninety-six sitt 
as; and a Citoyen Henriot, one whom some 
of SeptfimberJBQi, is made Generalissinio i 
National Guard ; and since six o'clock, the 
ring, and the drums beat: — Under which pi 
drcnmstances, what w^uld an angnst Nationa 
ventioD please to direct us to do?* 

1550. Yes, there is the question! "Break' 
surrectiooary Authorities," answer some with 
mence. Vergniaud at least will bave "the Ni 
Representatives all die at their post;" this is 
to, with ready loud acclaim. But as to breaki 
Insurrectionary Authorities, — alas, while t 
debate, what sound is that? Sound of the j 
Cannon on the Pont Nenf ; which itis death 
Law to fire without order i^ora us ! 

• "IUbet» de la, ConventtoQ " (Puis, ISW). Ir- 
H«nitojr. Sos. l(i&lt&lM.Aiil". 



ti. * .. 


IBSt, ^ does l)o6m off^tliei^ nevei%li«less ; isendihg 
a stotmd through all hearts. And the tbcsifis dis- 
course stem music; and Henriot with his Armed 
Force has enveloped u^. AndSection succeeds Section^ 
the livelong day ; demanding with Camhyses-oratory, 
with therattle of musUets, That traitors, Twenty-two 
or more, be punished ; that the Commission of Twelve 
be irrevocably broken. Tlie heart of the Gironde dies 
within it^ distant are the Seventy-two respectable 
Departments, this fiery Municipality is near ! Bar- 
r^re is for a middle course granting something. The 
Commissioner of Twelve declares that,- not waiting 
to be broken, it hereby breaks itself, and is no more. 
Fain would Reporter Rabaut speak his and its last 
words ; but he is bellowed oflf. Too happy that the 
Twenty- two are still left unviolated! Vergniaud, 
carrying the laws of refinement to a great length, 
moves, to the amazement of some, that **the Sections 
of Paris have deserved well of their country." 
Whereupon, at a' late hour of the evening, the de- 
serving Sections retire to their respective places of 
abode. Bari^re shall report on it. With busy quill 
and brain he sits, secluded; for him no sleep to-night. 
Friday the last of May has ended in this manner. 

1552. The Sections have deserved well : but ought 
they not to deserve better? Faction and Girond- 
ism is struck down for the moment, and consents to 
be a nullity; but will it not, at another favorable mo- 
ment rise, still feller ; and the Republic have to be 
saved in spite of it? So reasons Patriotism, still 
Permanent; so reasons the Figure of Marat, visible 
in the dim Section- world^ on the morrow. To the 

- . S^WIlfCT- ". 869 

convicljaaof men!— Aa4 w> at^reotide of S^tnriay, 
nhea Barege bad jnatgotUietbingoll vsniitdiedlgy 
tlie Isibot: of a lugbt aud day, and bis Report wa« set- 
tiqg off in tlie evening mail-baga, tixsiii peals aat 
igain. GfaC'rale is beating; aimed men takiug tFta- 
Uon in the Place Vendome and elaenberB, for tlie 
nigbt ; supplied with provisions and liquor. Tbece, 
ondei tbe sunuuer atan, will they wait, tliis nigbt 
nbat is to be seen and to be done, Heuriot. and 
lAwn-ball giving dne Bignal. 

1553. TbeCoiiveatioa,at80undofg£D^rale,liast«ns 
tack to its Hall; but to tbe nuiober only of a Hnn- 
Ired ; and does little bosiDess, puts off bnfiinees till 
the aoiiow. Tbe Giroudins do not stir ont tbitbfr, 
the Girondins are abroad seeking beds. — Poor Ba- 
sant, on the morrow muimug, retnrittng to his post, 
nitb Louvet and some others, through streets all in 
rermeat, wrings bis hands, Maculating, "Ilia sapiena 
lies!'™ It has become Sunday the Sd day of June< 
1793, 1^ the old style ; by the new style, year One of 
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. We have got to tbe 
last scene of all, that ends this history of tlie Qi- 
jtindiu Benatoisbip. 

1554. It seems doubtful whether any terreitrial 
Convention bad ever met in' such circnmstancee as 
this National one now does. Tocsin is pealing ; Bar- 
Tieis shut; all Paris is on the gaze, or under arms. 
Ab many as 100,000 under anns they count ; National 
Force; and the Armed Volnnteers, who should have 
flown to tbe Frontiers and La Vendue ; but would 
not, treason being unpunished ; and only flew hither 

• Louvau"HMnolrea,"p. n. 


and thither I - 80 lAahy, steady under arms/' environ 
' the NationiarTuilerfes 'and Ottrden. T^eteUt^Yasi^, 
foot, artillery, sappers with beards : the artiitety 
one can see with their camp-furnaees in this Nbtidtml 
Garden, heating buUfets red, tlrtd their ^ malfch -is 
lighted. Henri ot in plumes ridts. amid 'a pltlteed 
Staff: all posts and issues are silfe ; reserves lie mti^VA 
far as the Wcxid of Boulogne, the chK^cest Patriots 
nearest the- sc^ne. One other cttcttmutance we -will 
note : that a careful Municipality, liberal of ncaffip- 
furnaces, has not forgottfea'protision carts. NoBaem- 
ber of the Sovereign neM now go hoine to dinneir; 
but can keep rahk— plentiful victu^ circubetilig 
unsought. Does not this P^ojJle uhderstomd Insur- 
rection ? Ye no^ uriinvfentive, GuailchesJ 

1555. Therefore let a National Representation, 
' ** mandataries of the Sovereign," take thought of it. 
Expulsion of your TWenty-two, and your Coudnits- 
sion of Twelve : we stand here ttll it be done ! Dep- 
utation after Deptitatitin, in ever stronger language, 
comes with that message. * Barr^re proposes -a mid- 
dle course :— ''Will not perhaps the inculpated Depu- 
ties consent to withdraw voluntarily; to fflake^a 
generous demission and self-sftcrifice for the«ake of 
one's country ? I8nard, repentant of that iseareh on 
which river^bank Paris stood, declares himiself redely 
to demit. ' Ready also is Te-Detim Fatich et ; old Du- 
saulx of the Bastille, " vienx radoteur (old dotJird)," 
as Marat calls him, is fetill readier. On the contrary, 
Lanjuinais the Breton declares thftt there is one man 
who nev^r will demit voluhtaHly ; but will protest 
ifi the uttermost, while"* iroieeis left him. And he 


MooMagiy , gftee oa proteEtiog; Muid i 
dftugw; LegeDdre crying at last: "L(i 
come- down . from the Tribune, oi. I will f 
down (ou je te jette en baa) '■ " For ma 
come to exti^aiitf. Nay thej do clntoh liol 
jiiioais, certain zealous AlonntaLii-men ; bu 
lliuji; liimtlown, for be "ccampahimselC od 
in^; " and " hia .cloiheB get torn." Bntve 
uuiUiy of pity I Keithci' will.Barbaroui di 
" hBB BWOTu to die a.i liis poet, and will k 
oatik" WhereupoD the Galleriu all rise wi 
si«i; b rwHl J Bli in g ncapooB, some of them ) 
out, cayiug : " AUosa, then ; ne must save < 
try 1 " Sncb a SeBSien is this of Sunday tl 

1556. Charches fill, over ChriBtian Eur 
then empty themselves: but this Couveutioi 
not, the. while : a day ol' sbriektof; coDteati< 
ony, humiliation and tearing of eoat«ki 
auprema dies! Kound stand Hi^uriot and 
dred Thousand copiously refi-eshed from i 
bai4iet : nay he is " distiibatiag five francs 
\ve Girottdim saw it with our eyes; five 
krep them in heart ! And distraction of ai 
encumbers OUT bordt^rsj j angles at our Bai 
prisoners in our own Hall : Bishop Grfgoi 
net get out for a besoin aotuel without f 
darmes to wait on him I What is the chare 
National Representative become? And 
sonlight falls yellower on western window! 
chimney-tops are flinging longer shadows 
ficBbed Hundred Thousand noc tbeirshat 

36^ THE OiR0Ni>INS, 

not ! ..What to resolve on? Ho6bn tis6^ iapBtitat^ 
oos one would think, That the Oonyeittioii go forth 
in a body; ascertain with its own eye* whetbei it is; 
' free or not. Lo, therefore, from the Eastern Gate of 
the Tuileries, a distressed Convention issiiing j hand- 
some H^rault S^chelles at their head; he with bat 
on, in sign of public calamity, the rest bareheaded/^- 
toward the Gate of the Carrousel : wondrous to see : 
toward Henriot and his plumed Staff. ^' In the name 
of the National Convention, make way!** Net an 
inch of way does Henriot makie : ** I receive no or- 
ders, till the Sovereign, yours and mine, have iieen 
obeyed." The Convention presses on; Henriot 
prances back, with his Staff, some fifteen paces, ** To 
arms 1 Cannoneers, to your guns ! " — flashes out hiS; 
puissant sword, as the Staff all do. and the Hussars: 
all do. Cannoneers brandish the lit match ; Inibntry 
present arms, — alas, in the level way, as if for firing t 
Hatted H^rault leads his distressed fiock, through* 
their pinfold of a Tuileries again; across the Gar* 
den, to the Gate on the opposite side. Here is Feu- 
illans-Terrace, alas, there is our old Salle de Man- 
age; but neither at this Gate of the Pont Toumant 
is there egress. Try the other : and the other : no 
egress. We wander disconsolate through armed 
ranks ; who indeed salute with Live the Sepublic^ but 
also with Die the Gironde. Other such sight, in the 
year one of Liberty, the westering sun never saw, 

1557. And now behold Marat meets us; for he 
lagged in this Suppliant Procession of ours : he has 
got some hundred elect Patriots at his heels; he or- 
ders us, in tile Sovereign's naine/to letum toour 


place,snd Ao ta we wre bidden and 
ConventioD reWwas. " Does not the Con 
CtoUlon with a singular power of fac 
la ft'ee,"~none bnt friends ronnd it ? 
tion, DTerflowing with friends and arm 
proceeds b) vot« as bidden. Many wit 
cemsin silent; some one or two prote 
tbe-MonnUun bas a clear nuanimity. 
of Twelve, and- tbe denounced Twenly- 
we add Es-Ministers ClaviSre and Le 
with seme slight extempore alteration 
orahK' proposing, bat Marat disposing] 
be nnder " Arrestment in their own h 
sot^ Biizot, Vergniaud, Gandet, Lonvi 
Barltaronx, Lasource. Lanjuinais. Bui 
two, by the taie ; all that we have kn 
dinSi and more than we have known : 
and more than we hare known. TJiej 
aafegnafdof tbe French People;" by : 
the safegnaTct of two Gendarsies eaet 
peaceably in their own houses 1 aaNon 
farther order. Herewith ends Stance i 
2d of June, 1783. 

1558. At ten o'dook, nndei mild at 
dred Thonsand, their work well f 
homeward. Already yest«rday, Centra 
Committee bad arrested Madame Bo 
oned her in the Abbaye. Roland haa 
knows whither. 

1559. Thus fell the Girondins by 
and became extinct as a Party : not v 
from most Histwians. The men were 


liloM^hic cnltDre, decent behaTioi; not con* 
able in that thej were Pedants, imd bad not 
r p!Ul«; not condemoable but most nnfortunate. 
n'aDt«d a Repablic of the Virtues, wherein 
•elves should be head ; and thej (KiDld only get 
public of the StnogUiB, whereia othera than 

' the rest, Ban^re shall Eoake Report of it. The 
concludes with a. "civic promenade by tiwrfi- 
; "* surety the true reipi irf Fraternity is now 

•UEOt. "Memolres," p. 310 Eee "Pieces JuUffica- 
' at NarrMh-e*. CommenlAHes. etc., In Buiot. Lou- 
Ds CompiancDtairlce." In "HI«olra 

nentaire," zzviil. 1-78. 





1560. Jn the leafy montJis of June 
eevernl French DepartmeDts germiiiate i 
bellious piywr-leavea named Proclamatio 
tiona. Journals, or Diumals, "of the Unl 
eistance to Oppression," In particnlar, tl 
Caeo, in Calvadoes, sees its x>aper-leaf of I 
Caen suddenly bud, suddenly establial 
Nenspapei there ; auder the Editorship ( 
National Representatives! 

1661. For among the proscribed Gin 
certain of a more desperate humor. Som 
niaud, Valazfi, Gensonnfi, "arrested in 
honsra," will await with stoical resigBatio 
issue may be. Some, as Brissot, Rabaat,'' 
flighty to concealment; which, as the Pai 
are opened again in a day or two, is not y 
But others there are who will rush with 
Calvados; or far over France, to Lyoi 
Nantes and elsewhither, and then ren< 
Caen : to awaken as with war-tmmpet tl 

366 -TESMOS. 

able Departments ; and strike down an anatchto 
Monntam Faction; at least not yield withottt a 
stroke at it. Of this latter temper we connt some 
score or more, of the Arrested, and of the Not-yct- 
arrested: a Bnzot, a Barbaronx, Lonyet, Gnadet, 
Potion, who have escaped from Arrestment in their 
own homes:' a Salles, a Phythagorean Valady, a 
Dttch^tel, the Buch&tel that came in blanket and 
night-cap to vote for the life of Louis, who have es- 
caped from danger and likelihood of Arrestment. 
These, to the nnmlier at one time of Twenty -seven, 
do accordingly lodge here, at tbe ''Intendance, or 
Departmental Mansion," of the town of Caen in Cal- 
vados; welcomed by Persons in Anthority; wrf* 
c6med and defrayed, having no money of 4iheir own. 
And the Bulletin de Caen comes forth, with the 
niost animating paragraphs r How the Bourdeanx 
Department, the Lyons Department, this Depart* 
ment after the other is declaring itself; sixty, or say 
sixty-nine, or seventy-two* respectable Departments 
either declaring, or ready to declare. Nay Marseilles, 
it seems, will march on Paris by itself, if need be. 
So has Marseilles Town said, That she will march. 
But on the other hand, that Mont^limart Town has 
said. No thoroughfare; and means even to "bniy 
herself** under her own stone and mortar first, —of 
this be no mention in Bulletin de Caen. 

1562. Such animating paragraphs we read in this 
new Nevrepaper; and fervors and eloquent sarcasm; 
tirades against the Mountain, from the pen of Depu- 
ty Salles; which resemble, say Mends, Pascal's 

• MeiUan. pp. tS, T8; Louvet, p. 129.' - - 


" PrOTincials-" What is mo« to the purpose, " 
Girondiiis have got a. General iu chief, one Wir 
formerly under Duuiouriez; also a Beeondary 
tionahle General Puisaye, aii(i othera : and are 
their beat to raise a force lor war. Salioiial \ 
leers, whosoever is of right heart: gather in, j 
tional Volunteeis, friends of Liberty, from ou 
vndoa Townships, fjrom the Eure, from Bri 
froai fir and near: forward to Paris and extir 
Anarchy ! Thus at Caen, in the early July 
there is a drumming and parading, a peroratic 
ci>nau]tuig ; Staff and Army; Council ; Club o 
obots, Auti-Jacobin friends of Freedom, to den 
atrocious Marut. With all which, and the ei 
of Bulletins, a National Representative has his 

1563. At Caen it ia moat animated ; and, s 
hopea. more or less animated in the " SeTent 
Departments that adhere to vs." And in a E 
begirt with Cimmerian invading Coalitions, ani 
with an internal La Venit^e, this is, the cone! 
we have arrived at : To put down Anarchy hj 
War ! Dnrum et durum, the Proverb says 
faciunt murum. La Vendue bums ; Santerret 
nothing there; he may retnm home and bren 
Cimmerian bombshella fly all along the North. 
Siege of Mentz is become famed ;— lovers of thi 
nresque (as Goethe will testify], washed cot 
people of both sexes, stroll thither .on Sundi 
see the artillery work and counter-work ; "yoi 
diK'k a little w'.iile the shot whiazes past."* I 
• ■■^"laserunj von Malm" (Goeihe'a '■Wcrke,' 

368 _ TJ^fiMOJR. . 

is capitulating to the Austrioiis ; Royal Higlmeas. of 
York, these several weeks, fiercely batters Valeu-: 
eiennes. For, alas, our fortified Camp of Famais 
was stormed ; General Dampierre was killed ; G«n» 
eral Custine was blamed, — and indeed is now come 
to Paris to give " explanations." 

1564. Against all which the Mountain and atror 
cious Marat must even make head as they can. 
They, anarchic Convention as they are, publish De- 
crees, expostulatory, explanatory, yet not without 
severity ; they rayrforth Commissioners, singly or 
in pairs, the olive-branch in one hand, yet the sword 
in the other. Commissioners come eveij to Caen; 
})iit without effect. Mathematical Romme,and Prieur 
named of the Cote d'Or, venturing thither, with 
their olive and sword, are packed into prison: there 
may liomme lie, under lock and key, "for fifty 
days;" and meditate his New Calendar, if he please. 
Cimpierin, La Vendue, and Civil War! Never was 
Kepublic One and Indivisible at a lower ebb. — 

1565. Amid which dim ferment of Caen and the ^ 
World, History specially notices one thing: in the , 
lobby of the Mansion de Plntendance, where busy 
Deputies are coming and going, a young Lady with an 
aged valet, taking grave graceful leave of Deputy 
Barbaroux.* She is of stately Norman figure; in 
her twenty-fifth year ; of beautiful still countenance; 
her name is Charlotte Corday, heretofore styled 
D'Armans, while Nobility still was. Barbaroux has 
jiiven her a Note to Deputy Duperret, — him who 
once drew his sword in the effervescence. Appar- 

 Meillnn, p 75; Lou vet, p. 114. 


ently il)« will to Paris on aome' errand ? 
a Republican before the Revolntion, and i 
«d eiier^." A completeness, a decision 
fair female Figure : " By energy she mean 
that ^rill prompt one to sacrifice hims 
countrj." What if she, this fair young 
had -emerged from her secluded stillnesi 
like a Star; cruel-lovely, with half-an, 
demonic splendor ; to gleam lor a momel 
moment be extinguished : to be held in i 
bright complete was she, tbrongh long ci 
Quitting Cimmerian Coalitions witbonl 
dim-simmering 25,000,000 within, Histor; 
fixedly, at this. one fair Apparition of i 
Corday; will note ivhither Charlotte n 
the little Life bums forth so radiant, thf 
swallowed of the Night. 

1566, With Barbaroux's Note of Introd 
slight stock of luggage, we see Charlotte  
the 9th of July seated in the Caen Dilige: 
place for Paris. None lakes farewell of 
her Good-joumey; her Father will find 
signifying that she is gone to England, tl: 
pardon her, and forget her. The drows; 
lumbers along ; amid drowsy talk of P 
praise of the Mountain ; in which she m 
all night, all day, and again all night, 
day. Dot long before noon, we are at th 
Neuilly ; here is Paris, with her thoui 
domes, the goal and purpose of thy journe 
at. the lull de la Providence, iu Uie liut 
Augustiua, Charlotte demands a room ; 

ieeps all afUniooD and Night, till tb» monoir . 

, On Uie morrow momiDg, ebe delivers her - 
) DnpcTTet. It relates to certain Family Pa- 
tiicharein the Minister of the laterioT's hands; 

a Nun at Caen, an old -Convent friend of 
tie's, has need of; whith Duperret shall as- 
rin. getting: this then was Charlotte's errand 
LsT Bhe hae finished this iu the course of 

; — yrt says nothing of retDming. She has 
)d silently investigated several things, Tha 
ition, in bodily reality, she has seen; what 
Dutain is like. The living physiognomy of 
she coald not see; he te siolc at laieaent and 
d to home. 

. Aboat eight on the Saturday morning, sh* 
369 a laige sheath-knife iu the Palais Royid - 
raightway, in the Place dee Victoires, takes a 
y-conch:"To the Rue del'Ecole de MMe, 
0. 44." It is the residence of the Citoyen  
— The Citoyen Marat is ill, and cannot be 
rhich seems, to disappoint her mncb. Her 
a is with Hiu^t, then? Hapless beautiful 
rte; hapless .sqnalid Marnti Proa Caeo in . 
lost West, from NencbAtel in the utiuoat East, 
ra ara drawing nigh each other ; they two 
ery strangely, bnsinees ti^ther. — Charlotte, 
Dg t« her Inn, dispatches a short Note to 

signifying that she is from Caen, the seat of 
in ; that she desires earnestly to see him, and 
intitin his power to do France agieatBer-- 

Noanswer. . Cfaariotte writes ftnother -Hcde, 


Btm menpHsaiiig; B^tsbot irithttSf coaci 
seven in the evening, herself. Tired day- 
have ^ain Snish^ their Week ; huge Pari 
cling and Bimmering, manilbid accordii^ to i 
wont : thisone fair Figare has decision in il 
straight, — hmard a purpom. 

1669. It is yellow July evening, we say, 
of the month ; eve of th» Bastille day, — wt 
Marat," fonr years ago, in tha ciowd of i 
Neaf, shrewdly requii«d of that.BesenviU 
party, which had sach fHendly dispoeitions, 
monnt, and give up Uteit' urns, then ;":and 
notable among Patriot men.- Fonr jeats: 
road he has traveled ; — and sits now, about 1 
seven of the clock, stewing in slipper-ba 
afflicted ; ill of Kevolation Fever, — of whi 
malady this History had rather not name, 
sively sick and worn, poor man : with { 
eleven-pence-half-penny of teady-money, in 
with slipper-batli ; strong three-footed stool i 
ineon, the whUe; and a squalid — Washer- 
one may call her: that Is his civic eetablish 
Medical-School Street ; thither and not else 
has bis road ted him. Not to the reign of } 
bood and Perfect Felicity; yet surely on t 
toward that?—- Hark, arap again! A mns 
man's voice, refnung to be rejected: itistb 
yenne who would do France a service. 
recognizing {Vom within, cries, Admit ber. C 
Corday is admitted. 

1370. Cit«jen Uarat, I am from Caen the 
rebdlion, and wished to (peak with yon.— B< 

372 ' ^TEtiWR: - 

mon enfant. No^ what afe the Traitois ddfng at 
Caen? What Deputies are at Caen ?— Cliaridttft 
names some Depnties. ^* Their heads shall f&H with-* 
in a fortnight,'' croaks the eager People's-Mend^ 
clntching his tablete to write: Barbaronx, P6tionj 
writes he with bare ehrunfk arm, turning aside in ttte 
bath : P^on, and Lou vet, and — Charlotte hits drawn 
her knife from the sheath ; plunges ft, with one sure 
stroke, into the writer^s heart, " A moi, ch^re amie 
(Help, dear) ! " no more could the Beath-choked eaf 
or shriek. The helpful Washer-woman, running in, 
there is no Friend of the People, or Friend of the 
Washer-woman left ; but his life with a groan gushes 
out, indignant, to the shades below.* 

1571'. And 80 Marat People Wriend is'ended ; tlie 
lone Stylites has got hurled down suddenly from hi& 
Pillar, — whitherward He that made him knows. Pa- 
triot Paris may sound triple and tenfold, in dole and 
wail ; re-echoed by Patriot France ; and the Conven- 
tion, "Chabotpale with terror, declaring that thej^ 
are to be all assassinated," may decree him Pantheon 
Honors, Public Funeral, Mirabeau's dust making way 
for him ; and Jacobin Societies, in lamentable oratory, 
summing up his character, parallel him to One, 
whom they think it honor to call " thfe good 
Sansculotte," — whom we name not herejt also a 
Chapel may be made, for the urn that- holds his 
Heart, in the Place du Carrousel ; arid netrbom chil- 
dren be named Marat ; and Lago-di-Como Hawkers 

* Moniteur, Nos. 197,198.190: "HistoireParlementalre," 
xxvm. a01-v306; •'DeuxAmis,"x. 868-374. 

t See *• Flog-e funebre de Jean-Paul Marat," pronorie6 
It StrasbouiTK' (in Barbaroux, pp. 125-131); Mercier, etc. 


iMike mottotMofl of stacoo into nnbeautifQl BuBlsi 
and Dayid psiat his Picture, (w Deatt-Scene ; and 
BOCh other Apatheoeis take place as tbe huntaa 
geiiiiut,iathesa cin:iintatil>ice8,c>ui devise: batMorat 
retorns no more to the l^htof this Snn. Onesole 
circumBtBitce we hove read with cltxtr ajmpaUiy, in 
Uie Old MonitenT Newspapemi how Maiat's Brother 
comes from Nendiatel to aak of the CaoTention, 
"that the deceased Jean-Panl Marat's mnaket be 
given him."* For Marat too had a brotJier abd netu 
ral affections; ftnd was wrapped once in swttddlin;;- 
clothes, and slept safe in a cradle like the rest of tra. 
Ye children of men !— A siBtei of his, they say, lives 
still to this day in Paris. 

1573. As for Chnrlotle Coiday, her irork is accom- 
plished ; the recompense of it is near and sure. The 
ch6re amie, and neighbors of the honse, flying at 
bet, she " overtnma some movables," in-Ofnches her- 
self till the gendarmes arrive; then qnietly Barren- 
dera ; goes quietly to the Abbaye Prison; she alono 
Qoiet, oil Paris Bounding, in wonder, in nige or ad- 
miistion, ronnd her. Dnperret is pat in arrest, on 
acconnt of her ; his Papers sealed, — which may lead 
to consequences. Fanchet, in like manner ; though 
Fanchet had not so much as heanl of her. Char* 
loti«, confronted with these two Deputies, praises tho 
grave finnness oi Dnpeiret, censures the dejection of 

1573. On 'Wednesday morning, the tfaronfced Palais 
de JoBtice and Bevolutionary Tribunal can see her 
&ce; beantiful and calm : she dates it " fonrlh day 

' S^nce du 10 Srptembre 1798- 

374 TEB^OB, 

of the PrepKTation of Peace.^ A «tnaige laumvi^. 
ran throvgh the Hall, at ^igbt tuf hc^^ you cpiUiit opt- 
say of what character^* Tin ville has his indictoi^iits 
and tape*paper»: the enUer of the Palais RoysJi ytiU 
testify that be sold her the sheath-knife ; " AH these 
details axe needless/' intemiptied Charlotte; /* it^s I 
that killed Marat." By whose instigation ?-*'' By 
no one V . What tempted, you, then ? Bis <»aimes. 
*^ I killed one xnan," added she, xaising her voice ej;- 
tremdy (eoctolmement), as they went on with theii 
questions, *^ I killed one man to save a hundred thon- 
sand; a villain to save innoeents; a ^vage wild*, 
beast to give repose to my conntry. I was a Bepnb- 
lican before, the Revolution ; I never wanted energy." 
There is therefore nothing to be said. The public 
gazes astonished : the hasty limners sketch her feat* 
ures, Charlotte not .disapproving : the men of law 
proeeed with their formalities. The doom is Death , 
as a murderess. To her Advocate she gives thanks, 
in gentle phrase, in high-flown classical i^irit. To. 
the Priest they send her she gives thanks ; but needs 
not any diiiving and ghostly orjother said from him. 
1574. On this same evening therefore, about half- 
past seven o'clodc, from the gate of the Concieiy^erie, 
to a City all on tip-toe, the fatal Cart issues ; seated 
on it a foir young creature, sheeted in red smock of 
Murderess: so beautiful, serene, so fhll of life; 
journeying toward death,^~alone amid the World. 
Many take off their hats, saluting reverently; for 

 •• Proofs deCbarlotte Oorday," etc. ("Histoire Parle- 
mentaire." xzvlii. 311-838). 

CBA BLdftEC&BDA T, 375; 

'vrV^ htsltrt l&st inUBt be tottclied?* Othert gio'w^l 
auid howl. Adam Lux, of Mc^tz^ declares tbat ehe. 
is greater ihkn Bi'iitas ; that it were beatitiful to die 
with h«r : the head of this y^tkng maA aeems tamed. 
At the Place de la Revolution, the coantenanceof ^ 
CSiarlotte wears the same stiil smile. The exucu- 
tidners proceed to bind her feet ; she resists, tfainkiog. 
it meant as an insult ; on a word of explanatton, she 
submits with cheerfal apology. As the last act^l 
being now ready, they take the neckert^tef irem her 
neck, a blosh of maidenly sfaame^overspreads that fair 
f^e aiid lieck ; the cheeks were still tinged with it. 
when t>he execationer lifted the severed head, to show 
it to the people. " It is most true," says Forster, " that 
'he struck the cheek insultingly; for I saw it with 
my eyes : the Police imprisoned him for it."t 

1575. In this manner have the Beautifnlest.and 
the Squalidest oOme in collision, and extinguished 
one another. Jean-Paul Marat and Marie-tAnne 
Charlotte Corday both, suddenly, are no more. " Bay 
of the Preparation of Peace ?'* Alas, how were peace 
possible or preparable, while, for example, the hearta 
of lovely Maidens, in their convent-stillness, are 
dreaming not of Love-paradises and the light of Life, 
but of Cbdrus's-sacrifices and Death well-earned? 
That 25,000,000 hearts have got to such temper, this 
is the Anarchy ; the soul of it lies in this ; whereof 
not peace can be the embodiment ! The death of 
Marat, whetting old animosities tenfold, will^be 
worse than any Hfe. O ye hapless Two, mutually 

• "Deux Amis,** X. 374-384. . 

t •♦ UrieCwechsel/' i G08. 


extiQctive^.the Bean tiftil and the Squalid, sl^p ye 
wellj — in the Mother's bosom that bore you both ! 

1576. This is the History of Charlotte Corday ; 
most definite, most complete ; angelic-demonic : like 
a. Star! Adam Liix goes home, half-delirious; to 
pour forth his Apotheosis of her, in paper and print ; 
to propose that she have a statue with this inscrip* 
lion, Greater than Bruitia.. Friends represent his 
danger ; Lux is reckless ; thinks it were beautiful to 
die with her. 



1577. But during these same hours, pother guillo* 
tine is at work, on another ; Charlotte, for the Oi- 
roudins, dies at Paris to-day ; Chalier, by the Giron- 
dins, dies at Lyons to-morrow. 

1798. From rumbling of cannon along the streets 
of that City, it has come to firing of them, to rabid 
fighting : Ni^vre Choi and the Girondins triumph ; — 
behind whom there is, as everywhere, a Royalist 
Faction waiting to strike in. Trouble enough at 
Lyons ; and the dominant party carrying it with a 
high hand! For, indeed, the whole South is astir; 
incarcerating Jacobins ; arming for Girondins : where- 
fore we have got a "Congress of Lyons;" also a " Re- 
volutionary Tribunal of Lyons," and Anarchists shall 
t remble. So Chalier was soon found guilty, of Jacob- 
inism, of murderous Plot, "address with drawn dag- 
ger on the 6th of February last; and, on the morrow, 
ho also travels his final road, along the streets of 



Lyons^ **by the side of an ecclesiastic, witU whom 
he seems to speak eaxliestly,** — the axe now glitter- 
ing nigh. He could weep, in old years, this man, 
and " fall on his knees on the pavement," ble^ing 
Heaven at sight of Federation Programmes or the 
like ; then he pilgrimed to Paris/to worship Marat 
and the Mountain : now Marat and he are both gone ; 
—we said he could not end well. Jacobinism groans 
inwardly, at Lyons; but dare not outwardly. Oha- 
lier, when the Tribunal sentenced him, made anSwer : 
'' My death will cost this City d^ar^' 

1579. Mont^imart Town is not buried under its 
ruins; yet Marseilles is actually marching, under 
order of a " Lyons Congress;'' is incarcerating Pa- 
triots; the very Royalists now showing face. Against 
which a Greneral Cartaux fights, though in small 
force; and with him an Artillery Mnjor,of the name 
of — Napoleon Bonaparte. This Napoleon, to prove 
that the Maxseiilese have no chance ultimately, not 
only fights but writes ; publishes his *^ Sapper of 
Beaucaire," a Dialogue which has become curious.* 
Unfortunate Cities, with their actions and their re- 
actions; Violence to be paid with violence in geo- 
metrical ratio ; fioyailstm and Ananchv^m both strik- 
ing in ; — the final net>afflOunt of which geometrical 
series, what man shall sum? 

1580, The Bar of Iron has never yet floated in 
Marseilles Harbor ; but the body of Cebecqui was 
found floating, self-drovvned there. Hot Rebecqui, 
seeing how confusion deepened, and Respectability 
grew poisoned with Royalism, felt that there was no 

* $66 Hazlitt it 639-541. 

378 J TEBKOE. 

refoge far ft Eepublieau but death. . J2ebec^ idisa^ 
peared: hq oae knew whither ; tillone ntomingr thsy 
found the emptjcaae or body of him risen to the top, 
tumbling on the salt wave&;* and perceived that Be- 
becqui had withdrawn forever. — Toulon likewise is 
incarcerating Patriots; sending delegates > to Con- 
gress; intriguing, in' case of necessity, with the 
Boyalists . and English. Montpellier, Boardeaox, 
Nantes: all France, tliat is not under the swoop of 
Austria and Cimmerian seems rushing into madness 
and suicidal ruin. The Mountain laborsf like a 
volcano in a burning volcanic Land. Convention 
Committees^ of Surety, of Salvation, are bus^y sight 
and day: Convention Commissioners whirl on all 
highways; bearing olive^branoh and sword, or now 
perhaps sword only. Chaumette and Municipals 
come daiiy to the Tuileries demanding a Con^tn- 
tion : it is some weeks now since he resolved, in 
Town-hall, that a Deputation "should go everyday," 
•and demand a Constitution, till one were got ff 
whereby suicidal France might rally and pamiy 
itself; a thing inexpressibly desirable. 

1581. This then is the fruit your Anti-anarchic 
Girondins have got from that Levying of War in 
Calvados? This fruit, we may say: and no other 
whatsoever. For indeed, before either Charlotte's or 
Chalier's head had fallen, the Calvados War itself 
had, as it were, vanished, dream-like, in a shriek ! 
With "seventy-two Departments '' on our side, one 
might have hoped better things. But it turns oat 

• Barbarouz, p. 29. 

t **Deux Amis." z. 845. „ 

tint RespeetaMlities, tihoagli they win votd, wiU net 
fig^t; Potnession always is nine points in Law; but 
in Law*8nits of. this kiad, one may say, it is ninety- 
andrnine points. Men do what they were wont to 
do; and have immense irresolution and inertia: they 
obey him who has the symbols that elaim obedience. 
Consider what, in modern society, thiaone fitct means : 
the Metropolis is with oat enemies! Metropoils, 
Mother^'citjf ; lightly so named : all the rest axe but 
as her children, her nniselmgs. Why, iSiere is not a 
leatiiern Diligence, with its post-bags and luggage- 
bootSt that lumbers out from her, but ia as a huge 
life-pulse; she is the heart of alL Cut short that 
one leathern Diligence, how much is cut short! — 
General Wimpfen, looking practically into the mat- 
ter, can see nothing for it but that one should fall 
back on Royalism; get into communication with 
Pitt ? Dark innuendos be flings out, to that effect: 
whereat we Oirondins start, horror-struck. He pro- 
duces as his Becond in command a certain *^ Ci-de- 
vant,'' one Comte Puisaye; entirely unknown to 
Lou vet; greatly suspected by him. 

1582. Few wars, accordingly, were ever levied of a 
more insufficient character than this of Calvados. 
He that is curious in such things may read the de- 
tails of it in the Memoirs of that same Ci-devant 
Puisaye, the much-enduring man and Royalist: How 
our Girondin National forces, marching off with 
plenty of wind-music, were drawn out about the old 
. Chateau of Br^court, in the wood-country near Ver- 
non, to meet the Mountain National forces advanc- 
ing from Paris. How on the flfleenth afternoon of 

they did meet J— and, na it wem, shxieked mn- 
r, and took inatBally to flight, withoat loss. 
Puiaajetliereafter,— foithe UouDtaia Nationals 
irst, and we tboagbt ouiselves tbe vietois, — naa 
d ttota his warm bed in the Caatle of Bi^court ; 
>ad to gallop withont boots; onr Nationala, in 
L^ht-wabihes, faaiing iaUeu nnespectedly into 
•qui-pent. — and in brief llie Caliadoa Wsx hod 
, priming; and. the only qaeslion now was, 
herward to vauiidi, in what hole to hide one- 

3. The National Volanteen msh honienard 
r than they came. The Seventy-two Reqiect- 
Departmeute, says Heillsn, "all turned lound 
»sook ns, in thespace of loni-and- twenty hoorB." 
ppy those who, as at Lyons for instance, haTe 
too far for taming ! " One morning," we find 
rded on our Intendance Mansion, the Deciee of 
ention which casts OS Hors]aloi,intoOutlawi7; 
rded by oar Caen Magistrates, — clear hint that 
so are to vaaish. Vanish indeed : bntwhither- 
? Gorsas has Arien^ in Bennes ; he will hide 
—unhappily .will not lie hid, 0«ndet, LdHuni- 
ire on cross-roads, making for Bon^deikaz. To 
leanx! cries the general voice, of 'VaI<B'a1ike 
)f Despair. Some flag of Bespectability still 
there, or is thought to float. 

4. Thitherward therel'ore; each as he can? 
a of these ill-fated Deputies, oniong whom we 
coQDtas twellth, Friend Rioaffe the Man of 
rs,doan original thinij;: Take, the nnifonnof 
d^molres de Vulsaye " (London, leoS), 11. Uft-IOT. 


NstitfjiBl.Viiliuiteei^ ^dxeUeBttHOiithvvari 
BietoD Battalion, as priTat« sotdkis.of i 
These brave Bretous bad ^taod truer by ui 
other, l^everthuleas, at tbe enil of a day oi 
ajw do now get dubious, self-divided ; we 
firom them ; and, nitb Homo half-dozen sa 
gnide, cetreat by ouraelves, — a. solitaiy 104 
tachnwnt, tbioogh waste regioiis of tbe Wi 



1585. It is one of the notablest B«trea 
tbe Eleven, that History presents : The 1; 
forlorn Lc^^iatators retreating there, continv 
shouldered Arelock and well-filled eartrid 
the yellotf autumn; long hnndreds of mile 
them and Boardeaox, the couutr; all getti 
snspicionsor the .truth; simmering and Y 
all sides, miwe and jovte. Louvct has prei 
Jtinenuyof it; apiece irorth all the ree 

1686. O virtuous Pfition, with thy ea 
head, O brave young Barbaioux, hat> it con 
Weary ways, worn shoes, light parse ;— en( 
with perils as with a sea! Revolutionary 
i««s are in every Township ; of Jacobin ten 
friends all cowed, our canse the losing on< 
Borough of Moncoutoar, by ill chance, it ii 
ituy ; to the gaping public snch trauait of t 
Marching Detachment is suspicious; nel 
* Louvst, pp. I01-I3T; UelUui, pp. 81, Sll-STO 

3te TEBROn. 

of energy, of promptitude and iQck, to be allowed to 
marcli through. HaMen, ye weary pilgriifis !  The 
country is getting up ; noise of you is bruited- day 
after day, a solitary Twelve retreating in this myste- 
rious manner: with every new day, a wider wave of 
inquisitive pursuing tumult is stirred up till- the 
whole West will be in motion. ** Cussy is tormented 
with gout, Buzot is too fat lor marching.'^ Riouffe, 
blistered, bleeding, marches only oH tiptoe; Barba- 
roux limps with sprained ankle, yet ever <^eery, 
full of hope and valor. Light Louvet glances hare- 
eyed, not hare-hearted: only virtuous Potion's seren- 
ity " was but once seen ruffled."* They lie in straw 
lofts, in woody brakes; rudest pliillasse on the floor 
"of a secret friend is luxury. They are seized in the 
dead of night by Jacobin mayors and tap of drum ; 
get off by firm countenance, rattle of mairiLeta and 
ready wit. 

1587. Of Bordeaux, through fiery La Vendue oad 
the long geographical spaces that remain, it were 
madness to think: well if yon can get to Quimper 
on the sea-coast, and take shipping there. Faster, 
ever faster ! Before the end of the march, so hot has 
the country grown, it is found advisable to march all 
night. They do it; under the still night-canopy 
they plod along; — and yet behold, Rumor has out- 
plodded them. In the paltry Village of Carhaix (be 
its thatched huts and bottomless peat-bogs long nota- 
ble to the Traveler), oiie is astonished to find light 
still glimmering : citizens are awake, with rush- 
lights burning, in that nook of the terrestrial Planet ; 

* Meillan, pp 119-137. 



, af.n« trav^sesnifUy tbe one poor street, a vmce is 
heard BiQ'ing, "There tbcy ace (Les veiUqnipas- 
-eent)l"* Swifter, jie doomed lame Twelve: speed 
ere ttiey can arm ; gain the 'Woods of Quimpei before 
day, and lie squatted there ! 

1588. The doomed Twelve do it; though with dif- 
ficulty, with loss of road, with peril and the mis- 
takes o{ a night. In Qnimper are Giroodin Meuds, 
who perhaps will harbox theliomel«B, till aBonr- 
d«aux ship neigh. Wajwom, heart-worn, in agoi\f 
ofsospense, till Quimper frieadship get warning, 
they lie there, squatted under the thick wet boscage j 
sospLcioQB of the face uf man. Some pity to the 
brave ; to the unhappy \ Unhappiest of all Legisla- 
tms, O when ye packed your luggage, some score or 
two-score months ago, and mounted this or tb« other 
leatbero vebicle, to be Conscript Futbere of a regen- 
erated France, and reap deathless laurels, — did you 
think your journey was to lead hither f The Quim- 
per Samaritans find them squatted; lift tbem ap to 
help and comfort ; will bide them in sure places. 
Thence let them dissipate gradiinlly ; or there they 
can lie qniet,and write Memoirs till a Bordeaux ship 

1589. And thus, in Calvados all is dissipated; 
Somme is out of prison, meditating his Calendar; 
ringleadera are locked in his room. At Caen the 
Corday family mourns in Bilencc : Busot's House is a 
heapof dust and demolition; and amid the rubbish 
sticks a Gallows, with this inscription. Sere deceit iha 
Traitor Bv«ot, who eo*^ired againal Iht ReptMie. 

• Louret, pp. ISB-IU. 

and tile other vanished Depnties are hots U 

we saw ; their Uvea free to take where they 
e fouad. The worse tares it with the poor 
cd visible Deputies at I'aris. " Arrestment at 
' threatens to beeome " CooGnemeat in the 
ibouig ; " to end; loAci'ef For exa,iuple, what 
isaged thin man is this, jouriiejing toward 
Tland aa a Merchant of Nencb&tel, whom they 
in the town of Moplins ? To Revolutionary 
ittee he is suspect. To Recolutionary Com- 
, an pTobing the matter, he is evidently : Dep- 
tosot! Back to the Arrestment, poor Brissot; 
'.&& to strait confinement,— whither othersare 

follow. Raliaut has bnilt himself a Iklse- 
on, ia a friend's lionse ; lives, in invisible darlc- 
letw.een two walls. It will end, this satne 
tnent business, in Prison, and the Bevolntion- 

, Nor must we fo^et Dapeiret, and the seal 

1 his papers by. means of Charlotte. One 
is there, fit to breed woe enough : A secret Bol- 
rotest against that snprema dies of the 2d of 

This Secret Protest onr poor Duperret had 
ap, the same week, in all plainness of speech; 
"the time for publishing it: to which Secret 
Chis sign a Care, and that of other honorable 
ea not iv few, stands legibly appended. And 

the seals were once broken, the Mountain 
ictorious? Such Protestors, your Merciers, 
lis, Sevenly-tftree bj Ihe tale, what yet re- 
of Respectable Glrondism in the Convention, 

NATURE, 385 

iA2^f tremble to think !— These lare the fWts of levy* 
tng civil war. 

loOI. Also we find, that in these )as* days of July, 
the fnmcd Siege of Mentz is ^wi«/tcrf; the Garrison 
to march out with honors of war; not to serve 
against the Coalition for a year. Lovers of the pict- 
uresque, and Goethe standing on the Chaussee of 
Mentz, saw, with due interest, the Procession issuing 
forth, in all solemnity : 

1592. ** Escorted by Prussian horse came first the 
French Garrison. Nothing could look stranger than 
this latter ; a column of Marseillese, slight, swarthy, 
parti-colored, in patched clothes, came tripping on ; 
— as if King Edwin had opened the Dwarf Hill, and 
sent out his nimble Host of Bwarfs. Next followed 
regular troops; serious, sullen ; not as if downcast or 
ashamed. But the remarkablest appearance, which 
struck every one, was that of the Chasers (Chasseurs) 
coming out mounted ; they had advanced quite si- 
lent to where we stood, when their Band struck up 
the * Marseillaise.' This revolutionary Te-Deum has 
in itself something mournful and bodeful, however 
briskly played ; but at present they gave it in alto- 
gether slow time, proportionate to the creeping step 
they rode at. It was piercing and fearful, and a most 
serious- looking thing, as these cavaliers, long, lean 
Dion, of a certain age, with mien suitable to the 
music, cimie pacing on : singly you might have 
likened them to Don Quixote ; in mass, they were 
highly dignified. 

1593. "But now a single troop became notable: 

that of the Commissioners or Repr^sentans. Merlin 

386 TERROR. 

at Thionville, in hussar miifonxi, distinguishing 
himself by wild beard and look, had another person 
in similar costume on his left; the crowd shouted 
out, with rage, at. sight of this latter, the name of a 
Jacobin Townsman and Clubbist; and shook itself 
to seize him. Merlin drew bridle ; referred to his 
dignity as French Representative, to the vengeance 
that should follow any injury done; he would advise 
every one to compose himself, for this was not the 
last time they would see him here."* Thus rode 
Merlin ; threatening in defeat. But what now shall 
stem that tide of Prussians setting in through the 
opened North-east? Lucky if fortified Lines of 
Weissembourg, and impassabilities of Voices Mount- 
ains confine it to Fr^icl) Alsace, keep it from sub- 
merging the very heart of the country ! 

Furthermore, precisely in the same days, Valen- 
ciennes Siege is finished, in the North-west :— fallen, 
under the red bail of York! Cond^ fell some fort- 
night since. Cimmerian Ck>alition presses on. What 
seems very notable too, on all these captured French 
Towns there flies not the Royalist fleur-de-lis, in the 
name of a new Louis the Pretender ; but the Aus- 
trian flag flies ; as if Austria meant to keep them for 
herself! Perhaps General Custine, still in Paris, can 
give some explanation of the fall of these strong- 
places? Mother Society, from tribune and gallery^ 
growls loud that he ought to do it ;— remarks, how- 
ever, in a splenetic manner that " the Monsieurs of 
the Palais Royal *' are calling Long-life to this 


• "Belagerung von Mainz" (Goethe's "Werke," xxx. 


1594. Hie Mother Society, purged now, I 
uve " scmtiniea or ^punitiotts," from all toil 
Tondism, bas become a great Anthority ; vb 
call sbield-bearer or bottle-hold ei, nay call 
man, to the paiged National Convention its 
Jacobina Debates are reported in tlie Monll 
PBrliamentiiiy ones. 



1305. But looking more especially into P 
what is tbia that History, on the 10th ol 
Tear One of Liberty, "by old-atyle, year 1' 
cems tbeie ? Praised be the HeuvenB, a n 
of Pikes! 

For Cbanmette's "Depntatioa every c 
worked out its result: a Constitntion. It 
of tbe rapidest Conetitntiona ever pat 
made, some say in eight days, by H^ranlt 
and others; probably a workmanlike, toe, 
Constitatlon enoDgh ; — on which point, bov 
are, for Bome reasons, little called to form 
ment. Workmanlike or not, tbe 44,000 O 
of France, by overwhelming m^oritieg, dii 
t«a<!Cept H; glad of any Constitotion wb 
Nay Departmentid Depatiea have come, tl 
ablest EepnblicaDB of each Departmeu 
solemn message of acceptance : and now 
mains but that our new Final Constitntion 
claimed, and sworn to, in Feast of Pikes ? 
partmental Deputies, we say, are come si 


383 ^^£SROB. 

ago ; Chanmette very anxious about them, lest Gi- 
rondin Monsieuis, Agio-jobbers, or were it even 
Filles de joie of a Girondin temi)er, corrupt tbeir 
morals * Tenth of August, immortal Anniversary, 
greater almost than Bastille July, is the Day. 

1596. Painter David has not been idle. Thanks 
to David and the French genius, ihere steps forth 
into the sunlight, this day, a Scenic Phantasmagory 
unexampled : — whereof History, so occupied with 
real Phautiismagories^ will say but little. 

1597. For one thing, History can notice with sat- 
isfaction, on the ruins of the Bastille, a Statue of 
Natwre; gigantic, spouting water from her two mam- 
melles. Not a Dream this \ but a fact, palpable .visi- 
ble. There she spouts, great Nature; dim, before 
daybreak. But as the coming Sun ruddies the East, 
come countless Multitudes, regulated and unregu- 
lated ; oome Departmental Deputies, come Mother 
Society and Daughters ; comes National Convention, 
led on by handsome Herault,soft wind-music breath- 
ing note of expectation. Lo, as great Sol scatters 
his first fire-handful, tipping the hills and chimney- 
heads with gold, H^rault is at great Nature*s feet 
(she is plaster-of-paris merely); H^rault lifts, in an 
iron saucer, water spouted from the sacred breasts . 
drinks of it, with an eloquent Pagan Prayer, begin- 
ning ,''0 Nature!" and all the Departmental Deputies 
drink, each \vith what best suitable ejaculation or 
prophetic-utterance is in him; — amid breathings, 
which become blasts, of wind-music; and the roar 

••'DeuxAmfB,»*xi. ra- 


of. artillery aadhDman throats: flnisbingn 
first net ortliia solemnity. 

1^>9B. Nc^t lire proccssionings nlont; tlie 
Y.lrds: Deputies or OiKciala bound togctlier 1 
indiviailjle tricolor Tibbou', funeral "luembers 
Sovereijfn" wulking pell-mell, with pikes, witl 
iiiers, wilh Iho tools antl cmbleiiinor their 
niniiti<! wliicli wo iiotiec n Plow, liiiil niicient 
ond I'liilciiioii scatcil on it, drawn by their ch 
Jfiitiy-vuiucd liarnioiiy mid digsouniicc filliii}! 1 
TlTrou<;h Triuniplial Arches ciiougli: nt tlio b 
till! first of wliicli, we descry — nboiii ttiiiikest 
— Ihc Heroines of the Insarreclion of T 
Strong Dnmcs of tLe Market, tliey eit there 
roigne too 111 to attend, one fears), wit1ioatc-bn 
ivicolor bedizen men t ; firm seated on their Co 
To whom hnnilsome Hfranlt, making pnasc 
mimtion, addresses soolliini; eloquence; whet 
they lise and full into the mnrcli. 

ISiKI. Anil now mark, in the Place de la B 
tion, what other august Statno may tliis be; 
In canvas,— which swifliy we shear off,- by 
nnd cord? The Siatae of Liberty ! She toe 
plaster, boping to became of metal ; stands w 
Tyrant Louis Qiiiiize once stood. " Three 1h> 
birds" arelet loasa. into the whole world, with 
round their neck. We nrcfrcc ; imitate wa. Hoi 
of Roynlist and ei-dcvnnt trumpery, such i 
could still g:>ther, is burnt; pontifical oloi 
must be uttered, by handsome Ufrault, and 
orisons offered up. 

1600. And then forward ocieai the GiTer; 


390 T££MOB. 

is new enormous Stataary ; enermoas plaster Moaitt* 
ain ; Hercnles-Peuple, with uplifted aU-coDqueriug 
club ; " many-headed dragon of Girondin Federalism 
rising from fetid marsh;" — needing new eloquence 
from H^rault. To say nothing of Champ^de^Mars, 
and Fatherland's Altar there ; with nm of slain Be- 
Defenders, Carpenter's-levei of the Law; and such 
exploding, gesticulating and perorating, that H^- 
rault's lips must be growing white, and his tongue 
cleaving to the roof of his mouth,* 

1601. Toward six o'clock let the wearied President, 
let Paris Patriotism generally sit down to what re- 
past, and. social repasts, can be had; and with flow- 
ing tankard or light-mantling glass, usher in this 
New and Newest Era. In fact, is not Romme's New 
Calendar getting ready ? On all house-tops flicker 
little tricolor Flags, their flagstaff a Pike and Liber- 
ty-Cap. On all house- walls — for no Patriot not sus^ 
pect will be behind another, — there stand printed 
these words:. Republic one and indivmble; Liberty, 
Equality, Fraternity^ or Death. 

1602. As to the New Calendar, we may say here 
rather than elsewhere that speculative men have 
long been struck with the inequalities and incongru- 
ities of the Old Calendar; that a new one has long 
been as good as determined on. Mar^chal the Athe- 
ist, almost ten years ago, proposed a new Calendar, 
free at least from superstition : this the Paris Mu- 
nicipality would now adopt, in defect of a better : at 
all events, let us have either this of Mar^ehal's or a 
better, — ^the New Era being come. Petitions, more 

 "Cholxdes RapBortV xll. 432-44S. 


Uian «nce; have been aeot to that efi^et ; ai 
&r ft jear past, all Public Bodies, Joams 
Pfttriola in general, hare dated First Year 
public. It is a aabject not nithont difScull 
the ConveutioD baa taken it up : and Eomi 
say, has been meditating it; not Marvel 
Calendar, bnt a better New one of Bomme' 
own. Bomme, aided b; a Monge, a Lagi 
others, rarnish matbematicB ; Fabre d'EgIa 
nishes poetic nomenclatore ; and so, on t 
October, 1793, after trouble enoagh, they bi 
thin New KepDbtican Calendar of theira, i 
plete state ; and by Law get it pnt in actio 
1603. Pour eqnal Seasons, Twelve eqaal i 
Thirty days each ; this makes 360 dajs; an 
days remain to be disposed of. The five 
we will make Festivals, and name the fiv 
lottides, or Days without Breeches. Pestivi 
ins; Festivals of Labor; of Artious; of 
of Opinion : these are the five Sauaculottidet 
by the great Circle, or Year, is made compl 
ly eveiy foortb year, whUom called Leaj 
introduce a sixth Sanscnlottide ; t>i.d muni 
val of the Revolution. Now as to the daj 
mencement. which offers difflcnlties, is It n 
the Inckiest coincidences that the Repiibl 
commenced on the 31at of September ; cloi 
Autumnal Eqninox ! Autumnal Equinox 
night for the meridian of Paris, in the yea 
Christian 1792, from that moment shall tlie 
reckon Itself to begin. Vend^mlaire, Brum 
maire; or as one might say, in mixed Eng: 

:. ' i 




tagearions, Fogariotis, Fixistarioiis ; thes^^ cure* ««ir 
three Autumn months. Nivose, Pluviose, Ventose, 
or say, Snowoiis, Kainous, Wiiidous. make onr Win* 
ter season. Germinal, Floreal, Pruirial, or BacUlal, 
Fioweral, Meadovval, are our Spring season. Me«sU 
dor, Therniidor, Fructidor, that is to say {dor being 
Greek for g\fi)^ Reapidor, Heatidor, Fruit idor, are Re- 
publican Summer. These Twelve, in a singular 
manner, divide the Republican Year. Then as to 
minuter subdivisions; let us venture at once on a 
bold stroke: adopt your decimal subdivision: and 
instead of the World-old Week, or Se'ennight, make 
it a Tennight, or Decade ; — ^not without results. There 
are three Decades, then, in each of the months, which 
is very regular, and the Decadi, or Tenth-day, shall 
always be the *'Day of Rest." And the Christian 
Sabbath, in that case ? Shall shift for itself ! 

1604. This, in brief, is the New Calendar of Romme 
and the Convention ; calculated for the meridij^n of 
Paris, and Gospel of Jean Jacques ; not one of the 
least afflicting occurrences for the actual British 
reader of French History ; — confusing the sonl with 
Mcssidors, Meadowals; till at last, in self-defense, 
one is forced to construct some ground-sehemc, or 
rule of Commutation from New-style to Old-style, 
and have it lying by him. Such ground-scheme, 
almost worn out in our service, but still legible and 
printable, wo shall now, in a Note, present to the 
reader. For the Romme Calendar, in so many -News- 
papers, Memoirs, Public Acts, has stamped itself 
deep isto that section of Time : a New Era that lasts 

XrASrUm- 393 

some Twelve yeax» and odd is not ta be despised.^ 
Let the Reader^ tl;Lerefore,;with such ground-scheme, 
help himself, where needful, out of New-style into 
Olcl-styJe, colled also " slave-style (stile-esclave) ;*' — 
whereof wc, in these pages, shall as much as possible 
use the latter only. 

1606. Thus with new Feast of Pikes, and New Era 
or New Calendar, did France accept her NewCoiisti- 
tntion : the most Democratic Constitution ever com- 
mitted to paper. How it will work in practice? 
Patriot Deputations, from time to time, solicit frui- 
tion of it ; that it be set-a-going. Always, however, 
this seems questionable; lor the moment, unsuit- 

* September 22d of 1792 is Vendemiaire I&t of Yenr One, 
and the new months are all of 30 days each; therefore 

fl ADD .^ DAV8 

•r Vendemiaire 21 « September 30 

fr Bnimnire 21 "^ October 31 

•o Frimaire 20 2 November 30 

5 Nirose 20 ^ December ..31 

VI Pluvlose 19 u Jnnuary. 31 

® Ventose 18 ^ February 28 

-I Germinal 20 3 March 31 

S Ploi'eal 19 fl April 80 

g Frairlal 10 g May 31 

5 ^'essidor 18 June 30 

o Thermidor 18 g July 31 

6 Fructidor 17 si August 31 


There arc 5 SnnsculotvidM, and in leap-year a sixth, to be 
added at the end of Fructidor Uonmie*s tiret Leap-year 
is "An 4" (179.'i. not 17516), which is another troublesome 
cii-cumstance, every lonrtb year, from - September :Xd" 
round to *• February 29 " njfain. 

The New Calendar ceased on the lat of January. 1800. 
See ''Choijc des BaRports.'>iii. 83-00; ztx. 199. 


3»4 TERROR. 

able. Till, in some weeks, Salut Public, through 
the organ of Saint- Just, makes report, that, in the 
present alarming circumstances, the state of France 
is ReTolutionary ; that her " Government must be 
Revolutionary till the Peace." Solely as Paper, then, 
and as a Hope, must this poor new Constitution ex** 
ist ; — }n which shape we nay conceive it lying, even 
now, with an infinity of other things^ in that Limbo 
near the Moon. Farther than paper it never got, nor 
ever will get. 



1606. In fact, it is something quite other than 
paper theorems, it is iron and audacity that France 
now needs. 

Is not La Vendue still blazing ; — alas too literally ; 
rogue Rossignol burning the very corn-mills? Gen- 
eral Santerre could do nothing there ; General Ros- 
signol, in blind fury, often in liquor, can do less than 
nothing. Rebellion spreads, grows ever madder. 
Happily those lean Quixote-figures, whom we saw re- 
treating out of Mentz, " bound not to serve against 
the Coalition for a year," have got to Paris. National 
Convention packs them into post-vehicles and con- 
veyances ; sends them swiftly, by jwst, into La Ven- 
due. There valiantly struggling, in obscure battle 
and skirmish, under rogue Rossigno], let them, un- 
laureled, save the Republic, and " be cut down grad- 
ually to the last man."* 

* "Beux Amid." XI. 147; Xili. 180^198, €tc. 


1607. Does not the Coalition, like a fire-tii 

to; PniBsia throQgh tbeopeDedNoTth-easti , 
England tbTongh the Nortb-west f Oenen 
chard proapera no better there than Qeneral 
did : let him look to It 1 Through the East 
the Western PyTenees Spain has deplojei 
spreads, tuatUng with Bod ibon banners, over 
□f the South. Ashes and embers of confllsei 
din civil war covered that region alread}'. M 
la damped down, not quenched ; to be qaen 
blood. Tonlon, terror-strock, too fcr gone ii 
log, has flung itself, ;e righteous Powers, I 
bands of the English 1 On Toulon Aiseni 
flies a flat,— nay not even the Flenr-de-lls of 
Pretender; there files that accursed St. < 
Cross of the English and Admiral Hoodl 
remnant of 8e»-craft, arsenals, roperies, n 
Fisnce had, baa given Itself to these euc 
human nature, " ennemis da gam humali 
leaftuer it, bombard it, ;e Commissioners Ban 
ton, Robespierre Junior ; thon General Cartai 
eral Dngommier; above all, thou remarkab! 
lery-Hf^or, Napoleon Bonaparte t Hood is fo 
himself, victualing himself; means, appare: 
make a new Gihralter of it. 

160B, But lo, in the Autumn night, lat 
among tbe last of August, what sudden, r 
blaze is this that has risen over Lj'ons City ; 
noise to deafen the world? It is tbe Powdt 
of Lyons, nay the Arsenal with four Powder 
which has caught Are in the Bombardmei 
sprung int<> tbe air, carryiog " 117 houses " i 

806 UtRStii. - 

With a light, one fancies, as 6f the AOdfi sttll $ tvifh & 
roar second only to the I^st Tmippet ! All Uviiig 
sleepers iar and wide It hns n^vakened. What a sight 
was that, which the eye of History saw, in the sud- 
den nocturnal stin-blaze ! Tlie rooft of hapless 
LyonS) and all Its domes and steeples made momen' 
tarily clear ; Khone and Saone streams flashing sud- 
denly visible ; and height and hollow, hamlet and 
smooth stubble'deld, and all the region round i;-^ 
heights, alas, all scarped and cmintetBcarped, into 
trenches, curtains, redoubts; blue Artiliery-men, 
little Powder-devilkins, plying their hell-tnide 
there through the not ambrosial night 1 Lei the 
darkness cover it again ; for it pains the eye» (tf a 
truth, Chalier's death is costing the City deac Con- 
vention Commissioners, Lyons Congresses have come 
and gone: and action there was and reaction; bad 
ever growing worse ; till it has come this; Commis- 
sioner Dubois-Cranc^, *' with 70,000 men, and all the 
Artillery of several Provinces/' bombarding Lyons 
day and night. 

1609. Worse things still are in store. Famine is in 
Lyons, and ruin and fire. Desperate are the sidlies 
of the besieged; brave Pr^cy, their National Colonel 
and Commandant, doing what is in man : desperate 
but ineffectual. Provisions cut off: nothing enter- 
ing our city but shot and shells I The Arsenal has 
roared aloft ; the very Hospital will be battered down 
and the sick buried alive. A black Flag hung *on 
this latter noble Edifice, appealing to the pity of the 
besiegers ; for though maddened, were they not still 
our bretiiren ? In their hlind wratht they took it, 

8Wonj>oF sbahpness. 397 

rftn* A dag^ of defiance and aimed thitherward the 
more. Bad is growing ever worse here: and how 
will the worse stop, till it have grown worst of all? 
Commissioner Dubois will listen to no pleading, to 
no speech, save this only, We surrender at discretion* 
Ljons contains in it subdued Jacobins; dominant 
Girondius; secret lioyalists. And now, mere deaf 
madness and cannon-shot enveloping them, will not 
the desperate Municipality fly at last, into the arms 
Of Royalism itself? Majesty of Sardinia was to 
bring help, but it failed. Emigrant d'Antichamp, in 
name of the Two Pretender Koyal Highnesses, is 
coming through Switcerland with help ; coming, not 
yet come : Pr^cy hoists the Fleur-de-lis ! 

1610. At sight of which all true Girondins sor- 
rowfully fling down their arms : — Let our Tricolor 
brethren storm us, then, and slay us in their wrath ; 
with jfOtt we conquer not. The famishing women 
and children are sent forth : deaf Dubois sends them 
back; — rains in mere fire and madness. Our "re- 
doubts of cotton-bags " are taken, retaken ; Precy 
under his Fleur-de-lis is valiant as Despair. What 
will become of Lyons ? It is a siege of seventy 

1612. Or see, in these same weeks, far in the West- 
em waters : breasting through the Bay of Biscay, a 
greasy dingy little Merchant-ship, with Scotch skip- 
per; under hatches whereof sit, disconsolate, — the 
last forlorn nucleus of Giroudism, the Deputies from 
Quimper! Several have dissipated themselves, 
whithersoever they could. Poor Biouffe fell into 
« " Deux Amta.** xf . «>-14d. 



398 TEBBOU. 

the talons of Revolutionary Committee and Paris 
Prison. The rest pit here under hatches ; Reverend 
Potion with his gray hair, angry Bazot, suspicions 
Louvet, brave yonng Barbaroux, and others* They 
have escaped from Quimper, in this sad craft; are 
now tacking and struggling; in danger from the 
waves, in danger from the English, in still worse 
danger from the French ; — banished by Heaven and 
Earth to the greasy belly of this Scotch skipper's 
Merchant-vessel, unfruitful Atlantic raving round. 
They are for Bourdeaux, if peradventure hope yet 
linger there. Enter not Bourdeaux, O Friends! 
Bloody Convention Representatives, Tallienand sudi 
like, with their edicts, with their Gruillotine, have 
arrived there ; Respectability is driven under ground ; 
Jacobinism lords it on high. From that RMe land* 
ing-place, or Beak of Ambds, as it were, pale Death, 
waving his Revolutionary Sword of Sharpness^ waves 
you elsewhither ! 

1613. On one side or the other of that Bee d'Ambds^ 
the Scotch Skipper with difficulty moors, a dexterous 
greasy man ; with difficulty lands his Girondins ; — 
who, after reconnoitering, must rapidly burrow in 
the Earth ; and so, in subterranean ways, in fUends' 
back-closets, in cellars, barn-lofts, in caves of Saint^ 
Emilion and Liboume, stave-off cruel Death.**^ Un- 
happiest of all Senators! 

* Louvet, pp. 180-190. 



1614. Against idl which incalculable impediments, 
honors and disasters, what can a Jacobin Convention 
oppose? The nncalculating Spirit of Jacobinism, 
and Sanscnlottic sansformulistic Frenzy ! Our Ene- 
mies press in on us, says Danton, but they shall not 
conquer us, *' we will burn France to ashes rather 
(nous brfileroBS la France)." 

161&. Committees, of Surety, of Salut, have raised 
themselves '* 4 la hauteur, to the height of circum- 
stances." Let all mortals raise themselves & la 
hauteur. Let the 44,000 Sections and their Hevolu* 
tionary Committees stir every fiber of the Republic; 
and every Frenchman feel that he is to do or die. 
They are i^e life circulation of Jacobinism, these 
Sections and Committees : Danton, through the organ 
of Barr^re and Salut Public, gets decreed. That there 
be in Paris, by law, two meetings of Section weekly ; 
also tiiat the Poorer Citizen bepatf? for attending, 
and have hia day's wages of Forty Sous.* This is 
the celebrated " Law of the Forty Sous f fiercely 
stimulant to Sansculottism, to the life-circulation of 

1616. On the 23d of August, Committee of Public 
Salvation, as usual through Barr^re, had promul- 
gated, in words not unworthy of remembering, their 
Report, which is soon made into a Law, of Levy in 
Mass. *' All France, and whatsoever it contains of 
men or resources, is put under requisition," says Bar- 
* Moniteur, Stance du 5 Septembre, 1798. 

400 T^Z&OB. 

rdre ; really in Tyrt^ean words, the be«t we know of 
his. " The Republic is one vast besieged city." Two 
hundred and fifty Forges shall, in these days, be set 
up in the Luxembourg Garden, and round the outer 
wall of the Tuileries ; to make gun-barrels ; in sight 
of Earth and Heaven ! From all hamlets, toward 
their Departmental Town; from all Departmental 
Towns, toward the appointed Camp and seat of war, 
the Sons of Freedom shall march ; their banner is to 
bear : " Le Peuple Fran9ais debout contre les Tyrans 
(The French People risen against Tyrants). The 
young men shall go to the battle ; it is their task to 
conquer : the married men shall ibrge arms, trans- 
port baggage and artillery ; provide subsistence : the 
women shall work at soldiers' clothes, make tents, 
serve in the hospitals ; the children shall scrape old 
linen into surgeon's lint ; the aged men shall have 
themselves carried into public places ; and there, by 
their words, excite the courage of the young; preach 
hatred to Kings and unity to the Republic."* Tyr-, 
taean words ; which tingle through all French hearts. 

1617. In this humor, then, since no other serves, 
will France rush against its enemies. Headlong,, 
reckoning no cost or consequence; heeding no law or 
rule but that supreme law, Salvation of the People I 
The weapons are, all the iron that is in France; the 
strength is, that of all the men, women and children 
that are in France. There, in their 250 shed smith- 
ies, in Gartlen of Luxenibourjj: or Tuileries, let them 
forge jrun-barrels. in sight of Heaven and Earth. 

1618. Nor with heroic daring against the Foreign 
• '*D6batfl/' Stance du 23 Aout, 1793. 


foe, can black vengeance against the Domestic be 
wanting. Life-circulation of the Revolutionary 
Committees being quickened by that Law of the 
Forty SouSy Deputy Merlin, — not the Thionviller, 
"Whom vre saw ride out of Mentz, but Merlin of 
Douai, named subsequently Merlin Suspect^— comes, 
about a week after, with his world-famous Laic of 
the Suspect: ordering all Sections, by their Commit- 
tees, instantly to arrest all Persons Suspect ; and ex- 
plaining withal who the Arrestable and Suspect spe- 
cially are. *' Are suspect," says he, "all who by 
their ac I Tons, by their connections, sptakings, writ- 
ings have *' — in short become Suspect.* Nay Chau- 
mette, illuminating the matter still farther, in his 
Municipal Placards and Proclamations, will bring it 
about that you may almost recognize a Suspect on the 
streets, and clutch him there, — off to Committee and 
Prison. Watch well your words, watch well your 
looks : if Suspect of nothing else, you may grow, as 
came to be a saying, " Suspect of beinjj Suspect ! " 
For are we not in a state of Revolution? 

1619. No frightfuler Law ever ruled in a Nation 
of men. All Prisons and Houses of Arrest in French 
land are getting crowded to the ridge-tile: Forty- 
four thousand Committees, like as many companies 
of reapers or gleaners, gleaning France, arc gathering 
tlicir harvest, and storing it in these Houses. Har- 
vest of Aristocrat tares! Nay, lest the 44.000, each 
on its own harvest-field, prove insufficient, we arc to 
have an ambulant "Revolutionary Army : " 6,000 
strong, under right captains, this shall perambulate 
* Moniteur, Stance du 17 Septembre, ITdS. 

403 TERROR. 

fhe country at large, and strike in wliereter it finds 
snch barvest'work slack. Bo fiave Mutiieipality and 
Mother Society petitioned; so has Convention de- 
creed.* Let Aristocrats, Federalists, Monsietirs van- 
ish, and all men tremble : " the Boil of liberty shi^ 
be purged," — with a vengeance. 

16S0. Neither hitherto has the Revolutionary Tri- 
bunal been keeping holiday. Blanchelande, for los- 
ing Saint-Domingo; "Conspirators of Orleans," for 
" assassinating," for assaulting the sacred Deputy 
Leonard-Bourbon: these with many Nameless, to 
whom life was sweet, have died. Daily the great 
Guillotine has its due. Like a black Specter, daily 
at eventide glides the Death-tumbril through the 
variegated throng of things. The variegated street 
shudders at it, for the moment; next moment for- 
gets it: The Aristocrats ! They were guilty against 
the Republic ; their death, were it <mly that their 
goods are confiscated, will be useful to the Republic: 
Vive la R^publique ! 

1621. In the last day of Augtist fell a notabler 
head— General Custine's. Custine was accused of 
harshness, of unskillfulness, perfidiousness ; accused 
of many things : found guilty, we may say, of one 
thing, unsuccessAilness. Hearing his unexpected 
Sentence, " Custine fell down before the Crucifix," 
silent for the space of two hours : he fared, with 
moist eyes and a look of prayer, toward the Place dc 
la Revolution ; glanced npwasd at the clear suspend- 
ed axe; then mounted swiftly aloft,t swiftly was 

* Moniteur, Sconce du 6, 9, Jl Septembre. 
t •♦Deux Amis," xi. 148-188. 



iHnA away ftom Uie lista of the Llvini;. B 
Ibagbt in America; be was ftpioad, brave man 
Il!« fortane led bim hither. 

1622. On the 2d of this same numth, at fit 
liie morning, a Tabid* rolled off, with dosed t 
from the Temple to th« Concicrgeiie. Witl 
were two Mnnicipols; and Marie- Antoinette, 
Qneen of Fi'ance 1 There in ttiat Conciergei 
ignomiaiODH dreary cell, sbe, oeclnded from chi 
kindrod, friend and hope, sits long weeks, ezpi 
when tbe end will be * 

1623. Tbe Gniilotine, we find, get always at 
er motion, as otber things are quickening. 
Gnillotine, by its speed of going, will give ind 
tbe general velodty of tbe Republic. Tbe cla 
of its huge axe, rising and falling there, in 1 
systole- diastole, is portion of tbe whole enoi 
life movement and pulBation of the Sanscnlotti 
t«m ! — " Orleans Conspirators" and Assaolter 
to die, in spite of mnch weeping and entreatii 
mcied is the person of a Depaty. Yet the i 
can become desecrated ; yonr very Deputy i 
greater than the Gnillotine. Poor Depniy Joi 
islGorsaa: we saw him hide at Bennes, whe 
Calvados War bnrnt priming. Re stole, aftei 
in August, to Paris ; lurked several weeks abo 
Palais d-devant Soyal ; wm seen there, one 
was clatched, identified, and without cereracs 
iog already " oat of tbe law," was sent to the 
de la Revelation. He died, recommending hi 

- Mimt 

404 TWMOB 

lind <<liildreil fo t)i« pitT of the Repnblie. It is ihd 
mil day of OctoUet, 1793. Gorsas is the first Deputy 
that dies on the scaffold ; he will not be the last. 

16^. fix-Mayor Bailiy is in Frisou ; Kx^ProcareUr 
Manuel. Brissot and oar poor Arrested Giroudins 
have become Incarcerated Indicted Giroudins; 
universal Jacobinism clamoring for their puntshment. 
Duperret^s Seals are broken! Those Seventy-three 
Secret Protesters, suddenly one day, are reported up- 
on, ate decreed accused ; the Convention-doore being 
^'previously shut," that none implicated might ea* 
cape. They were marched, in a very rough manner, 
to Prison that evening. Happy those of them who 
chanced to be absent I Condorcet has vanished into 
darkness; perhaps, like Rabaut, sits between twa 
-walls, in the house of a iViend» 



1625. On Monday the 14th of October, 1793, a 
Cause is pending in the Palais, de Justice, in the new 
Revolutionary Court, such as those old stone-walls 
never witnessed : the trial of Marie* Antoinette. The 
once brightest of Queens, now tarnished, defaced, 
forsaken^ stands here at Fouquier-Tinville^s Judg- 
ment-bar ; answering for her life. The Indictment 
Was delivered her last nigh t»^ To such changes of 
human fortune what words are adequate ? Silence 
alone is adequate. 

1626. There are few Printed things one meets with 
* " Proo^ do (ft Beine " (" Deux Arais." si. 231-^1). 

of ^tieh tragic, almost gliUistly, aigntdoaip^ flib those 
bald Pages of the Bulletin du Ttibuma R^volnU(9i' 
niiire, which bear title, TH0I ©/ titt Widiai» Oc^t 
Biiii, dim, as if in disastrous eelipse; like the pale 
kingdoms of Dis ! Plutonic Judges, Plutonic Tin' 
ville; encircled, nine times, with Stjrx and Lethe^ 
with Fire-Pltlegethon and Cocytus named of Lamen- 
tation t 1;he very witnesses summoned are like 
Ghosts; exculpatory, inculpatory) they themselires 
are all hovering over death and doom; they are 
known, in otir imagination) as the jwey of the Gctil- 
lotine» Tan ci-devant Count d'Eataing, anKions to 
show himself Patriot, cannot escape; nor Bailly, 
who when asked if he knows the Accused) answers 
with a reverent Inclination toward her, *^Ah, yes, 
I kndw Madame.'' Ex-Patriots are here, sharply 
dealt with, as Procureor Manuel; Ex^Ministers, 
shorn of their splendor. We have cold Aristocratic 
impassivity, faithful to Itself even in Tartarus ; rab- 
id stupidity, of Patriot Corporals, Patriot Wash* 
er^women, who have much to say of Plots, Treasons, 
August 10th, old Insurrection of W^omen. For all 
now has become a crime m her who has IobU 

16^7. Marie-Antoinette, in this her utter abandon* 
ment, and hour of extreme need, is not wanting to 
herself, the imperial woman. Her look, they say^ as 
that hideous Indictment was reading, continued 
calm; "she was sometimes observed moving her 
fingers, as when one plays on the piano." You dis' 
cern, not without interest, across that dim Revolu- 
tionary Bulletin itself, how she bears herself queen- 
like. Her answers are prompt, clear, often, of I^acon* 

406 TE&MOn. 

ic brevity ; SfiBolution, whi^h haa grown c<mt^i]ipttt« 
oas withoat ceiuiing to be dignified, Teils itself in 
calm words. "You persist, then, in denial ?"— "My 
plan is not denial : it is tbe trath I have said, and I 
persist in that." Soandalons filbert haa borne his 
testimony as to many things : as to one thing, con" 
ceming Marie- Antoinette and her little Son, — where* 
with Haman Speech had better not farther be Soiled. 
She has answwed Hubert ; a Juryman begs to observe 
that she has not answered as to thxB, "I have not 
answered,'' she exclaims with noble emotion, "be* 
cause Nature refuses to answer to such a charge 
brought against a Mother. I appeal to aU the Moth- 
ers that are here." RobespieiCre, when he heard of it« 
broke out into something almost like swearing at 
the brutufh blockheadism of this Hubert ;^ on 
whose foul head his fool lie has recoiled. At four 
O'clock on Wednesday morning, after two days and 
two nights of interrogating, jury charging, and other 
darkening of counsel, the result comes out: sentence 
of Death. "Have you anything to-say?" The Ac- 
cused shook her head, without speech. Night's 
candles are burning out ; and with her too Time is 
finishing, and it will be Eternity and Day. This 
Hall of Tinville's is dark, ill-lighted except where 
she stands. Silently she withdraws from it, to die. 
1628. Two Processions, or Itoyal progresses, three- 
and-twenty years apart, have often struck us with a 
strange feeling of contrast. The first is of a beautl- 
ful Archduchess and Dauphiness, quitting her 

* Villate. "Causes secretes de la Revolution de ThernU- 
dor'* (Paris, 1S25, p. 179). 


Hother^ City, at the ^fi of fift«eu; toward 
such Hs Qo other Bnnghter of Eve then had 
the morrow," saya "Weber an eye-witness, "th 
phiness left Vienna. The whole city etoWde 
at first with a sorrow which was silent.' 8 
peared : yon saw her suab back into her ca 
her fkce bathed in tears ; hiding her eyes now 
her handkerchief, now with her hMids; i 
times putting ont her head -to see yet agal 
Paiace of her Fathers, whither she was to reti 
more. Bhe motioned her regret, her gratiti 
the good Nation,which was crowding here to 1 
farewell. Then arose not only tears ; but p 
cries, on all sides. Men and "Women aliki 
doned themselves to snch expression of their i 
It was an audible sonnd of wail, in the stree 
avenues of Vienna. The last Courier that fo 
her disappeared, and the crowd melted away." 

1629. The yonng imperial Maiden of Fifteen hi 
become a worn discrowned Widow of Thirty- 
gray before her time; this is the last ProC' 
"Pew minutes after the trial ended, the dmm. 
besting to arms in all Sections ; at snnrise the 
force wBfl OD foot, cannons getting placed at 
tremities of the Bridges, in the Squares, Crof 
all along {him the Palais de Justice to the P 
la E^volution. By ten o'clock, numeinns 
were circulating in the Streets ; 30,000 foot am 
drawn np under arms. At eleren, Marie-Ant 
was hronght out She had on an undress of 
blanc : she was led to the place of execution. 

• Weber. 1. e 


same maiuier as am ordinal? criminal ; boiiod» OQ a 
Cart ; accompanied by j» Cooalitutional Priest in iLay 
dress : escorted by numerous detachments of infantry 
and cavalry. These, and the double row of troops 
nil along her road, she appeared to regard Avith in^ 
dilTerence. On her countenance there was visible 
neither abashment nor pride. To the cries of Vivo la 
K^publique and Down toiik Tyranny, which attended 
her ail tlie way, she seemed to pay no heed. She 
spoke little to her Confessor. Tlie tricolor Streamers 
on the house-tops occupied her attention, in the 
Streets du Uoule ami Saint-Honoru; she also noticed 
the Inscriptions on the house-fronts. On reaching 
the Place dc la Ul» volution, her looks turned toward 
the Jardin National, whilom Tnileries; her fiicc at 
that moment gave signs of lively emotion. She 
mounted the Scaffold with courage enough; at a 
quarter past Twelve, her head fell; the Executioner 
showed it to the people, amid universal long con« 
tinned cries of Vive la R^publique."* 



1630. Whom next, O Tinvillo! The next are of 
a dilfereut color : our poor Arrested Giroudin Depu- 
ties. What of them could still be laid hold of; our 
Verguiaud, Brissot, Fauchet, Valaze, Gcnsonu(j ; the 
once tlower of French Patriotism, Twenty-two by the 
tiiie : hither y at Tiuville's Bar onward from the "safe* 
guard of the French People," £rom confinement in 

" •' DeuA Amis," xi. au. 

THE TWMft'TWO. *» 


€lie*Lasembdaf^, Impinsdnmesit in the C(m6i€ft*geii«, 
have tliey now, by the course of things, arrived. 
Foaquier-Ttn /ille must give what account of theni 
he can. 

1631. Undoubtedly this trial of the Girondins is 
the greatest tliat Fouquier has yet had to do. Twcn* 
ty-two, all chief liepublicans, ranged in a line there; 
the most eloquent in France; Lawyers too. not 
without friends in the auditory. How will Tiiiville 
prove these men guilty of Eoyalism, Federalism, 
Conspiracy against the Republic ? Veargniaud^s elo- 
quQipce awakes once more ; '^raws tears," they say. 
And Journalists report, and the Trial lengthens it- 
self out day after day ; >'thTeatens to become eternal,'' 
murmur many. Jacobinism and Municipality rise 
to the aid of Fouquier. On the 28th of the month, 
Hebert and others come in deputation to inform a 
Patriot Convention that the Revolutionary Tribunal 
is quite "shackled by Forms of Law ;" that a Patriot 
Jury ought to have '*the power of cutting short, of 
terminer les d^bats, wliea they feel themselves con- 
vinced." Which pregnant suggestion, of cutting 
short, passes itself, with all dispatch, into a Decree. 

1632. Accordingly, at ten o*clock on the night of the 
30th of October, the twenty-two, summoned back once 
more, receive this information, That the Jury feeling 
themselves convinced have cut short, have brought 
in their verdict; that the Accused are found guilty, 
and the Sentence on one and all of them is, Death 
with confiscation of goods. 

1633. Loud natural clamor rises among the poor 
Girondins ; tumult ; which can only be repressed by 

410 TEBEOB. 

ihe gendarmes. Yalaz6 stabs himself, £ftUs down 
dead on the spot. The rest, amid loud clamor and 
contusion, are driven back to their Oonciei^rie; 
Lesource exclaiming '1 die on the day when the 
People have lost their reason, ye will die when they 
recover it"* No help! Yielding to violence, the 
Doomed nplift the Hymn of the Marseillese ; return 
singing to their dangecm. 

1634. £ionffe, who was their Prison mate in -these 
last days, has lovingly recorded what death they 
made. To our notions, it is not an edifying death. 
Gay satirical Pot-pourri by Dncos ; rhymed Scenes 
of Tragedy, wherein Barr^re and Robespierre dis- 
course with Satan : death's eve spent in "singihg" 
and "sallies of gayety," with "discourses on the hap* 
piness of peoples '' these things, and the like of these, 
we have to accept for what they are worth. It is the 
manner in which the Girondins make (heir Last Sup- 
per. Yalazl, with bloody breast, sleeps cold in 
death ; hears not the singing. Vergniand has his 
dose of poison ; but it is not enough for hts fViends, 
it is enoi\^h only for himself; wherefore he flings it 
from him ; presides at this Last Supper of the Giron- 
dins, with wild coruscations of eloquence, with song 
and mirth. Poor human Will struggles to assert 
itself; if not in way then in that.t 

1635. But on the morrow morning all Paris is out ; 

fttavcjo-if, elire vh 6", iav <rw^poKuat.— Plut. "0pp." t. iv. p. 310, 
ed. Reiske, 1776. 

+ "M^moiresde Riouffe**an •*Migm ires sur les Pris- 
ons." Paris, 1823), pp. 4*^5. 


sncb a crowd as no man had seen. The Death*carts, 
Yalas^'s cold corpse stretched among the yet living 
Twenty •<Hie, roll along. Bare-headed, hands bonnd, 
in their shirt sleeves, coat flung loosely round the 
neck : so fare the eloquent of France ; bemurmured, 
beshoated. To the shouts of Vive la K^publique, 
some of them keep answering with countershonts of 
Yive la Rdpublique. Others, as Brissot, sit sunk in 
silence. At the foot of the scaffold they again 
strike up, with appropriate variations, the Hymn of 
the MarseiUese. Such an act of music ; conceive it 
well! The yet Living chant there; the chorus so 
rapidly wearing weak ! Samson's axe is rapid ; one 
head per minute, or little less. The chorus is wear- 
ing weak ; the chorus is worn out; — farewell forever- 
more, ye Girondins. Te-Deum Fauchet has become 
silent ; Yalaz^'s dead head is lopped : the sickle of 
the Guillotine has reaped the Girondins all away. 
"The eloquent, the young, the beautiful, the brave!" 
exclaims Riouffe. O I>eath, what feast is toward in 
thy ghastly Halls ! 

1636. Nor, alas, in the far Bourdeaux region will 
Girondism fare better. In caves of Saint-Emilion, 
in lofb and cellar ; the weariest months roll on ; ap* 
parel worn, purse empty ; wintry November come ; 
under Tallien and his Guillotine, all hope now gone. 
Danger drawing ever nigher, difficulty pressing ever 
straiter, they determine to separate. Not unpathetic 
the farewell; tall Barbaroux, cheeriest of brave men, 
stoops to clasp his Louvet : " In what place soever 
thou findest my Mother," cries he, " try to be instead 
of a son to her; no resource of mine but I will shar« 


'1 : 






witli tby-Wife^ shoold chance ever lead i&a idiece: 
sh«is.''* . - 

1637. Lonvet went with Gatidet, with Sallcs and 
Valadi ; Bavbaroux with Buzot aud P^^tion. Valadi 
soon went southward, on a way of his own. The two 
friends and Lonvet liad a miserable day and niglit; 
the 14th of the November month, 1793. Sunk in wet 
weariness and hunger, they knock, on the monow 
for help, at a friend's country-liouse. The iuint* 
hearted friend refuses to admit them. They stood 

therefore under trees, in the pouring tain. Flying 
desperate, Lonvet thereupon will to Paris. He seta^ 
forth, there and then, splashing the mud on each side 
of him, with a fresh strength gathered from fury or 
frenzy. He passes villages, finding **the sentry 
asleep in his box in the thick rain ;" he is gone, be- 
fore the man can call after him. He bilks Revoln- 
tiohary Commitjtee9, rides, in carriers' cayts, covered 
carts and open ; lies hidden in one, under knapsacks 
and cloaks of soldiers' wives on the Street of Orleans, 
while men search for him ; has hair- breadth escapes 
that would fill three romances; finally he gets to 
Paris, to his fair Helpmate ; gets to Switzerland, and 
waits better days. ._>^ 

1639. Poor Gnadet and Salles were both taken, erq 
long; they died by the Guillotine in Bourdeaux; 
drums beating to drown their voice. Valadi also is 
canxht, and guillotined^ Burbaronx and his two. 
comrades weathered it longer, into the summer of 
1794; but not long enough. One July morning, 
changing their hiding-place, as they have often to 
 liouvet p. 2ia 

do, ** irtxmt aleague firom Saint-Emilion, th«y observe 
a great crowd of countr^'-people f doubtless, Jacob- 
ins come to take them? Barbaroux draws a pistol, 
shoots himself dead. Alas, and it was not Jacobins: 
it was harmless villagers going to a village wake. 
Two days afterward, Buzot and Potion were found 
in a Cora-field, their bodies half-eaten by dogs.* 

1640. Such wastheend.ofGirondism. They arose 
to regenerate France, these men, and have accom- 
plished ihi8 ! Alas, whatever quarrel we had with 
them, has not their cruel fate abolished it? Pity 
only survives. So many excellent souls of heroes 
sent down to Hades; they themselves given as a prey 
to dogs and all manner of birds ! But, here too, the 
will of the Supreme Power was accomplished. As 
Ve^niaud said: " the Revolution, like Saturn, is de- 
vouring its own children." 

« "Recherches Historiqties surles Qlrondtos" (ln»'M<^ 
moires dc Buzot**' p. 107. 





1641. We are now, therefore, got to that black pre- 
cipitous Abyss ; whither all things have long been 
tending ; where, having now arrived on the giddy 
verge, they hurl down, in confused ruin ; headlong, 
pell-mell, down, down; — till Sansculottism have 
consummated itself; and in this wondrous French 
Bevolution, as in a Doomsday, a World have been 
rapidly, if not born again, yet destroyed and engulf- 
ed. Terror has long been terrible : but to the actors 
themselves it has now become manifest that their 
appointed course is one of Terror ; and they say : Be 
it so. " Que la Terreur soit & I'ordre du jonr." 

1642. So many centuries, say only from Hugh 
Capfet downward, had been adding together, century 
transmitting it with increase to century, the sum of 
Wickness, of Falsehood, Oppression of man by man. 
Kings were sinners, and Priests were, and People. 
Open scoundrels rode triumphant, bediademed, be- 
coroneted, bemitered ; or the still fataler species of 
Secret-Scoundrels, in their fair-sounding formulas, 
speciosities, respectabilities, hollow within ; the race 


of Qnacks was grown many as the sands of the sea. 
Till at length such a sum of Quackeiy had accumu- 
lated itself as, in brief, the Earth and the Heavens 
were weary of. Slow seemed the Day of Settlement ; 
coming on all imperceptible, across the bluster and 
fanfaronade of Courtierisms, Conquering-Heroisms, 
Most Christian Grand Monarqueisms, Well-beloved 
Pompadourisms ; yet behold it was always coming ; 
behold it has come, suddenly, unlooked for by any 
man ! The harvest of long centuries was ripening 
and whitening so rapidly of late ; and now it has 
grown white, and is reaped rapidly, as it were, in one 
day. Reaped, in this Reign of Terror; and carried 
home, to Hades and the Pit! — Unhappy Sons of 
Adam : it is ever so ; and never do they know it, nor 
will they know it. With cheerfully smoothed coun- 
tenances, day after day, and generation after genera- 
tion, they, calling cheerfully to one another, Well- 
speed-ye, are at work, sowing the wind. And yet, as 
God lives, they shall reap the whirlwind : no other 
thing, we say, is possible, — since God is a Truth, and 
His World is a Truth. 

1643. History, however, in dealing with this Reign 
of Terror, has had her own difficulties. While the 
Phenomenon continued in its primary state, as mere 
" Horrors of the French Revolution," there was 
abundance to be said and shrieked. With and also 
without profit. Heaven knows, there were terrors 
and horrors enough : yet that was not all the Phe- 
nomenon ; nay, more properly, that was not the Phe- 
nomenon at all, but rather was the shadow of it, the 
negative part of it. And now, in a new stage of the 


business, when History, ceasing to shriek^ would try 
rather to include under her old Forms of speech or 
S])eculation this new amazing Thing ; that so some 
accredited scientilic Law ol" Nature might lor 
the unexpected Product of Nature, and History 
might get to speak of it articulately, and draw infer- 
ences and profit from it: in this new stage, History 
we must say, babbles and flounders perhaps in a^till 
painfuler manner. Take, for example, the latest 
Form of speech we have seen propounded on the 
subject as adequate to it, almost in these months, by 
our worthy M. Roux, in his " Histoire Farlemen- 
taire/' The latest and the strangest: that the 
French Revolution was a dead-lift effort, after 1800 
years of preparation* to realize — the Christian Relig^ 
ion !^ Unity ^ Jndivmbility, Brotherhood or Deaths did 
indeed stand printed on all Houses of the Living ; 
also on Cemeteries, or Houses of the Dead, stood 
printed, by order of Procureur Chanmette, Here f« 
Eternal Sleep ;t but a Christian Religion realized by 
the Guillotine and Death Eternal " is suspect to me,^ 
as Robespierre was wont to say, " m^est suspecte." 

1644. Alas, no, M. Roux ! A Gospel of Brother- 
hood, not according to any of the Four old Evangel- 
ists, and calling on men to repent, and amend each 
his own wicked existence, that they might be saved ; 
but a Gospel rather, as we often hint, according to a 
new Fifth Evangelist Jean-Jacques, calling on men 
to amend each the whole world'^a wicked existence, and 
be saved by making the Constitution. A thing dif- 

* " Histoire Parlementaire," (Introd.), i. 1 et seqq. 
t •* Deux Amis," xil. 78. 

ferent and distant toto coelo, as they say : the whole 
breadth of the sky, and farther if possible ' — It is 
thus, however, that History, and indeed all human 
Speech and Reason does yet, what Pother Adam 
began life by doing: strive to name the new Things 
it sees of Nature's producing, — often helplessly 

1645. But what if History were to admit, for once, 
that all the Names and Theorems yet known to her 
fall short? That this grand Product of Nature was 
even grand, and new, in that it cartie not to range it 
self under old Recorded Laws of Nature at all, but to 
disclose new ones ? In that case. History, renouncing 
the pretension to name it at present, will look honest- 
ly at it, and name lyhat she can of it ! Any approx- 
imation to the right Name has value : were the right 
Name itself once here, the Thing is known hence- 
forth ; the Thing is then ours, and can be dealt with. 

1646. Now surely not realization, of Christianity 
or of aught earthly, do we discern in this Reign of 
Terror, in this French Revolution of which it is the 
consummating. Destruction rather we discern, — of 
all that was destructible. It is as if 25,000,000, risen 
at length into the Pythian mood, had stood up sim- 
ultaneously to say, with a sound which goes through 
far lands and times, that this Untruth of an Exist- 
ence had become insupportable. O ye Hypocrisies 
and Speciosities, Royal mantles, Cardinal plush- 
cloaks, ye Credos, Formulas, Respectabilities, fair- 
painted Sepulchres full of dead men's bones — behold, 
ye appear to us to be altogether a Lie. Yet our Life 
is not a Lie; yet our Hunger and Misery is not a 


Lie ! Behold we lift ' np, one and all, onr 25,000,000 
right-hands ; and take the Heavens, and the Earth, 
and also the Pit of Tophet to witness, that either ye 
shall be alfolished, or else we shall be abolished. 

1647. No inconsiderable Oath, truly: forming, as 
has often been said, the most remarisable transaiztion 
in these last thousand years. Wherefrom likewise 
there follow, and will follow, results. The fulfill- 
ment of this Oath; that is to say, the black des- 
perate battle of Men against their whole Condition 
and Environment, — a battle, alas, withal, against the 
Sin and Darkness that was in themselves as in others: 
this is the Beign of Terror. Transcendental do^^nor 
was the purport of it, though not consciously so. 
False hox>es, of fraternity, Political Millenniulnj and 
what not, we have always seen : but the unseen 
heart of the whole, transcendental despair, was not 
false; neither has it been of no effect. Despair^ 
pushed far enough, completes the circle, so to speak ; 
and becomes a kind of genuine productive h(^ 

1648. Doctrine of Fraternity, out of old Catholi- 
cism, doeS) it is true, very strangely in the vehicle of a 
Jean-Jacques Evangel, suddenly plump down out of 
its cloud-firmament ; and from a theorem determined 
t^make itself a practice. But just so do all creeds, 
intentions, customs, knowledges, thoughts and things, 
which the French have, suddenly plump down; 
Catholicism, Classicism, Sentimentalism, Cannibal- 
ism : all isms that make up Man in France are rush- 
ing and roaring in that gulf; and the theorem has 
become a practice, and whatsoever cannot swim 


sinluL Noir Evangelist Jean- Jaoqnes alone ; tliei:eis 
not a VDlage Schoolmaster but has contributed his 
quota : do we not thou one another, according to the 
Free Peoples of Antiquity? The French Patriot, in 
red Phrygian night-cap of Liberty, christens his poor 
little red infant Oato, — Censor, or else 9f Utica. 
Graochos has become Baboenf, and edits Newspapers ; 
Mutius Scsevola, Cordwainer of that ilk, presides in 
the Section Mutius-ScsoTola: and in brief^ there is a 
world wholly jnmbling itself, to try what will swim. 

1649. Wheref<ve we will, at all events, call this 
Beign of Tenor a very strange one. Dominant Sans- 
cnlottism makes, as it were, free arena; one of the 
strangest temporary states Humanity was ever seen 
in. A nation of men, full of wants and void of 
habits ! The old habits are gone to wreck because 
they were old: men, driven forward by Necessity 
and fierce Pythian Madness, have, on the spur of the 
instant, to devis»e for the want the 1009 of satisfying 
it The Wonted tumbles down; by imitation, by 
invention, the Unwonted hastily builds itself up. 
What the French National head has in it comes out : 
if not a great result, surely one of strangest 

1650. Neither shall the Reader fancy that it was 
all black, this Reign of Terror: far from it How 
many hammer-men and square-men, bakers and brew- 
ers, washers and wringers, over this France, must 
ply their old daily work, let the Government be one 
-of Terror or one of Joy ! In this Paris there are 
Twenty-three theaters nightly; some count as many 
as Sixty Places of Dancing.* The Playwright raanu- 

* Mercier, ii. 124. 


Xactures, — ^pieces of a strictly Eepul^licaa cfaaracter. 
Ever fresh Novel-garbage, as of old, fodders the Cir- 
culating Libraries.* The " Cesspool of Agio," now 
in a time of Paper Money, works with a vivacity un- 
exampled, unimaglned ; exhaJes jQrom itself ^' sadden 
fortunes/' like Aladdin-Palaces: reaUy a kind of 
miraculous Fat^-Morganas, since you can live in 
them, for a time. Terror is as a sable ground, on 
which the most variegated of scenes paints itself. In 
startling transitions, in colors all intensated, the sub- 
lime, the ludicrous, the horrible succeed one another; 
or rather, in crowding tumult, accompany one an- 

1651. Here, accordingly, if anywhere, the ** hun- 
dred tongues," which the old Poets often clamor for, 
were of supreme service ! In defect of any such 
organ on oyr part, let the Header stir up his own im- 
aginative organ : let us snatch for him this or the 
other significant glimpse of things, in the fittest 
sequence we can. 



1652. In the early days of Novf^mber there is one 
transient glimpse of things that is to be noted : the 
last transit to his long home of Philippe d'Orl^ans 
Egalit6. Philippe was " decreed accused," along 
with the Girondins, much to his and their surprise ; 
but not tried along with them. They are doomed 
and dead, some three days, when Philippe, after his 

* Moniteur of these montbs, passim* 

DEATH. 421 

long half-year of durance at Marseilles, arrives in 
Paris. It is, as we calculate, the third of Novem- 
ber, 1793. 

1653. On which same day, two notable Female 
Prisoners are also put inward there : Dame Dubarry 
and Josephine Beauhamais. Dame whilom Countess 
Dubarry, Unfortunate-female, had returned from 
London ; they snatched her, not only as £x-harlot of 
a whilom Majesty, and therefore suspect* but as 
having "fiimished the Emigrants with money." 
Contemporaneously with whom there comes the wife 
Beauhamais, soon to be the widow: she that is 
Josephine Tascher Beauharnais ; thatshall be Jose- 
phine Empress Bonaparte, — for a black Divineress of 
the Tropics prophesied long since that she should be 
a Queen and more. Likewise, in the same hours, 
poor Adam Lux, nigh turned in the head, who, ac- 
cording to Forster, "has taken no food these three 
weeks," marches to the Guillotine for his Pamphlet 
on Charlotte Corday : he " sprang to the scaffold ;" 
said " he died for her with great joy." Amid such 
fellow-travelers does Philippe arrive. For, be the 
month named Brumaire, year 2 of Liberty, or No- 
vember, year 1793 of Slavery, the Guillotine goes 
always (Guillotine va toujours). 

1654. Enough, Philippe's indictment is soon drawn, 
his jury soon convinced. He finds himself made 
guilty of Royalisni, Conspiracy and much else ; nay, 
it is a guilt in him that he voted Louis's Death, 
though he answers, " I voted in my soul and con- 
science." The doom he finds is death forthwith ; 
this present 7lh dim day of November is the last day 


that Philippe is to see. Philippei flaya Mtintgail- 
laid, tiieienpon called for bieaktet: saffideiwy of 
" oysters, two cutlets, best part of an excellent bottle 
of claret ;" and consumed the same with apparent 
relish. A Revolutionary Jadge, <w some official Con- 
vention Emissary, then arrived, to signi^ that he 
might still do the State some service by reveating 
the txuth about a plot or two. Philippe amsw^jed 
that, on him, in liie pass things had come to, the 
State had, he ttiought^ small dwm ; that neverthe- 
less, m the interest of Liberty, he, having still soxue 
leisure on his hands, was willing, vrere a reasonable 
question asked him, to give a reasonable answer. 
And so, says Montgaillard, he leant hi» elbow on the 
mantel-piece, and conversed in an undertone, With 
great seeming composure; till the leisure was done, 
or the Emissary went his way. 

1655i At tiie door of the Conciergerie, Philippe's 
attitude was erect and easyj almost commanding. It 
is five years, all but a few days, since Philippe, within 
these same stone walls, stood up with an air of 
graciosity, and asked King Louis, " Wiiether it was 
a Royal Session, then, or a Bed of Justice ?" O 
Heaven ! — ^Three poor blackguards were to ride and 
die with him : some say, they objected to such com- 
pany, and had to be flung in, neck and heels ;* but 
it seems not true. Objecting or not objecting, the 
gallows-vehicle gets under way. Philippe's dress is 
remarked for its elegance ; green frock, waistcoat of 
white piqu6, yellow buckskins, boots clear as War- 
ren : his air, as before, entirely composed, impassive, 

Forster, 11. 828; Montgaillard, Iv. Ul-ICT. 

DEATH. 45J3 

not tO:8ay easy and BtmBmellean-poUte. Throngh 
street afl^ street; slowly, askid execratlcms; — ^past 
the Palaiib £gaHt(^, whilem Palais Royal ! The cruel 
Populace stopped him there, some minutes. Dame 
de BufTon, it is said, looked out on him in Jezebel 
head-tire; along the ashlar Wall there ran these 
words in huge tricolor print, Republic one and in- 
divisible; LiBEBTY, Equality, Fbatebnity OB 
Death : Ntj^Homt, Ptaperfy, Philippe's eyes flashed 
hell-fire, one instaot ; hut the next instant it was 
gone, and he sat i^ofpasaive, Bnimmellean-polite. On 
the scaffold, Samson was for drawing off his boots ; 
" Tush," said Philippe, " they will come better off 
after ; let us have done (d^p^hons-nous) !" 

1656. So Philippe wins not without virtue, then ? 
€k>d forbid that there should be any living man 
without it ! He had the virtue to keep living for 
five-and-forty years pother virtues perhaps' more 
than we know of. But probably no mortal ever had 
such things recorded of him ; such facts, and also 
such lies. For he was a Jcitobin Prince of the blood * 
consider what a combination! Also, unlike any 
Nero, any Borgia, he lived in the Age of Pamphlets. 
Enough fbr us : Chaos has re-absorbed him ; may it 
late or never bear his like again ! — Brave young Or- 
leans ^galit^, deprived of all, only not deprived of 
himself, is gone to Goire in the Grisons, under the 
name of Corby, to teach Mathematics. The Egalit^ 
Family is at the darkest depths of the Nadir. 

1657. A far nobler Victim follows ; one who will 
elaim remembrance from several centuries : Jeanne- 
Marie Philipon, the Wife of Roland. Queenly, sub- 


lime in her uncomplaining sorrow, secaned, ste to 
Riouffe in her Prison. " Something more than is 
usually found in the looks of women painted itself," 
says Riouffe,* " in those large bla<jk eyes of hers, 
full of expression and sweetness. She spoke to me 
often, at the Grate ; we were all attentive round her 
in a sort of admiration and astonishment ; she ex- 
pressed herself with a purity, with a harmony and 
prosody that made her language likemusic, of which 
the ear could never have enough. Her conversation 
was serious, not cold ; coming from the mouth of a 
beautiful woman, it was frank and courageous aa 
that of a great man." " And yet her maid said : 
* Before you, she collects her strength ; but in her 
own room, she will sit three hours sometimes leaning 
on the window and weeping.' " She has been in 
Prison, liberated once, but recaptured the same hour, 
ever since the 1st of June: in agitation and uncer- 
tainty; which has gradually settled down into the 
last stem certainty, that of death. In the Abbaye 
Prison, she occupied Charlotte Corday's apartment. 
Here in the Conciergerie, she speak with Riouflfe, 
with Ex^Minister Claviere; calls the beheaded 
Twenty- two ** Nos amis" (our Friends), — whom we 
are soon to follow. During these five months, those 
Memoirs of hers were written, which all the world 
still reads. 

1658. But now, on the 8th of November, " clad in 
white," says Riouflfe, " with her long black hair 
hanging down to her girdle," she is gone to the 
Judgment-bar. She returned with a quick stepj 

• '\ Memoiros" ("Surles Prisons," 1.), pp. 55-67. 


lifted her finger, to sign'ifj to ns that sb( 
doomed: hereyesseemedtobavebeenwet. Foui 
Tinvilie's questions had been "brutal;" ofli 
leniale bonor fiung them back on him, nlth . 
uot without tears. And 'now, short prepaiatiom 
clone, she too shall go her last road. There 
v.ith her a certuin Lamarche, '■ Director of Ass 
printing;" whose dejection she endeavored to 
Arrived at the footof the scafibld, she asked lo 
and paper, " to write the strange thonghts Ibat 
rising in her;"* a remarkable request; wbici 
ret'used. Looking at the Statue of Liberty ' 
slands there, she says bitterly : " O Liberty, 
things are done in tby name !" For Lamarcbe's 
she uill die first : show htm how easy it ia t 
"Comriiry to tlie order," said Samson. — "Pshai 
c:iniio( refuse the Inst request of a Lady ;" and 
son yielded. 

 165D. Noble white Vision, with its high qti 
face, ils soft proud eyes, long black hair flowing 
to the girdle; and as brave a heart aa ever h 
woman's bosom ! Like a white Grecian 8 
serenely complete, she shines in that black wr 
things; — long memorable. Honor to great li 
who, in Paris City, in the Era of Noble Sent 
and Pampadourism, can make a Jeanne Phi 
and nourish her to clear perennial 'Womai 
though but on Logics, EneyclopCdies, and the ( 
according to Jean-Jai'qiies ! Biography will lo 
meinber that trait iil' asking for a pen " to wri 
strange thoughts that were rising in her." I 
•  Uemolrea de Madame Roland " [Introd.) I. OS, 


a little light-beam, shedding soitnesa, and a kind of 
sacredness, over all that preceded: so inhertoothOTe 
was an Unnamable ; she too was a Daughter of the 
Infinite; there were mysteries which FhilosOphi^si' 
had not dreamt of !— She left long wiitteii eouBsels 
to her little Girl ; she said her Hoshand wouMnot 
survive her. 

1660. Still cmeler was the fate of poor Bailly, Fixst 
National President, First Mayor of Paris: doomed 
now for Royalism, Fayettism; for that Bed-Flag- 
Business of the Champ-de-Mars ; — one &ay say in 
general, for leaving his Astronomy to meddle with 
Bevolution. It is tbe 10th of November, 1793^ a cold 
bitter drizzling rain, as poor Bailly is led througli 
the streets; howling Populace covering him with 
curses, with mud ; waving over his face a bunixHg or 
smoking mockery of a Bed Flag. Silent, nnpitied, 
sits the innocent old man. Slow faring through the 
sleety drizzle, they have got to the Champ-de-^Mars : 
Not there ! vociferates the cursing Populace ; such 
Blood ought not to stain an Altar of the Fatherland: 
not there ; bnt on that dung-heap by the Biver-side ! 
So vociferates the cursing Popnlace ; Officialil^ gives 
ear to them. The Guillotine is taken dovni, though 
with hands numbed by the sleety drizzle ; is carried 
to tbe Biver-side ; is there set up again, with slow 
numbness ; pulse after pulse still counting itself out 
in the old man's weary heart. For hours long ; amid 
curses and bitter frost-rain ! "Bailly, thou tremblest,*^ 
said one. " Mon ami, it is for cold,'' said BaiUy, 
•* e'est de froid." Cmeler end had no mortal * 

* " Vie de Bailly " (In «* Memoires/* i. ), p. 89. 

DEATH,, ,^ 427. 

1661. Some days afterward, Roland, hearing the 
news of what happened on the 8th, emhraces his 
kind Friends at JRouen, leaves their kind house which 
had given him refuge ; goes forth, with farewell too 
sad for tears. On the morrow morning, 16th of the 
month, *' some four leagues from Rouen, Paria-ward 
near Bourg-Baudoin, in M. Normand^s Avenue," there 
is seen sitting leant against a tree the figure of a rigor- 
ous wrinkled man; stiflf now in the rigor of d&th ; a. 
cane-sword run through his heart ; and at his feet 
this writing: ""Whoever thou art that findestme 
lying, r^ect my remains : they are those of a man 
who consecrated all his life to being useful ; and who 
has died as he lived, virtuous and honest." ** Not 
fear, but indignation, made me quit my retreat, on 
learning that my Wife had been murdered. I wished 
not to remain longer on an Earth polluted with 

1662. Barnave's appearance at the Revolutionary 
Tribunal was of the bravest ; but it could not stead 
him. They have sent for him from Grenoble ; to pay 
the common smart. Vain is eloquence, forensic or 
other, against the dumb Clotho-shears of Tinville. 
He is still but two-and-thirty, this Bamave, and has 
known such changes. Short while ago, we saw him 
at the top of Fortune's wheel, his word a law to all 
Patriots : and now surely he is at \hc bottom of the* 
wheel ; in stormful altercation with a Tinville Tri- 
bunal, which is dooming him to die If And Potion, 
once also of the Extreme Left, and named Potion 

**'Memoire8de Madame Roland" (Introd.Ml. 88. 
t Forster. ii. 620. , 


Virtue, where is hej? Civilly dead ; in the Cares of 
Saint-Emilion ; to be devoured of dogs. And Robes- 
pierre, who rode along with him on the shoulders of 
the people, is in Committee of Salut ; civilly alive ; 
not to live always. So giddy-swift whirls and spins 
this immeasurable tormentum of a Kevolution ; wild- 
booming; not to be followed by the eye. Bamave, 
on the Scaffold, stamped with his foot ; and looking 
upward was heard to ejaculate, " This, then^ is my 
reward I" 

1663. Deputy Ex-Procureur Manuel is already 
gone ; and Deputy Osselin, famed also in August and 
September, is about to go : and Rabaut, discovered 
treacherously between his two walls, and the Brother 
of Rabaut. National Deputies not a few! And 
Generals : the memory of Greneral Custine cannot be 
defended by his Son; his Son is already guillotined. 
Custine the Ex-Noble waS replaced by Houchard the 
Plebeian ; he too could not prosper in the North ; for 
him too there was no mercy ; he has perished in the 
Place de la Revolution, after attempting suicide in 
Prison. And Generals Biron, Beauharnais, Brunet 
whatsoever General prospers not ; tough old Llickner, 
v/ith his eyes grown rheumy ; Alsatian Westermann, 
valiant and diligent in La Vendue : no»e 0/ them cari^ 
as the Psalmist sings, his soul from death deliver, 

1664. How buay are the Revolutionary Commit- 
tees ; Sections with their Forty Half-pence a day ! 
Arrestment on arrestment falls quick, continual ; fol* 
lowed by death. Ex-Minister Clavi^re has killed 
himself in Prison. Ex-Minister Lebrun, seized in a 
hay-loft, under the disguise of a working man, is in- 


Btantly conducted to death."* Nay, -wttbiil, 
■what Bair^re ca^la "coining money on the ] 
IftEfivolption"? For always the"propert; 
guilty, if property he have," is confiscated. 1 
accidenta, we eren make a Law that snict 
not deitaud ns; that a criminal who kiiis 
does not the less incur forfeiture of goods, 
gnilty ttemble, therefore, and the suspect, i 
lieh, and in a word all manner of Culott 
Lniembourg Palace, once Monsieur's, has b 
Luge loathsome Prison; CbantiHy Palace t 
Condi's :— And their landlords are at Blanl 
on the wrong side of the Rhine. In Paris 
some Twelve Prisons ; in France some44,000 
erward, thick as brown leaves in Antnmn, ra 
travel the anspect ; shaken down by Revoli 
Committees, they are swept thither watd, 
their store-house, — to be consumed by Sami 
Tinville. " The Guillotine goes not ill (La 
tine ne va pas ma))." 


1685. The suspect may well tremble; I) 
much mote the open rebels; — the Girondin ( 
the Sonth I Revolutionary Army is gone fort 
Konsin the Playwright; 6,000 strong; ",nre 
cap, in tricolor waistcoat, in black-shag \ 
black-shag spencer, with enormous musf 
enormous saber, — in carmagnole complete ;"t 

• MoDlteur. 11, 80 Decembre 11%; Louvet, p. 28 

t BcoLouret, p.8l]1. 


portable guillotines. Representative Carrier has gofc 
to Nantes, by the edge of blazing La Vendue, which 
Rossignol has literally set on fire: Carrier will try 
what captives you make; what accomplices they 
have, Royalist or Girondin: his guillotine goes al- 
ways (va toujours) ; and his wool-capped "Company 
of Marat." Little children are guillotined, and aged 
men. Swift as the machine is, it will not serve ; the 
Headsmwi and all his valets sink, worn down with 
work ; declare that the human muscles can no more.^ 
Whereupon you must try fusillading ; to which per- 
haps still frightfuler methods may succeed. 

1666. In Brest, to like purpose, rules Jean-Boh 
Saint- Andr^ ; with an Army of Red Night-caps., ' In 
Bourdeaux rules Tallien, with his Isabeau and hench- 
men; Guadets, Cussys, Salleses, many fall; the 
bloody Pike and Night-cap bearing supreme sway ; 
the Guillotine coining money. Bristly fox-haired 
Tallien, once Able Editor, still young in years, is now 
become most gloomy, potent ; a Pluto on Earth, and 
has the keys of Tartarus. One remarks, however, 
that a certain Senhorina Cabarus, or call her rather 
Senhoraand wedded not yet widowed Dame de Fon- 
tenai, brown beautiful woman, daughter of Cabarus 
the Spanish Merchant, — has softened the red bristly 
countenance ; pleading for herself and friends ; and 
prevailing. The keys of Tartarus, or any kind of 
power, are something to a woman ; gloomy Pluto 
himself is not insensible to love. Like a new Pro- 
serpine, she, by this red gloomy Dis, is gather^ ; 
and, they say, softens his stone heart a little. 

f " Deux Amis," xil. 249-251. 


1667. Maignet, at Orange in the South ; Lebon, at 
Arras in the North, become world^s wonders. Jacobin 
Pojpular Tribunal, with its National Representative, 
pcrlaps where Girondin Popular Tribunal had lately 
been, rises here and rises there ; wheresoever needed. 
Fouch^s, Maignets, Barrases, Fr^rons scour the 
Southern Departments; like reapers, with their 
guilbtine-sickle. Many are the laborers, great is 
the iiarvest. By the hundred and the thousand, 
men's lives are cropt; cast like brands into the 

1668. Marseilles is taken, and put under martial 
law J lo, at Marseilles, what one besmutted red- 
beaided corn-ear is this which they cut ; — one gross 
M»n, we mean, with copper-studded fdce ; plenteous 
beard, or beard stubble, of a tile color ? By Nemesis 
and the Fatal Sisters, it is Jourdan Coupe tdte! 
Him they have clutched, in these martial-law dis- 
tricts ; him too, with their " national razor " their 
rasoir national, they sternly shave away. Low now 
is Jourdan the Headsman's own head; — low as 
Deshuttes's and Varigny's, which he sent on pikes, 
in the Insurrection of Women ! No more shall he, 
as a copper Portent, be seen gyrating through the 
Cities of the South ; no more sit judging, with pipes 
and brandy, in the Ice-tower of Avignon. The all- 
hiding Earth hfls received him, the bloated Tile- 
beard ; may we never look upon his like again ! — 
Jourdan one names; the other Hundreds are not 
Tramed. Alas, they, like confused fagots, lie massed 
together for us ; counted by the cart-load : and yet 
not an individual fagot-twig of them but had a Life 


and History ; and was cut, not without pang9 a§ 
when a Kaiser dies I 

1669. Least of all cities can Lyons escape. Lyoas, 
which we saw in dread sun-blaze, that Autumn night 
when the Powder-tower sprang . aloft, T\as clearly 
verging toward a sad end. Inevitable • what could 
desperate valor and PrScy do ; DuboisrCrance, dieaf 
as Destiny, stern as Doom, capturing their *' redoubts 
of cotton-bags ;" hemming them in, ever closer, with 
his Artillery-lava? Never would that ci-oevant 
D^Autichamp arrive ; never any help from Blanken- 
burg. The Lyons Jacobins were hidden in cellais : 
the Girondin Municipality waxed pale, in famine, 
treason and red fire. Pr^cy drew his f^word, and some 
Fifteen Hundred with him ; sprang to saddle, to cut 
their way to Switzerland. They cut fiercely ; ajid 
were fiercely cut, and cut down; not hundreds; 
hardly units of them ever saw Switzerland.* Lyoas, 
on the 9th of October, surrenders at discretion ; it is 
become a devoted Town. Abb^ Lamourette, ntvi 
Bishop Lamourette, whilom Legislator, he of the old 
Baiser-Pximourette or Delilah-Kiss, is seized here ; 
is sent to Paris to be guillotined : " he made the sign 
of the cross," they say, when Tinville intimated his 
death-sentence to him ; and died as an eloquent Con- 
stitutional Bishop. But woe now to all Bishops, 
Priests, Aristocrats and Federalists that are in Lyonsi 
The manes of Chalier are to be appeased ; the Re- 
public, maddened to the Sibylline pitch, has bared 
her right arm. Behold ! Representative Fouch6, it 
is Fouch^ of Nantes, a name to become well-known ; 
* *' Deux Ami3," xi. 145. 


be with a Patriot company goes duly, in wondrous 
Procession, to raise tlie corpse of Chalier. An Ass 
housed in Priest^s cloak, with a miter on his head, 
and trailing the Mass-Books, some say the very Bible, 
at its tail, passes through Lyons streets : escorted by 
multitudinous Patriotism, by clangor as of the Pit; 
toward the grave of Martyr Chalier. The body is 
dug up, and burnt : the ashes are collected in an 
Urn; to be woishiped of Paris Patriotism. The 
Holy Books were part of the funeral pile ; their ashes 
are scattered to the wind. Amid cries of " Ven- 
geance ! Vengeance !" — whith, writes Fouch^, shall 
be satisfied.* 

167D. Lyons in fact is a Town to be abolished : not 
Lyofls henceforth, but ''Commune Affranchie (Town- 
ship Freed) :" the very name of it shall perish. It 
is to be razed, this once great City, if Jacobinism 
prophesy right ; and a Pillar to be erected on the 
ruins, with this Inscription, Lyons rebelled against the 
Republic ; Lyons is no more. Fouch6, Couthon, Col- 
lot, Convention Representatives succeed one another : 
there is work for the hangman ; work for the ham- 
mer-man, not in building. The very houses of 
Aristocrats, we say, are doomed. Paralytic Couthon 
borne in a chair, taps on the wall, with emblematic 
mallet, saying , "LaLoi te frappe (the Law strikes 
thee;)" masons, with wedge and crow-bar, begin demo- 
lition. Crash of downfall, dim ruin and dust-clouds 
fly in the winter wind. Had Lyons been of soft stuff, 
it had all vanished in those weeks, and the Jacobin 
prophecy had been fulfilled. But Towns are not 

* Mouiteur (du V Novembre4703), etc. 


built of soap-froth ; Lyons Town is built of stoi^e, 
Lyons, though it rebelled against the Republic, ia to 
this day. 

1671. Neither have the Lyons Girondins all one 
neck, that you could dispatch it at one swoop. Rev- 
olutionary Tribunal here, and Military commission, 
guillotining, fusilladis^, do what they can : the ken- 
nels of the Place des Terreaux run red ; mangled 
corpses roll down the Rhone. Collot d'Herbois, they 
say, was once hissed on the Lyons stage : but with 
what sibilation, of world cat-call or hoarse Tartarean 
Trumpet, will ye hiss him now, in this his new 
character of Convention Representative, — not to be 
repeated ! Two hundred and nine men are marched 
forth over the River, to be shot in mass, by musket 
and cannon, in the Promenade of the Brotteaux. It 
is the second of such scenes; the first was of some 
Seventy. The corpses of the first were flung into the 
Rhone, but the Rhone stranded some ; so thes6 now, 
of the second lot, are to be buried on land. Their 
one long grave is dug ; they stand ranked, by the 
loose mold ridge ; the younger of them singing the 
'^Marseillaise." Jacobin National Guards give fire ; 
but have again to give fire, and again ; and to take 
the bayonet and the spade, for though the doomed 
all fall, they do not all die ; — and it becomes a butch- 
ery too horrible for speech. So that the very Na- 
tionals, as they fire, turn away their faces. Collot 
snatching the musket from one such National, and 
leveling It with unmoved countenance, says, "It is 
thus a Republican ought to fire." 

1672. This is the socoq^ Fusillade, and happily 


ihc last : it isfouna too hideous, even incotiveniientJL 
■ihere were 209 marched Out; one escaped at the 
end of the Bridge : yet behold, when you count the 
corpses they are 210. Redfe us this riddle, O Collot ? 
After long guessing, it is called to mind that two in- 
dividuals, here in the Brotteaux ground, did attempt 
to leave the rank, protesting with agony that they 
were hot condemned men, that they were Police Com- 
missaries : which two we repulsed, and disbelieved, 
and shot with the rest !* Such is the vengeance of 
an enraged Republic. Surely this, according to 
Barr^re's phrase, is Justice, '*under rough forms 
(sous des formes acerbes).*' But the RepubliCj as 
Fouch^ says, must "march to Liberty over corpses.'* 
Or again, as Barr^re has it : "None but the dead do 
not come back (II n*y a que les morts qui ne revi«n- 
nent pas)." Terror hovers far and wide : "the guil- 
lotine goes not ill." 

1673. But before quitting those Southern regions, 
over which History can cast only glances from aloft, 
she will alight for a moment, and look fixedly at 
one point : the Siege of Toulon: Much battering 
and bombarding, heating of balls in furnaces or farm- 
houses, serving of artillery well and ill, attacking of 
OUioules Passes, Forts Malbosquet there has been : 
as yet to small purpose. We have had General Car- 
taux here, a whilom Painter elevated in the 
troubles of Marseilles. Greneral Boppet, a whilom 
Medical man elevated in the troubles of Piemont, 
who under Craned, took Lyons but cannot take Tou- 
lon. Finally we have General I)ugom«i«r, a pupil 
• " Deux Amis," xli. 251-868. 



of Washington. Convention Hepr^entans 'also w^ 
haye had ; Barrases, Salicettis, Robespierres the 
Younger : — also an Artillery Chef de brigade, of ex- 
treme diligence, who often takes his nap of i^leep 
among the guns; a short, taciturn, oliTe-complex- 
ioDed young man, not unknown to us. by name 
Bonaparte ; one of the best Artillery-officers yet met 
with. And still Toulon is not taken. It is the 
fourth month now ; December, in slave style ; Fros- 
tarious or Frimaire, in new-style: and still their 
cursed Red-Blue Flag flies there. They are pro- 
visioned from the Sea ; they have seized all heights, 
felling wood, and fortifying themselves; like the 
cony, they have built their nest in the rocks. 

1674. Meanwhile Frostarious is not yet become 
Snowous or Nivose, when a Council of War is called. 
Instructions have just arrived from Government and 
Salut Public. Carnot, in Salut Public, has sent us 
a plan of siege; on which plan G-eneral Dugommier 
has this criticism to make. Commissioner Salicetti 
has that; and criticisms and plans are very various; 
when that young Artillery-Officer ventures to speak ; 
the same whom we saw snatching sleep among the 
guns, who has emerged several times in this History, 
— the name of him Napoleon Bonaparte. It is his 
humble opinion, for he has been gliding about with 
spy-glasses, with thoughts, That a certain Fort 
VEguillette can be clutched, as with lion-spring, on 
the sudden; wherefrom, were it once ours, the very 
heart of Toulon might be battered ; the English 
Lines, were, so to speak, turned inside out, and Hood 
and our Natural Enemies must nerb day either put 

DE8TBUCTI0N, .. 437 

to aeci, or l»e burnt to ashes. Commissioneis arch 
their eyebrows, with negatory sniff: who is this 
I young gentleman with more wit than we all ? Brave 

' ! veteran Dugommier, however, thinks the idea worth 

a word; questions the young gentleman; becomes 
convinced ; and there is for issue, Try it. 

J 675. On the taciturn bronze countenance, there- 
fore, thirfgs being now all ready, there sits a grim- 
mer gravity than ever, compressing a hotter central* 
fire than ever. , Yonder, thou seest, is Fort TEguil- 
lette ; a desperate lion-spring, yet a possible one ; 
this day to be tried! — Tried it is; and found good. 
By stratagem and valor, stealing through ravines, 
plunging fiery through the fire-tempest, Fort VEguil- 
lette is clutched at, is carried; the smoke having 
cleared, we see the Tricolor fly on it; the bronze- 
complexioned young ilian was right. Next morning. 
Hood, finding the interior of his lines exposed, his 
defenses turned inside out, makes for his shipping. 
Taking such Royalists as wished it on board with 
him, he weighs anchor ; on this 19th of December, 
1793. Toulon is once more the Kepublic's ! 

1676. Cannonading has ceased at Toulon ; and now 
the guillotining and fusillading may begin. Civil 
horrors, truly : but at least that infamy of an English 
domination is purged away. Let there be Civic 
Feast universally over France: so reports Barrere, 
or Painter David; and the Convention assist in a 
body.^ Nay, it is said, these infamous English 
(with an attention rather to their own interest than 
to ours) set fire to our store-houses, arsenals, war- 

* Monlteur, Vm, Nos. 101 (31 Doeembre). 95, 96, 98, etc. 


shipd IB Tonalon Harbor, before weigliing; soma^cors 
of bmve wardships, the only ones we now hiidl How- 
ever, it did not prosper, though the flames tipread fair 
and high; some two ships were burned, not tnore; 
the very galley-slaves ran with buckets to quench. 
These same pi^nd Ships, Ship VOrient and the rest^ 
have to carry this same yoang Man to Egypt first ; 
not yet csin they be changed to ashes, or to Sea- 
Nymnhs; not yet to sky-rockets, O ship VOrieni; 
nor become the prey of England,-*-bcfore their time I 

1677. And so over France nnirrersally, there is 
Civic Feast and high-tide, and Toulon sees fusillad- 
ing, grape*shotting in mass, £ks Lyotfs HaW; and 
^^ death is poured oat in grfeat floods (voniie i grands 
flots) f and 12,000 Masons are requisitioned ttom 
the neighboring eonntty, to raze Toulon from the 
face of the Earth. For it is to berated, so reports 
Barr^re; all but the National Shipping Establish* 
ments ; and to be called henceforth not Toul<m, but 
Port of the Mountain* There in black death^cloud we 
must leave it:— hoping only that Toulon too is built 
of stone ; that perhaps even 12,000 Masons cannot 
pull it down, till the fit pass. 

1678. One begins to be sick of "death vomited in 
great floods." Nevertheless, heatest thou not, O 
Reader (for the sound reaehes through centuries), in 
the dead December and January nights, over Nantes 
Town, — confused noises, as of nmsketry and tumult^ 
as of rage and lamentation ; mingling with the ever- 
lasting moan of the Loira waters there ! Nantes 
Town is sunk in sleep; but Repr^sentant Carrier is 
not sleeping, the wool-capped Company of Marat is 


not s1ec^>%. Why onmooia that flat-bott— 
craft, thftt gabanr; dboat eleven at night; 
Nine^ PriDstB antler haCcheaf Tbej bto goi 
Belle Isle? In titt middle of th« Loin strea 
Bigntd gives, the gabocre is Knltled ; she sinka 
all her eaigo. " Sentence of Deportation," v 
Curler^ "was eiecuted vartimUlf." The N 
Priests, with Iheir gabarre otdSn, lie deep I It i 
fitatoftheNeyades, what wemay cali DrotnuH 
Carrier, which have become fiiinotiB forever. 

1679. Guillotinii^ there was at Nautet^ til 
Headsman sank worn ant; then fwillading "> 
eiaifi of SI Uaave;" liUle childnu fheiUaded 
w«m^ with children at the breaat: children 
WMnen by th«handped and twenty; and by lh< 
BO hot is La Vend^; •till the very Jacobins 
eick, bbA all bat the Company of Mamt cxied, £ 
Whwefere now we have got Nojadiag; and oi 
S4tb night of Frostarions, year 3, which is 14i 
December, 1793, we have a second Noyade ) coj 
ing of "138 persons."* 

1680. Or why waste a gabarre, sinking it 
them ? Fling them ont; fling them out, with 
hands tied; ponr a continual bail of lead ov€ 
the apaoe, till the last abmg^es »f them be s 
Unsoond sleepus of Nantes, and the Sea-vil 
tbereabtnit,heBr the mosketry amid tbe night-w 
wondw what the meaning of it is. And womui 
in tjiat gabarre; whom tbe Bed Nighl>caps 
stripping n^ed ; who begged, in their agonj, 

* "Ueux Amta." xll. SeS-SIS: Moniteur, du 2 Jai 


their smocks might not be stripped from them. And 
youug children were thrown in, their mothers vainly 
pleading: ^^Wolflings," answered the Ck>mpany of 
Marat, " who would grow to be wolves." 

1681. By degrees, daylight itself witnesces Noy- 
ades : women and men are tied together, feet and 
feet, hands and hands: and flung in: this they call 
Mariage li^-publicaiu (Republican Marriage.) Cruel 
is the panther of the woods, the she-bear bereaved 
of her whelps ; bat there is in man a hatred crueler 
than that. Dumb, oat of suffering now, as pale 
swoln corpses, the victims tumble confusedly sea- 
ward along the Loire stream ; the tide rolling them 
back: clouds of ravens darken the River; wolves 
prowl on the shoal-places: Carrier writes, "Quel 
torrent r^volutionnaire ( What a torrent of Revolu- 
tion) I " For the man is rabid ; and the Time is 
rabid. These are the Noyades of Carrier ; twenty- 
five by the tale, for what is done in darkness comes 
to be investigated iji sunlight :* not to be forgotten 
for centuries. — "We will turn to another aspect of 
the Consummation of Sansculottism ; leaving this as 
the blackest. 

16S2. But indeed men are all rabid: as the Time 
is. Representative Lebon, at Arras, dashes his sword 
into the blood flowing from the Guillotine ; exclaims, 
'* How I like it I " Mothers, they say, by his orders, 
have to stand by while the Guillotine devours their 
children ; a band of music is stationed near ; and, at 
the fall of every head, strikes up its " Ca-ira."t In 

 *• Proces de Carrier" (4 tomes, Paris, 1795). 

t " Les Horreurs dcs Prisons d* Arras" (Paris, 1883). 


the Bnrghof Bedouin, in- the Orange region, the 
Liberty-tree has been cnt down overnight. Repre- 
sentative Maignet, at Orange, hears of it ; burns 
Bedouin Burgh to the last dog-hutch; guillotines 
the inhabitants, or drives them into the caves and 
hills.* Republic One and Indivisible ! She is the 
newest Birth of Nature's waste inorganic Deep, 
which men name Orcus, Chaos, primeval Night ; and 
knows one law, that of self-preservation. Tigresse 
Nationale: meddle not with a whisker of her! 
Swift-rending is her stroke; look what a paw she 
spreads J— pity has not entered into her heart. 

1683. Prudhomme, the dull-blustering Printer 
and Able Editor, as yet a Jacobin Editor, will be- 
come a renegade one, and publish large volumes, on 
these matters, " Crimes of the Revolution ; " addinjij 
innumerable lies withal, as if the truth were not suf- 
ficient. We, for our part, find it more edifying to 
know, one good time, that this Republic and Na- 
tional Tigress is a New-Birth ; a Fact of Nature 
among Formulas, in an Age of Formulas ; and to 
look, oftenest in silence; how the so gennine Nature- 
Fact will demean itself among these. For the 
Formulas are partly genuine, partly delusive, suppo- 
sitious : we call them, in the language of metaphor, 
regulated modeled shapes ; some of which have bod- 
ies and life still in thenr ; most of which, according 
to a German Writer, have only emptiness, " glass- 
eyes glaring on you with a ghastly affectation of life, 
and in their interior unclean accnmulation of beetles 
and spiders!" But the Fact, let all men observe, is 
 Montgaillard, iv. 200. 



a geimiiie and smoere one; the siaoerest of Facts; 
terrible in its sinceiil^^ as Teiy Death. Wfaatsoeyer 
is eqnally sincere may front it, and beard it ; bat 
-wbatsoever is n^ f — 



1684 Simultaneously with this Tophet-black as- 
pect, there unifoJds itself another aspect ; which one 
may call a Tophet-red aspect, the JDestraction of the 
Catholic Beligion ; and indeed, for the time being, 
of Beligion itself. We saw Romme's New Calendar 
establish its Tenth Bay of Best; and asked, what 
would become of the Christian Sabbath ? The Cal- 
endar is hardly a month old^ till all this is set at 
rest. Very singular, as Mercier observes: lastCor- 
pus-Christi Day, 1792> the whole world, and Sover- 
eign Authority itself, walked in relifi^ions gala, 
with a quite devout air ; — Butcher Legendre, sup- 
posed to be irreverent, was like to be massacred in 
his Gig, as the thing went by. A Gkillican Hierarchy, 
and Church, and Church Formulas seemed to flour- 
ish, a little brown-leaved or so, but not browner than 
of late ye»s or decades ; to flourish far and wide, in 
the sympathies of an unsoj^isticated People : defy- 
ing Philoeophism, Legislature and the Encyclop^ie. 
Far and wide, alas, like a brown-leaved Vallom- 
brosa: which waits but one whirl-blast of the 
November wind, and in an hour stands bare ! Since 
that Corpus-Christi Day, Brunswick has come, and 
the Emigrants, and La Vendue, and eighteen m<mths 


of 'time; to all flottmshingj especially to^ brown- 
le&ired floorishing, there comes, frere it never so 
slowly, an end. 

1685. Oa the 7th of November, a ce]:i;^n Oltoyen, 
Parens, Carate of Boisdtse-le-Bertrand, writes to the 
Convention that he has all his U& been preaching a 
lie, and is grown weary of doing it; wherefore he 
will now lay down his Curacy and stipend, and begs 
that an august Convention would give him some- 
thing else to live upon. ^ Mention honorable," shall 
we give him? Or "reference to Committee of' 
Finances ? " Hatdly is this got decided, when gOose 
Grobel, Constitutional Bishop of Paris, with his Chap- 
ter, with Municipal ^d Departmental, escort in red 
night-caps,.make3 his appearance, to do as Parens 
has done. Goose Gobel will now acknowledge ^' no 
Keligion but Liberty ; " therefore he doffs his Priest- 
gear, and receives the Fraternal embrace. To the 
joy of Departmental Momoro, of Municipal Chau- 
mette and Huberts, of Vincent and the Revolution- 
ary Army ! Chanmette asks, Ought there not, in 
these circumst)ances, to be among our intercalary 
Days Sans-breeches, a Feast of Reason?* Proper 
surely! Let Atheist Marshal, Lalande, and little 
Atheist Naigeon rejoice; let Clootsf, Speaker of 
Mankind, present to the Convention his ** Evidences 
of the Mohammedan Religion," " a work evincing 
the nullity of all Religions,**— with thanks. There 
shall be Universal Republic now, thinks Clootz; 
and "one God only, Le Peuple." 

* Moniteur, Swice du 17 Brumafre (7th November), 


leSO. The French nation isof gregarious imitative 
nature; it needed but a fugle-motion in this matter; 
and goose Gobel, driven by Municipality and force 
of circumstances, has given one. What Cur^ will l)e 
behind him of Boissise; what Bishop behind him of 
Paris? Bishop Gr^goire, indeed, courageously de- 
clines ; to the sound of • " We force no one ; let Gr6- 
goire consult his conscience ; " but Protestant and 
Romish by the hundred volunteer and assent. From 
far and near, all through November into December, 
till the work is accomplished, come Letters of rene- 
gation, come Curates who " are learning to be Car- 
penters, " Curates with their new-wedded Nuns : has 
not the day of Keasou dawned, very swiftly, and 
become noon? .From sequestered Townships come 
Addresses, stating plainly, though in Patois dialect, 
That " they will have no more to do with the black 
animal called Curay (animal noir appel^ Curay). "* 

1687. Above all things, there come Patriotic Gifbs, 
of Church-Furniture. The remnant of bells,except for 
tocsin, descend from their belfries, into the National 
melting-pot to make cannon. Censers and all sacred 
vessels are beaten broad ; of silver, they are fit for 
the poverty-stricken Mint ; of pewter, let them be- 
come bullets, to shoot the " enemies du genre hn- 
main. " Dalmatics of plush made breeches for him 
who had none ; linen albs will clip into shirts for the 
Defenders of the Country ; old-clothesmen, Jews or 
Heathen, drive the briskest trade. Chalier's Ass- 
Procession, at Lyons, was but a type of what went 
on, in those same days, in all Towns. In all Towns 

* *' Analyse du Moniteur" (Paris, 180r, li. 280. 


and Townships as quick as the guillotine may go, 
so quick goes the axe, and the wrench: sacristies, 
lutrins, altar-rails are pulled down ; the Mass-Books 
torn into cartridge-papers : men dance the Carmag- 
nole all night ahout the bonfire. All highways jin- 
gle with metallic Priest-tackle, beaten broad ; sent to 
the Convention, to the poTcrty-stricken Mint. Good 
Sainte-Grenevieve's Chasse is let down; alas, to be 
burst open, this time, and burnt on the Place de 
Gr^ve. Saint Louis's Shirt is burnt ; —might not a 
Defender of the Country have had it?. At Saint- 
Denis Town, no longer Saint-Denis but Franciade, 
Patriotism has been down among the Tombs, rum- 
maging: the ^Revolutionary army has taken spoil. 
This, accordingly, is what the streets of Paris saw : 
1688. " Most of these persons were still drunk, 
with the brandy they had swallowed out of chalices; 
— eating mackerel on the patenas I Mounted on 
Asses, which were housed with Priests' cloaks, they 
reined them with Priests' stoles ; they held clutched 
with the same hand communion- cup and sacred 
wafer. They stopped at the doors of Dram-shops ; 
held out ciboriums ; and the landlord, stoup in hand 
had to fill them thrice. Next came Mules high-laden 
with crosses, chandeliers, censers, holy- water vessels, 
hyssops ; — recalling to mind the Priests of Cy- 
bele, whose panniers, filled with the instruments 
of their worship, served at once as store-house, sac- 
risty and temple. In such equipage did these pro- 
faners advance toward the Convention- They enter 
there, in an immense train, ranged in two rows ; all 
masked like mummers in fantastic sacerdotal vest- 


ments : bearing qb hand-barrows theiic lieaped plun- 
der, — ciboriums, suns, candebibras, i^sates of gold 
and silver. "* 

1689. The Address we dp zK>t give ; fox indeed it 
was in strophes, sung yiv4 voce, with all the pa^ 
— Banton glooming considerably, in his place, and 
demanding that there be prose and decaacy in futnrekf 
Nevertheless the captors of such spolia opima crave^ 
not untouched with liquor, permission to dance the 
Carmagnole also on the spot: whereto an exhilarated 
Convention cannot but aceede. Nay "several Mem- 
bers," continues the exaggerative Mercier, who was 
not there to wiUiess^ being in Limbo now, as one of 
Duperret's Seventy-three, " several Members, quittisg 
their curule chairs, took the hand of girls flaunting 
in Priests' vestures, and danced the Carmagnole 
along with them. " Such Old-Hallowtide have they, 
in this year, once named of Orace 1793. 

1690. Out of which strange fall of Fomiulas, tum- 
bling there in confused welter, betrampled by the 
Patriotic dance, is it not passing strange to see a new 
Formula arise ? For the human tongue is not ade- 
quate to speak what " triviality run distracted " 
there is in human nature. Black Mumbo-Jumbo of 
the woods, and mo&t Indian Wau-waus, one can un- 
derstand : but this of Procureur Anaxagoras, whilom 
John-Peter^ Chaumette ? We will say only : Man 
is a born idol- worshiper, sight worshiper, so sensuous- 
imaginative is he ; and also partakes much of the 
nature of the ape. 

* Mercier, iv. 134. See Monlteur, Seance du 10 Novem^ 
t See also Moniteur^ Stance du 28 Novembre. 


1691. F<nf the 8am« day, while this brave Catmag- 
uole^adce has hardly jigged itself out, there arrive 
Procnreur Chaumette and Municipals and Depart- 
mentals, and with them th^e strangest freightage : a 
New-Religion I Demoiselle Candeille, of the Opera ; 
ft woman fair to look upon, when well rouged ; she, 
borne on palanquin shoulder-hi.u:h ; with red woolen 
nightcap ; in azrure mantle; ptrlanded with oak ; 
holding in her hand the IHke of the Jupiter-Peuple, 
sails in : heralded by white young women girt in 
tricolc*. Let the world consider it ! This, O Na- 
tional Convention "wonder of the universe, is our 
New Divinity ; Goddess of Season, worthy, and alone 
worthy of revering. Her henceforth we adore. Nay 
were it tdo much to ask of an august National Rep- 
resentation that it also went with us to the ci-devant 
Cathedral called of Notre-Dame, and executed a few 
strophes in worship of her ? 

1692. President' and Secretaries give Goddess Can- 
deille, botne at due height round their platform, 
successively the Fraternal kiss ; whereupon she, by 
diecree, sails to the right-hand of the President and 
there alights. And now, after due pause and flour- 
ishes of oratory, the Convention, gathering its limbs, 
does get under way in the required procession to- 
ward Notre-Dame ; — Reason, again in her litter, sit- 
ting m the van of them, borne, one judges, by men 
in the Roman costume ; escorted by wind-music, red- 
night-caps, and the madness of the world. And so, 
straightway, Reason taking seat on the high-altar of 
Notre-Dame, the requisite worship or quasi- worship 
is, say the Newspapers, executed ; National Conven- 


tion chanting " the * Hymn to Liberty/ words by 
Ch^nier, music by Grossic." It is the first of tibe 
Feasts of Reason; first communion-service, of the 
New Keligion of Chaumette. 

1693. " The corresponding Festival in the Church 
of Saint-Eustache," says Mercier, " ojQfered the spec- 
tacle of a great tavern. The interior of the choir rep- 
resented a landscape decorated with cottages and 
boskets of trees. Hound the choir stood tables over- 
loaded with bottles, with sausages, pork-puddings, 
pastries and other meats. The guests flowed in and 
out through all doors : whosoever presented himself 
took part of the good things : children of eight, girls 
as well as boys, put hand to plate, in sign of Liberty ; 
they drank also of the bottles, and their prompt in- 
toxication created laughter. Reason sat in azure 
mantle aJoft, in a serene manner : Cannoneers, pipe 
in mouth, serving her as acolytes. And out of doors," 
continues the exaggerative man,"*** were mad multi- 
tudes dancing round the bonfire of Chapel-balus- 
trades, of Priests* and Canons' stalls ; and the dancerst 
— I exaggerate nothing, — ^the dancers nigh bare of 
breeches, neck and breast naked, stockings down, 
went whirling and spinning, like those Dust- vortexes, 
forerunners of Tempest and Destruction."* At Saint- 
Gervais Church, again, there was a terrible " smell 
of herrings ;" Section or Municipality having provid- 
ed no food, no condiment, but left it to chance. 
Other mysteries, seemingly of a Cabiric or even Pa- 
phian character, we leave under the Veil, which ap- 
propriately stretches itself ** along the pillars of the 
* Mercier, iv. 127-146. 


aisles,"— not to be lifted aside by the band of 

1694. But there is one thing we should like almost 
better to understand than any other ; what lieason 
herself thought of it, all the while. What articulate 
words poor Mrs. Momoro, for example, uttered ; when 
she had become ungoddessed again, and the Bibliopo- 
list and she sat quiet at home, at supper ? For he 
was an earnest man, Books^er Momoro ; and had 
notions of Agrarian Law, Mrs. Momoro, it is ad- 
mitted, made one of the best Goddesses of Reason ; 
though her teeth were a little defective. — And now 
if the Reader will represent to himself that such 
visible Adoration of Reason went on " all over the 
Republic," through these November and December 
weeks, till the Church wood-work was burnt out, and 
the business otherwise completed, he will perhaps 
feel sufficiently what an adoring Republic itwas,pnd 
without reluctance quit this part of the subject. 

1696. Such gifts of Church-spoil are chiefly the 
work of the Arm^e Revolutiounaire ; raised, as we 
said, some time ago. It is an army with portable 
guillotine; commanded by Playwright Ronsin in 
terrible mustachioes ; and even by some uncertain 
shadow of Usher Maillard. the old Bastille Hero, 
Leader of the Menads, September Man in Gray! 
Clerk Vincent of the War- Office, one of Pache's old 
Clerks, ** with a head heated by the ancient orators," 
had a main hand in the appointments, at least in the 

1696. But of the marchings and retreatings of these 

6,000 no Xenophon exists. Nothing, but an inarticu- 


late hnm, of cnrsing and sooty^ tteoxj, sturviYiog dn^ 
bieus in the memory of ages ! Tliey sconr the coun- 
try round Paris ; seeking Prisoners ; raising Koquisi? 
tions; seeing that Edicts are executed, that the 
Farmers have thrashed sufficiently ; lowering Church- 
bells or metallic Virgins. Detachments shoot forth 
dim, toward remcte parts of France ; nay ne^e Pro- 
Tincial Revolutionary Armies rise dim, here and 
there, as Carrier's Company of Marat, as Tallien's 
Bourdeaux Troop ; like sympathetic clouds in an at- 
mosphere all electric. Ronsin, they say, admitted) 
in candid moments, that his troops were the elixir 
of the Rascality of the Earth. One sees them drawn 
up in market-places ; travel-splashed, rough-bearded, 
in carmagnole complete ; the first exploit^is to pros- 
trate what Royal or Ecclesiastical monument, cruci- 
fix or the like, there may be : to plant a cannon at 
the steeple ; fetch down the bell without climbing 
for it, bell and belfry together. This, however, it is 
said, depends somewhat on the size of the town; if 
the town contains much population, and these per- 
haps of a dubious choleric aspect, the Revolutionary 
Army will do its work gently, by ladder and wrench ; 
nay perhaps will take its billet without work at all ; 
and, refreshing itself with a little liquor and sleep, 
pass on to the next stage.* Pipe in cheek, saber on 
thigh ; in Carmagnole complete ! 

1697. Such things have been ; and may again be. 
Charles Second sent out his Highland Host over the 
Western Scotch Whigs : Jamaica Planters got Dogs 
from the Spanish Main to hunt their Maroons with : 

• ♦* Deux Amis/* xii. 62-66. 


France too is bescoured with a DeviFs Pack, the 
baying of which, at this distance of half a century, 
still sonnds in the mind's ear. 



1698. Bat the grand and indeed substantially pri- 
mary and generic aspect of the Consummation of 
Terror remains still to be looked at ; nay blinkard 
History has for most part all but ot7erlooked this as- 
pect, the soul of the whole ; that which makes it ter- 
rible to the Enemies of France. Let Despotism and 
Cimmerian Coalitions consider. All French men and 
French things are in a State of Requisition ; Four- 
teen Armies are got on foot ; Patriotism, with all 
that it has of faculty in heart or in head, in soul or 
body or breeches-pocket, is rushing to the Frontiers, 
to prevail or die: Busy sits Camot, in Salut Public , 
busy, for his share, in " organizing victory." Not 
swifter pulses that Guillotine, in dread systole-dias- 
tole in the Place de la Revolution, than smites the 
Sword of Patriotism, smiting Ciinmeria back to its 
own borders, from the sacred soil. 

1699. In fact, the Government is what we can call 
Revolutionary ; and some men are " ^ la hauteur," on 
a level with the circumstances ; and others are not 
k la hauteur, — so much the worse for them. But the 
Anarchy, we may say, has organized itself: Society is 
literally overset ; its old forces working with mad 
activity, but in the inverse order ; destructive and 


1700. Curious to see how all still refers itself to 
some head and fountain ; not even an Anarchy but 
must have a center to revolve round. It is now some 
six months since the Committee of Salut Public 
came into existence ; some three months since Dan- 
ton proposed that all power should be given it, and 
" a sum of 50,000,000," and the " Government be de- 
clared Hcvolutionary." He himself, since that day, 
would take no hand in It, though again and again 
solicited ; but sits private in his place on the Mount- 
ain. Since that day, the Kine, or if they should 
even rise to Twelve, have become permanent, always 
re-elected when their term runs out ; Salut Public, 
Si^ret^ G^n^rale have assumed their ulterior for^i 
and mode of operating. 

1701. Committee of Public Salvation, aa supreme $ 
of General Surety, as subaltern : these, like a Lesser 
and Greater Council, most harmonious hitherto, havia 
become the center of all things. They ride this 
Whirlwind ; they, raised by force of circumstances> 
insensibly, very strangely, thither to that dread 
height ;— and guide it, and seem to guide it. Stran- 
ger set of Cloud-Compellers the Earth never saw. 
A Eobespierre, a Billaud, a CoUot, Couthon, Saint* 
Just ; not to mention still meaner Amars, Yadiers, in 
SArete Generale : these are your Cloud-Compellers. 
Small intellectual talent is necessary : indeed where 
among them, except in the head of Carnot, busied 
organizing victory, would you find any ? The talent 
is one of instinct rather. It is that of divining aright 
what this great dumb Whirlwind wishes and wills ; 
that of willing, with more frenzy than any one, what 


all ^6 wofld wiUs. To stand at no obstacles , to 
heed no considerations, hnmaB or divine ; to know 
well that, of divine or human, there is one thing 
needful, Triumph of the Republic, Destruction 
of th^ Enemies of the Republic! With this one 
spiritual endowment, and so few others, it is strange 
to see how a dumb inarticulately storming Whirl- 
wind of things puts, as it were, its reins into your 
hand, and invites and compels you to be leader of 

1702. Hard by sits a Municipality of Paris ; all in 
red night-caps since the 4th of November last ; a set 
of men fully ** on a level with circumstances," or 
even beyond it. Sleel;: Mayor Pache, studious to be 
safe in the middle; Chaumettes, Huberts, Varlets, 
and Henriot their great Commandant ; not to speak 
of Vincent the War-clerk, of Momoros, Dobsents and 
9uch-like : all intent to have Churches plundered, to 
have ReaBon adored, Suspects cut down, and the 
Revolution triumph. Perhaps carrying the matter 
too far ? Danton was heard to grumble at the civic 
strophes; and to recommend prose and decency. 
Robespierre also grumbles that, in overturning Super- 
stition, we did not mean to make a religion of Athe- 
ism. In fact, your Chaumette and Company consti- 
tute a kind of Hyper-Jacobinism, or rabid " FactioQ 
des Enrages;" which has given orthodox Patriotism 
some umbrage, of late months. To "know a Sus- 
pect on the streets ;" what is this but bringing the 
Law of the Suspect itself into ill odor? Men haU-fian- 
tic, men zealous over-much, — they toil there, in their 


red night-caps, restlessly, rapidly, accomplishing 
■what of Life is allotted them. 

1703. And the 44,000 other Townships, each with 
Revolutionary Committee, based on Jacobin Daugh- 
ter Society ; enlightened by the spirit of Jacobin- 
ism ; quickened by the Forty Sous a day ! — The 
French Constitution spurned always at anything like 
Two Chambers ; and yet, behold, has it not verily 
got Two Chambers ? National Convention, elected, 
for one; Mother of Patriotism, self-elected, for an- 
other ! Mother of Patriotism has her Debates re- 
ported in the Moniteur, as important state-proced- 
ures ; which indisputably they are. A Second Cham- 
ber of Legislature we call this Mother Society; — if 
perhaps it were not rather comparable to that old 
Scotch Body named Lords of the Articles^ without 
whose origination, and signal given, the so-called 
Parliament could introduce no bill, could do no 
work ? Robespierre himself, whose Avords are a law, 
opens his incorruptible lips copiously in the Jacob- 
ins Hall. Smaller Council of Salut Public, Greater 
Council of S Arete G(?n^rale, all active Parties, come 
here to plead ; to shape beforehand what decision 
they must arrive at, what destiny they have to ex- 
pect. Now if a question arose, "Which of those Two 
Chambers, Convention, or Lords of the Articles, was 
the stronger ? Happily they as yet gx> hand in hand. 

1704. As for the National Convention, truly it has 
become a most composed Body. Quenched now the 
old effervescence ; the Seventy-three locked in ward ; 
once noisy Friends of the Girondins sunk all into 
silent men of the Plain, called even " Frogs of the 


Marsh (Crapauds du Marais)!" Addresses come; 
Revolutionary Church-plunder comes; Deputations, 
■with prose or strophes: these the Convention re- 
ceives. But beyond this, the Convention has one 
thing mainly to do : to listen what Salut Public pro- 
poses, and say, Yea. 

1705. Bazire followed by Chabot, with some im- 
petuosity, declared, one morning, that this was not 
the way of a Free Assembly. " There ought to be 
an Opposition side, a Cote Droit," cried Chabot ; " if 
none else will form it, I will. People say to me, 
You will all get guillotined in your turn, first you 
and Bazire, then Danton,then Robespierre himself "* 
So spake the Disfrocked, with a loud voice: next 
week, Bazire and he lie in the Abbaye ; wending, 
one may fear, toward Tinville and the Axe; and 
" people say to me " — what seems to be proving true ! 
Bazire's blood was all inflamed with Revolution 
Fever ; with coffee and spasmodic dreams.f Chabot, 
again, how happy with his rich Jew-Austrian wife, 
late Fraulein Frey ! But he lies in Prison ; and his 
two Jew-Austrian Brothers-in-Law, the Bankers 
Frey, lie with him ; w^aiting the urn of doom. Let 
a National Convention, therefore, take warning, and 
know its function. Let the Convention, all as one 
man. set its shoulder to the work ; not with bursts 
of Parliamentary eloqiience, but in quite other and 
serviceabler ways ! 

1706. Convention Commissioners, what we ought 
to call Representatives, "Repr^sentans on mission/' 

* Debate, du 10 Novembre, 179a 

t " Dictionnaire des Hommes Marquans/* L 11& 


fty, like the Herald Merotity, to all poonts of the 
Territory ; canying your behests far aad wide, la 
their ''round hat, planled with trioolor feath«», girt 
with flowing tricolor taffeta ; in close frock, tricolor 
sash, sword and jack-boots," these men are power- 
fuler than King or Kaiser. They say to whomso 
they meet, Do ; and he most do it: all mefii^s goods 
are at their disposal ; for France is as one huge City 
in Siege. They smite with Requisitions jind Forced- 
loan ; they have the power of life and deaith. Saint- 
Just and Lebas order the rich classes of Strasbnrg to 
''strip off their shoes" and send them to the Armies, 
where as many as "10,000 pairs" are needed. Also, 
that within four-and-twenty hours **a thousand beds" 
be got ready ;* wrapped in matting, and sent under 
way. For the time presses ! — Like swift bolts^ issu- 
ine: from the fuliginous Olympus of Salut Publie, 
rush these men, oftenest in pairs; scatter your 
thunder-orders over France ; make France one eno^ 
mous Revolutionary thunder-cloud. 



1707. Accordingly, alongside of these bonfires of 
Church-balustrades, and sounds of fusillading and 
noyading, there rise quite another sort of fires and 
sounds ; Smithy-fires and Proof- vol leys for the man- 
ufacture of arms. 

1708. Out off from Sweden and the world, the Re- 
public must learn to make steel for itself; and, by 

* Moniteur du S7 Novembre^ 179d. 

1 aid of Oliemists, slie 1;^ leacpt it T^wii^ that 

1 knew only iron, now kitQW eteel: from their new 

; dungeonB at Cbantiilx, Aristocrats may liear the 

I rnaUe ol' oar new steel iurnace ther^. Bo not bells 

i transmute themselyes into eannon; iroi^ stanoheons 

/ into the white- weapon (arme blanche), by sword-cut* 

lery? The wheels of Langres scream, amid their 
sputtering £re-halo; grii^ding mere swords. The 
stithies oX CharleviUe ring with gun- making. What 
say we, Charleyille? Two hundred and fifty-eight 
Forges stand in the open spaces of Paris itself; a 
hundred and forty of them in the Esplanade of the 
Invalides. fiftyfour in the Lu3pembourg Garden : so 
many Forges stand ; grim Smith.<3 beating and forg* 
ing at lock and barrel there. The Clock-makers havo 
come, requisitioned, to do the touch-holes, the hard- 
solder and file- work. Five great Barges swing at 
anchor on the Seine Stream, loud with boring ; the 
great press-drills grating harsh thunder to the gener? 
al ear and heart. And deft Stock-makers do gouge 
and rasp ; and all men bestir themselves, according 
to their cunning :— in the language- of hope, it is 
reckoned that "a thousand finished muskets can be 
delivered daily.*** Chemists of the Republic have 
taught us miracles of swift tanning :t the cordwainer 
bores and stitches ; — tutt of ^'wood and pasteboard,'' 
or he shall answer it to Tinville ! The women sew 
tents and coats, the children scrape surgeonVlint, 
the old miksn sit in the market-places ; able men are 
on march ; all men in requisition : from town to 

 ''Choix des Rapports,*' xiil. 189. 
t Ibid, XV. aOO. 


town flutters, on the Heaven's winds, this Banner, 
The Feench People eisen against Tybakts. . 

1709 All which is well. But now arises the ques- 
tion • What is to be done for saltpeter ? Interrupted 
CJommerce and the English Navy shut us out from salt- 
peter ; and without saltpeter there is no gunpowder, 
Republican Science again sits meditative ; discovers 
that saltpeter exists here and there, though in atten- 
uated quantity ; that old plaster of walls holds a 
sprinkling of it;— that the earth of the Paris Cellars 
holds a sprinkling of it, diffused through the com- 
mon rubbish ; that were these dug up and washed 
saltpeter might be had. Whereupon, swiftly, see ! 
the Citoyens, with up-shoved bonnet rouge, or with 
doffed bonnet, and hair toil-wetted ; digging fiercely, 
each in his own cellar, for saltpeter. The Earth-heap 
rises at every door ; the Citoyennes with hod and 
bucket carrying it up ; the Citoyens, pith in every 
muscle, shoveling and digging, for life and saltr 
peter. Dig, my braves; and vifrht well speed ye! 
What of saltpeter is essential the Republic shall 
not want. 

1710. Consummation of Sansculottism has many 
aspects and tints : but the brightest tint, really of a 
solar or stellar brightness, is this which the Armies 
give it. That same fervor of Jacobinism, which in- 
ternally fills France with hatreds, suspicions, scaffolds 
and Reason worship, does, on the Frontiers, show it- 
self as a glorious Pro patria mori. Ever since Du* 
mouriez's defection, three Convention Representa- 
tives attend every General. Committee of 3alut has 
sent them : often with this Laconic order only : "Do 

thy duty (Fais ton devoir)." It is strange, nndet 
what impediments the ^e of Jacobinism, like other 
such fires. Will bum. These Soldiers have shoes of 
wood and pasteboard, or go booted in hay-ropes in 
dead of winter; they skewer a bast mat round their 
shoulders, and are destitute of most things. 
What then? It is for Rights of Frenchhood, of 
Manhood, that they fight; the unquenchable spiritf 
here afi elsewhere, works miracles. "With steel and 
bread," says the Convention Representative, "one 
may get to China." The Generals f[o fiist to the 
guillotine 5 justly and unjustly. From which what 
inference ? This, among others : That ill success is 
death ; that in victory alone is life ! To conquer ojf 
die is no theatrical palabra, in these circumstances^ 
but a practical truth and necessity. All Girondin-* 
ism, Halfness, Compromise is swept away. Forward 
ye Soldiers of the Republic, captain and man ! Dash^ 
with your Gaelic impetuosity, on Austria, England, 
Prussia, Spain, Sardinia; Pitt, Cobourg, York, and 
the Devil, and the world I Behind us is but the 
Guillotine; before us is Victory, Apotheosis and 
Millennium without end I 

1711. See, accordingly, on all Frontiers, how the 
Sons of Night, astonished after short triumph do re- 
coil ; — the Sons of the Republic flying at them, with 
wild Ca-ira or Marseillese Aux armes, with the tem- 
per of cat-o'-mountain or demon incarnate; which 
no Son of Night can stand! Spain, which came 
bursting through the Pyrenees, rustling with Bour- 
bon banners, and went conquering here and there for 
a season, falters at such cat-o'-mountain welcome ; 


dtaW* itself in a^siifl . too happy writr were flie Pyf e* 
tiees impassable. Not only does Diigomi&ier) eon* 
querot of Toulotx, drive Spain back} he invft^es 
Bpain. Genefal Dngommier invades it by tlae Bfwt^ 
em Pyrenees; General Miillei shall invade it by 
the Western. Shall^ that is the word . Committee of 
l^alnt Public has said it; Representative CavaignaCf 
On mission there, mnst see it done. Impossible ! cric^ 
MiilW.— Infallible! answers Cavaignac Difficalty, 
impossibility. Is to no ptirpose. " The Committee is 
deaf on that side of its h<»df'' answers Cavaignao, 
" n'entend pas de oette Ofreille li. How many wont* 
est thou of men, of horses, cannons f Thon slttdt 
have them. Conquerors, cOnqnered, or hanged, for- 
ward we must.'* * Which things also» even as the 
Repre^ntative spake them, were done. The Spring 
of the new Year sees Spain invaded and redonbts 
are carried, and Passes and Heights of the most 
scarped description: Spanish field-offlcerism stmek 
mute at snch cat-o'-mountain spirit, the cannon fbr- 
getting to fire.t Swept are the Pyr«iees$ Town 
after Town flies open, burst by terror or the petard. 
In the course of another year, Spain will crave 
Peace; acknowledge its sins and the Republic ; nay, 
in Madrid, there will be joy as for a victory, that 
even Peace is got. 
1712. Few things, we repeat, can be notabler than 

• There is, ia »• Prudhomme/' an atrbcity a la Captain 
Kirk reported of tbls Cavaijrnac. which has been copied 
into Dictionaries of ••Hommes Marquans." of •* Bioflr- 
raphie Universelie," etc. . wtaicn not only baa no truth in 
It, but, much more singular, is still capable of beinir 
proved to have none. 

t "Deux Amis,' ziii. 8d&-230; T^ulOnnebn^ ete. - 

no TBT Durr, . 46i 

these Convention Representfttivefl, with their power 
more ihsai kingly. Nay at bottom aie they not 
Kings, Able-meUy of a sort: chosen fV'oni the 749 
French ^ngs ; with this order, Do thy duty ? Rep* 
resentative Levassear, of small stature, by trade a 
mere pacific 8urgeon-Acconchear, has mutinies to 
quell ; mad hosts (mad at the Doom of Onstine) bel^ 
lowing for and wide ; he alone amid them^ the one 
small Kepresentative,>~smedl, but as hard as flint, 
which also carries ^€ in it ! So too, at Hondschoot^ 
en, fax in the afternoon, he declares that the Battle 
is not lost; that it must be gained ; and fights, hlm*> 
self, with his own obstetric hand ;-*horse shot under 
him, or say on foot, " up to the haunches* m tide- 
water ;" cutting stoceado and passado there, in defi« 
ance of Water, Earth, Air and Fire, the choleric lit- 
tle Hepiesentative that he was ! Whereby, as natu- 
ral. Royal Highness of York had to withdraw, — oe* 
casionally at full gallop; like to be swallowed by 
the tide; and his Siege of Dunkirk became a dream^ 
realizing only much loss of beautiful siege-artillery 
and of brave lives.* 

1713. General Houchard, it would appear, stood 
behind a hedge on this Honctechootea occasion; 
wherefore they have since guillotined him. A new 
General Jourdan, late Sergeant Jourdan, commands 
in his stead ; he, in long-Yrinded battles of Watigny, 
" murderous artillery-fire mingling itself with sound 
of Revolutionary battle-hymns," forces Austria be- 
hind the Sambre again ; has hopes of purging the 
soil of Liberty. With hard wrestling, with artillery- 

* Levasgoar, '*H^BoireS,^' fl o.S-7. 


ing and ja-ira-ing, it shall l)e done. In the c6tit«e 
of a new Summer. Valenciennes will see itself be- 
leaguered i Cond6 beleaguered : whatsoever is yet in 
the hands of Austria beleaguered and bombarded: 
nay, by Convention Decree, we even summon them 
all " either to surrender in twenty-four hours, or else 
be put to the sword ;"— a high saying, which, though 
it remains unfulfilled, may show what spirit one 
is of. 

1714. Representative Drouet, as an Old-dragoon, 
could fight by a kind of second nature; but he was 
unlucky. Him, in a night-foray at Maubeuge, the 
Austrians took alive,^ in October last. They stripped 
him almost naked, he says ; making a show of him 
as King-taker of Varennes. They flung him into 
carts; sent him far into the interior of Cimmeria, to 
" a Fortress called Spitzberg " on the Danube River ; 
and left him there at an elevation of perhaps 150 
feet, to his own bitter reflections. Reflections; and 
also devices! For the indomitable Old-dragoon con- 
structs wing-machmery, of Paper kite ; saws window- 
bars ; determines to fly down. He will seize a boat, 
will follow the River's course; land somewhere in 
Crim Tartary, in the Black Sea or Constantinople 
region; d, la Sindbad! Authentic History, accord- 
Ingly, looking far into Cimmeria, discerns dimly a 
phenomenon. In the dead night-watches, the Spitz- 
berg sentry is near fainting with terror ; Is it a huge 
vague Portent descending through the night-air? It 
is a huge National Representative Old-dragoon, de- 
scending by Paper-kite; too rapidly, alas! For 
Drouet had taken with him " a small provision-stor^ 

DO THY DUTY, 463* 

twenty pounds weight or thereby ;" which proved 
accelerative ; so he fell, iractnring his leg ; and lay 
theie, moaning, till day dawned, till yon could dis- 
cern clearly that he was not a Portent but a Hepre- 

1715. Or see Saint-Just, in the Lines of Weissem- 
bourg, though physically of a timid apprehensive 
nature, hOw he charges with Ihs " Alsatian Peasants 
armed hastily " for the nonce ; the solemn face of 
him blazing into flame ; his black hair and tricolor 
hat-taffeta flowing in the breeze ! These our Lines 
of Weissembourg were indeed forced, and Prussia and 
the Emigrants rolled through : but we re-force the 
Lines of Weissembourg ; and Prussia and the Emi- 
grants roll back again still faster, — hurled with bay- 
onet-charges and fiery ga-ira ing. 

1716. Ci-devant Sergeant Pichegru, ci-devant Ser- 
geant Hoche, risen now to be Generals, have done • 
wonders here. Tall Pichegru was meant for the 
Church ; was Teacher of Mathematics once, in Brienne 
School, — his remarkablest Pupil there was the Boy 
Napoleon Bonaparte. He then, not in the sweetest 
humor, enlisted, exchanging ferula for musket ; and 
had got the length of the halberd, beyond which 
nothing could be hoped ; when the Bastille bamers 
falling made passage for him, and he is here. Hoche 
bore a hand at the literal overturn of the Bastille ; 
he was, as we saw, a Sergeant of the Gardes Fran- 
daises, spending his pay in rush-lights and cheap edi- 
tions of books. How the Mountains are burst, and 
many an Enceladus is disimprisoned ; and Captains 

• His narrative (In "Deux Amis," xiv. 1T7-186). 




founding on Four parchments of Nobility are blown 
with their parchments across the Ehine, into Lnnar 
Limbo ! 

1717. What high ^at« of an^^t therefore, were 
done in these Fourteen Armies ; and how, for love 
of Liberty and hope of Promotion, low-born valor 
cuts its desperate way to Generalship ; and, from the 
central Carnot in Salut Public to the outmost drum- 
mer on the Frontiers, men strove for their Eepublic, 
let Readers fancy. The snows of Winter, the flowers 
of Summer continue to be stained with warlike 
blood. Gaelic impetuosity mounts ever higher with 
victory ; spirit of Jacobinism weds itself to national 
vanity : the Soldiers of the Republic are becoming, 
as we prophesied, veiy Sons of Fire. Barefooted, 
barebacked : but with bread and iron you can get to 
China ! It is one Nation against the whole world ; 
but the Nation has that within her which the whole 
world will not conquer. Cimmeria, astonished, re- 
coils faster or slower : all round the Republic there 
rises fiery, as it were, a magic ring of musket-volley- 
ing and 9a-ira-ing. Majesty of Prussia, as Majesty 
of Spain, will by and by acknowledge his sins and 
the Republic ; and makes, a Peace of £41e. 

1718. Foreign Commerce, Colonies, Factories in 
the East and in the West, are fallen or falling into 
the hands of sea-ruling Pitt, enemy of human nature. 
Nevertheless what sound is this that we hear, on the 
first of June, 1794; sound aa of war- thunder borne 
from the Ocean too, of tone most piercing ? War- 
thunder from off the Brest waters; Villaret-Joyeuse 
and Euglish Howe, after long maneuvering, have 


ranked themselTes there; and are belching fire. 
The enemies of human nature are on their own ele- 
ment ; eannot be conquered ; cannot be ^e^t i^om 
conquering. Twelve hours of raging cannonade; sun 
now sinking westward through the battle-smoke: 
six French Bhips takeU) the Battle lost ; what Ship 
soever can still sail, making ofif ! But how is it, then^ 
with that Vengeur Ship, she neither strikes nor makes 
off? She is lamed, she cannot make off; strike she 
will not. Fire rakes her fore and aft from victorious 
enemies; the Vengeur is sinking. Strong are ye* 
Tyrants of the sea ; yet we also, are we weak ? Lo f 
all flags, streamers, jacks, every rag of tricolor that 
will yet run on rope, fly rustling aloft : the whole 
crew crowds to the upper deck; and with universal, 
soul-maddening yell, shouts Vive la E^publique, — 
sinking, sinking. She staggers, she lurches, her last 
drunk whirl ; Ocean yawns abysmal ; down rushes 
the Vengeur, carrying Vive la E^publique along with 
her, unconquerable, into Eternity.* Let foreign 
Despots think of that. There is an Unconquerable 
in man, when he stands on his Bights of Man : let 
Despots and Slaves and all people know this, and 
only them that stand on the Wrongs of Man tremble 
to know it. — So has History written, nothing doubt- 
ing, of the sunk Vengeur, 

1719. Reader! Mendez Pinto, Mtinchausen, 

Cagliostro, psalmanazar have been great ; but they 
are not the greatest, O Barr^re, Barr^re, Anacreon 
of the Guillotine ! must inquisitive pictorial History* 

* Compare Barr6re ("CUoix des Rapports," xvl. 416* 
421); Lord Howe (•* Annual Rearister " of ]7d4, p. 86), etc. 


in a new edition,'ask again, ^ How t'« it witli tbe Fen- 
ffeuTy^^ in this its glorions suicidal sinking; and, witb. 
resentftil brush, dash a bend-sinister of con^melious 
lamp-black through thee and it ? Alas, alas ! The 
Vevigeur, after fighting bravely, did sink altogether 
as other ships do, her captain and above 200 of her 
crew escaping gladly in British boats ; and this same 
enormous inspiring Feat, and rumor ^^ of sound most 
piercing,'' turns out to be an enormous inspiring 
Nonentity, extant nowhere save, as &Isehood, in the 
brain of Barr^el Actually so.^ Founded, like the 
World itself, on Nothing ; proved by Convention Re- 
port,- by solemn Convention Decree and Decrees, and 
wooden ^^ Model of the Vengeur;^^ believed, bewept, 
besnng by the whole French People to this hour, it 
may be regarded as Bari^re's masterpiece ; the largest, 
most inspiring piece of blague manufJEKitured, for 
some centuries, by any man or nation. As such^ and 
not otherwise, be it henceforth memorable. : 



1720. In this manner, mad-blazing with flame of 
all imaginable tints, from the red of Tophet to the 
stellar-bright, blazes off this Consummation of 

But the hundredth part of the things that were 
done, and the thousandth part of the things that 
were projected and decreed to be done, would tire 

* Carlyle*8 ** Mlsceliaoies," 8 Sinking of. the Venomr. 

the tongue of History. Statue of the Peuple Souve^ 
rain, high as Strasbuirg Steeple ; which shall fling itft 
shadow from the Pont Neuf over Jardin National 
and Convention Hall ;— enormous, in Painter Bavid's 
Head! With other the like enormous Statues not a 
few: realized in paper Decree. For, indeed, the 
Statue of Liberty herself is still hut Plaster, in the 
Place de la H^volution. Then Equalization of 
Weights and Measures, with decimal division ; In* 
stitutions, of Music and much else; Institute in 
general ; School of Arts, School of Mars, El^ves de 
la Patrie, Normal Schools: amid such Gun-boring, 
Altar-bnming, Saltpeter-digging, and miraculous im- 
provements in Tannery ! 

1721. What, for example, is this that Engineer 
Chappe is doing, in the Park of Tincennes? In the 
Park of Vincennes ; and onward, they say. in the 
Park of Lepelletier Saint'Fargeau the assassinated 
Deputy ; and still onward to the Heights of Ecouen 
and farther, he has scaffolding set up, has post* 
driven in ; wooden arms with elbow-joints are jerk- 
ing and fugling in the air, in the most rapid mys- 
terious manner ! Citoyens ran up, suspicious. Yes- 
O Citoyens, we are signaling : it is a device this, 
worthy of the Republic ; a thing for what we will 
call Far-writing without the aid of post-bags; in 
Greek it shall be named Telegraph. — T61^graphi5 
sacr^! answers Citoyenism: For writing to Traitors, 
to Austria? — and tears it down. Chappe had to 
escape, and get a new Legislative Decree. Neverthe, 
less he has accomplished it, the indefatigable Chappe: 
this his Far-writer, with its wooden arms and elbow, 


jointSf can intelligibly signal $ and lines of them ard 
set up, to the North Frontiecs and elsewhither. On 
an Autunin evening of the Year Two, Far-writer hav- 
ing just written that Cond^ Town has surrendered t6 
us, we send from the Tuileries Convention-fiall this 
response in the shape of Decree; *'The name of 
Cond^ U changed to Nord-Libre (North-Free). The 
Army of the North cea'jes not to merit well of the 
country : "—To the admiration of men I For lo, in 
some half hour, while the Convention yet debates, 
there arrives this new answer : " I inform thee ( Je 
t'annonce), Citisen President, that the Decree of 
Convention, ordering change of the name Cond6 into 
North-Free ; and the other, declaring^ that the Army 
of the North ceases not to merit well of the country ; 
are transmitted and acknowledged by Telegraph. I 
have instructed my Officer, at Lille to forward them 
to North-Free by express. Signed^ Chafpe*"* 

1732. Or see, over Fleurus in the Netherlands, 
where General Jourdan, having now swept the soil of 
Liberty, and advanced thus far, is just about to fight 
and sweep or be swept, hangs there not in the Heaven's 
Vault some Prodigy, seen by Austrian t^e^ and spy- 
glasses I in the similitude of an enormous Wind-bag, 
with netting and enormous Saucer depending from 
it ? A Jove*s Balance, O ye Austrian spy-glasses ? 
One saucer^cale of a Jove^s Balance ; your poor Aus- 
trian scale having kicked itself quite aloft, out of 
sight? By Heaven, answer the spy-glasses, it is a 
Montgolfier, a Balloon, and they are making signals ! 


Austrian cannon-battery barks at this Montgolfier ; 
* '^Choixdes Rapports, xv S7S-384. 


hiitinlesB as ti>% at the Moon ; the MoBteotfief n 
its signals ; detects whAt AnslriaB aliibtusc«de 
may be, and descBnda at its e«fl«.*— What wil 
tfaeae devils iamrnate contrive ? 

1733, On the vihole, is it not, O Be«dec, one o 
atrangest Flame-Fictores that ever painted i 
flamiag off there, on its ground of Onitlottne-b 
And the nightly TheatreBareTireitty-three; an 
Salons de daaee are Sitty ; fiillof mere Egalit^ 
-teniitf and Carmagnolo, And SeetioB Conm 
' xOoms are FoTty-eiglit ; redolent of tobacco 
brandy ; Vigorous with twenty-pence flrdfty, col 
the Snapeet. And the Honses of Arrest are Ti 
for Paria alone ; croffited ^d even crammed, 
at all tnCna, yon need your " Certificate of Civi 
he it for going out, or for coming in ; nay with 
yon cannot, for money, get yoar daily onncesofl 
Daaky red-capped Bakers'- quenea; wagging 
selves; not in Bilcnca! Fox we still live by! 
mom, in all things ; waited on by theee two, 
city and Confusion. The faces Of men are dar 
with snapicion ; with snapecting, or being Bn 
Tlie streets lie niwwept; the ways nnmended. 
hflsshnt her Books; ipeaks little, save impro 
throngh the throat ofTinville. Crimes go n 
ished ; not crimes against the Bevolation.t 
number of foundUng ehildren," meome eompn 
1724. How silent now sits Royalism ; sits all 

• 2eth June. ITOt (Bee " Rapnortde RuytoTi-Mom 
lea AerOBtats.  In Montteur du 6 Vendemlalre, An. 
» Meroler. v. R; " Deux Amis til. IB-.M. 


tocratism ; Hespectabllity that kept its Gig ! . The 
honor now, and the safety, is to Poverty^ not to 
Wealth. Your Citizen, who would be fashionable^ 
walks abroad, with his Wife on his arm, in red-wool 
night-cap, black-shag spencer, and carmagnole com- 
plete. Aristocratism crouches low, in what shelter 
is. still left; submitting to all requisitions, vexations} 
too happy to escape with life. Ghastly ch|iteau» 
stare on you by the wayside ; disroofed, diswindowed; . 
which the National House-broker is peeling for the 
lead and ashlar. The old tenants hover disconsolate, 
over the Rhine with Cond6 ; a spectacle to men* Ci* 
devant Seigneur, exquisite in palate, will become an 
exquisite Restaurateur Cook in Hamburg; Ci-devant 
Madame, exquisite in dress, a successful Marchande 
des Modes in London* In Newgate-Street, you me^ 
M. le Marquis, with a rough deal on his shoulder, 
adze and jack-plane under arm ; he has taken to the 
joiner trade ; it being necessary to live (faut vivre).* 
— Higher than all Frenchmen the domestic Stock- 
jobber flourishes, — in a day of Paper-money. The 
Farmer also flourishes : " Farmers' houses," says Mer- 
cier, " have become like Pawnbrokers' shops ; " all 
manner of furniture, apparel, vessels of gold and sil* 
ver accumulate themselves there : bread is precious. 
The Farmers' rent is Paper-money, and he alone of 
men has bread: Farmer is better than Landlord, and 
will himself become Landlord. 

1725. And daily, we say, like a black Specter, 
silently through that Life-tumult passes the Revo- 

* See "Deux Amis," XV. 189-193; "MemoiresdeGenlis,** 
*' Founders of the French Kepublio.** etc., etc. 


lution Cart; writing on the walls its Mene, Mene, 
fho\M art weighed y and found tvanting ! A Specter 
with which one has grown familiar. Men have ad- 
justed themselves: complaint issues not from that 
Death- tumhril. "Weak women and ci-devants, their 
plumage and finery all tarnished, sit there ; with a 
silent gaze, as if looking into the Infinite Black. 
The once light lip wears a curl of irony, uttering no 
word ; and the Tumhril fares along. They may he 
guilty hefore Heaven, or not ; they are guilty, we 
suppose, hefore the Revolution^ Then does not the 
Republic "coin money " of them, with its great axe? 
Red Nightz-caps howl dire approval : the rest of 
l*aris looks on ; if with a sigh, that is much : Fellow 
creatures whom sighing cannot help; whom black 
Necessity and Tinville have clutched. 

1726. One other thing, or rather two other things, 
we will still mention; and no more: The Blond 
Perukes; the Tannery at Meudon. Great talk is of 
these Perruques blondes : O Reader, they are made 
from the Heads of Guillotined women ! The locks 
of a Duchess, in this way, may come to cover the 
scalp of a Cordwainer ; her blonde German Frank- 
ism his black Gaelic poll, if it be bald. Or they 
may be worn affectionately as relics ; rendering one 
suspect ?* Citizens use them, not without mockery ; 
of a rather cannibal sort. 

1727. Still deeper into one's heart goes that Tan- 
nery at Meudon ; not mentioned among the other 
miracles of tanning ! " At Meudon," says Montgail- 
lard with considerable calmness, " there was a Tan- 

 Mercler;ii. 134. 


O^ry of Human Skins ; such of the GuiUotiue4 as 
aeemed worth flaying : of which perfectly good wash- 
leather was made ; " for breeches, and other uses. 
The skin of the men, he remarks, was superior in 
toughness {consistance) and quality to chamois ; that 
of the women was good for almost nothing, being so 
soft in texture ! * — History looking back over Canni^ 
balism, through " Purchas's Pilgrims," and all early 
and late Kecords, will perhaps find no terrestrial 
Cannibalism of a sort, on the whole, so detestable. 
It is a manufactured, soft-feeling, quietly elegant 
sort ; a sort perfide ! Alas, then, is man*s civiliza- 
tion only a wrappage, through which th^ savage na- 
ture of him can still burst, infernal as ever? Nature 
still makes him j and has an Infernal in her as well 
as a Celestial. 








1728. What, then, is this Thing called La B^volu- 
lion, which, like an Angel of Death, hangs over 
France, noyading, fusillading, fighting, gun-boring, 
tanning human skins? La Revolution is but so 
many Alphabetic Letters; a thing nowhere to be 
laid hands on, to be clapt under lock and key : 
where is it? what is it? It is the Madness that 
dwells in the hearts of men. In this man it is, and 
in that man ; as a rage or as a terror, it is in all men. 
Invisible, impalpable j and yet no black Azrael, with 
wings spread over half a continent, with sword 
sweeping from sea to sea, could be a truer Reality. 

1729. To explain, what is called explaining, the 
march of this Revolutionary Government, be no task 
of ours. Man cannot explain it. A paralytic Cou- 
thon, asking in the Jacobins, '' What hast thou done 
to be hanged if Counter-Re volution should arrive ? " 
a somber Saint-Just, not yet six-and-twenty, declar- 
ing that " for Revolutionists there is no rest but in 
the tomb ; '' a sea-green Robespierre converted into 


vinegar and gall; much more an Amar and Vadier. 
a Col lot and Billaad: to inquire what thoughts^ 
predetermination or prevision, might be in the head 
of these men ! Record of their thought remains not ; 
Death and Darkness have swept it out utterly. Nay, 
if we even had their thought, all that they could 
have articulately spoken to us, how insignificant a 
fraction were that of the Thing which realized itself, 
which decreed itself, on signal given by them ! As 
has been said more than once, this Revolutionary 
Government is not a self-conscious but a blind fatal 
one. Each man, enveloped in his ambient -atmos- 
phere of revolutionary fanatic Madness, rushes on, 
impelled and impelling; and has become a blind 
brute Force; no rest for him but in the grave!. 
Darkness and the mystery of horrid cruelty cover it 
for us, in History ; as they did in Nature. The cha- 
otic Thunder-cloud, with its pitchy black and its 
tumult of dazzling jagged fire, in a world all elec- 
tric: thou wilt not undertake to show how that 
comported itself, — what the secrets of the, dark 
womb were ; from what sources, with what special- 
ties, the lightning it held did, in confused brightness 
of terror, strike forth, destructive and self-destruct- 
ive, till it ended ? Like a Blackness naturally of 
Erebus, which by will of Providence had for once 
mouuted itself into dominion and the Azure : is not 
this properly the nature of Sansculottism consum- 
mating; itself ? Of which Erebus Blackness be it - 
enough to discern that this and the other dazzling 
fire-bolt, dazzling fire-torrent, does by small Volition 
and great Necessity, verily issue, — in such and such 


succession ; destrnctive so and so, self-destrnctive so 
^ndso: till it end. 

1730. Royalism is extinct ; " sunk," as they say, 
" in the mud of the Loire ; " Republicanism domi- 
nates without and within: what, therefore, on the 
15th day of March, 1794, is this ? Arrestment, sud- 
den really as a bolt out of the Blue, has hit strange 
victims; H<5bert Pere Duchesne, Bibliopolist Monio- 
r6. Clerk Vincent, General Konsin : high Cordelier 
Patriots, red-capped Magistrates of Paris, Worship- 
ers of Reason, Commanders of Revolutionary Army I 
Eight short days ago, their Cordelier Club was loud, 
and louder than ever, with Patriot denunciations. 
Hubert P^re Duchesne had " held his tongue and his 
heart these two months at sight of Moderates, 
Crypto- Aristocrats. Camilles, Sc^l^rats in the Con- 
vention itself: but could not do it any longer; 
would, if other remedy were not, invoke the sacred 
right of Insurrection." So spake Hubert in Cordelier 
Session; with vivats, till the roofs rang again.* 
Eight short days ago; and now already! They rub 
their eyes: it is no dream; they find themselves in 
the Luxembourg. Goose Gobel too ; and they that 
burnt Churches ! Chaumette himself, potent Procu- 
reur. Agent National, as they now call it, who could 
" recognize the Suspect by the very face of them," he 
lingers but three days ; on the third day he too is 
hurled in. Most chop-fallen, blue, enters the 
National Agent this Limbo whither he has sent so 
many. Prisoners crowd round, jibing and jeering ; 
" Sublime National Agent," says one, " in virtue of 

 Moniteur, du 17 Ventose (7th March), 179i. 

476 THERMWOn. 

thy immortal Proclamation, lo there! I am suspect, 
thou art suspect, he is suspect, we are suspect, ye are 
suspect, they are suspect ! " 

1731. The meaning of these things ? Meaning ! It 
is a Plot ; Plot of the most extensive ramifications ; 
which, however, Barr^re holds the threads of. Such 
Church-burning and scandalous masquerades of 
Atheism, fit to make the Revolution odious : where 
indeed could they originate but in the gold of Pitt I 
Pitt indubitably, as Preternatural Insight will teach 
one, did hire this Faction of Enrages, to play their 
fantastic tricks: to roar in their Cordeliers Club 
about Moderatism ; to print their P^re Duchesne : 
worship sky-blue Season in red night-cap; rob 
Altars, — and bring the spoil to ««/ 

1732. Still more indubitable, visible to the mere 
bodily sight, is this : that the Cordeliers Club sits 
pale with an^er and terror ; and has *' veiled the 
Rights of Man," — without eflect. Likew^ise that the 
Jacobins are in considerable confusion ; busy " purg- 
ing themselves (s'6purant)/- as in times of Plot and 
public Calamity they have repeatedly had to do. Not 
even Camille Desmoulius but has given ofiense: nay 
there have risen murmurs against Danton himself; 
though he bellowed them down, and Robespierre 
finished the matter by "embracing him in the 

1733. Whom shall the Republic and a jealous 
Mother Society trust ? In these times of temptation, 
of Preternatural Insight ! For there are Factions of 
the Stranger, " de V Stranger," Factions of Moderates, 
of Enraged i all manner of Factions: we walk in a 


world of Plota ; strings universally spread, of deadly 
gins and fall-traps, baited by the gold of Pitt! 
Clootz, Speaker of Mankind so-called, -with his "Evi- 
dences of Mohammedan Religion," and babble of 
Universal Republic, him an incorruptible Robes- 
pierre has purged away. Baron Clootz, and Paine 
rebellious Needleman lie, these two months, in the 
Luxembourg ; limbs of the Faction de 1' Stranger. 
Representative Ph(ilippeaux is purged out : he eame 
back from La Vendee with an ill report in his mouth 
against rogue Rossignol, and our method of warfare 
there. Recant it, O Ph^lippeaux, we entreat thee ! 
Phelippeaux will not recant; and is purged out. 
Representative Fabre d' Eglantine, famed nomen- 
clator of Romme's Calendar, is purged out ; nay, is 
cast into the Luxembourg: accused of Legislative 
Swindling " in regard to moneys of the India Com- 
pany." There with his Chabots, Bazires, guilty of 
the like, let Fabre wait his destiny. And West- 
ermann friend of Danton, he who led the Marseil- 
lese on the 10th of August, and fought well in La 
Vendee, but spoke not well of rogue Rossignol, is 
purged out. Lucky, if he too go not to the Luxem- 
bourg. And your Prolys, Guzmans, of the Faction 
of the Stranger, they have gone ; Pereyra, though he 
fled, is gone, " taken in the disguise of a Tavern 
Cook." I am suspect, thou art suspect, he is sus- 
pect ! — 

1734. The great heart of Danton is weary of it. 
Danton is gone to native Arcis,fora little breathing- 
time of peace : Away, black Arachne-webs, thou 
world of Fury, Terror and Suspicion; welcome, thou 


everlasting Mother, with thy spring greeniie^ thy 
kind household loves and memories ; true art then, 
were all else untrue ! The great Titan walks silent, 
by the banks of the murmuring Aube, in young 
native haunts that knew him when a boy ; wonders 
what the end of these things may be. 

1735. But strangest of all, Camille Desmoulins is 
purged out. Couthon gave as a test in regard to 
Jacobin purgation the question, ''What hast thou 
done to be hanged if Counter-Re vol utiou should ar- 
rive?" Yet Camille, who could so well answer this 
question, is purged out ! The truth is, Camille, early 
in December last, began publishing a new Journal, 
or Series of Pamphlets, entitled the Vieux Cordelier 
(Old Cordelier). Camille, not afraid at one time to 
" embrace Liberty on a heap of dead bodies," begins 
to ask now. Whether among so many arresting and 
punishing Committees, there ought not to be a 
" Committee of Mercy ?" Saint-Just, he observes, is 
an extremely solemn young Republican, who " car- 
ries his head as if it were a Saint-Sacrement," ador- 
able Hostie, or divine Real- Presence ! Sharply 
enough, this old Cordelier, — Danton and he were of 
the earliest primary Cordeliers, shoots his glittering 
war-shafts into your new Cordeliers ; — your Huberts, 
Momoros, with their brawling brutalities and des- 
picabilities ; say, as the Sun-god (for poor Camille is 
a Poet) shot into that Python Serpent sprung of 

1736. Whereat, ais was natural, the H^bertist Py- 
thon did hiss and writhe amazingly ; and threaten 
** sacred right of Insurrection ;"— and, as we saw, 


get cast Into Prison. Nay, with all the old wit, dex- 
terity and light graceful poignancy, Camille, trans- 
lating " out of Tacitus, from the Reign of Tiberius*" 
pricks into the Law of the Suspect itself; making it 
odious! Twice, in the Decade, his wild Leaves 
issue ; full of wit, nay, of humor, of harmonious in^ 
genuity and insight, — one of the strangest phenom- 
ena of that dark time ; and smite, in their wild- 
sparkling way, at vaiions monstrosities, Saint'Sacra- 
ment heads, and Jnggernaut idols, in a rather reck- 
less manner. To the great joy of Josephine Beau" 
harnais, and the other 5,000 and odd Suspect, who 
fill the Twelve Houses of Arrest ; on whom a ray of 
hope dawns ! Robespierre, at first approbatory, knew 
not at last what to think ; then thought, with his 
Jacobins that Camille must be expelled. A man of 
true Revolutionary spirit, this Camille; but with 
the unwisest sallies; whom Aristocrats and Moder- 
ates have the art to corrupt ! Jacobinism is in utter- 
most crisis and struggle ; enmeshed wholly in plots, 
corruptibilities ; neck-gins and baited fall-traps of 
Pitt ennemi du genre humain. Camille's First Num- 
ber begins with " O Pitt !"--his last is dated 15 Plu- 
viose, Year 2, 3d February, 1794; and ends with 
these words of Montezuma's, " Les dieux ont soif 
(The gods are athirst)." 

1737. Be this as it may, the H^bertistslie in Prison 
only some nine days. On the 24th of March, there- 
fore, the Revolution Tumbrils carry through that 
Life-tumult a new cargo: Hubert, Vincent, Mo- 
moro, Ronsin, Nineteen of them in all, with whom, 
curious enough, sits Clootz Speaker of Mankind. 


They have been massed 'swiftly into a Intidp, this 
miscellany of Nondescripts ; and travel now -Bieir 
last road. No help. They too must ** look through 
the little window;" they too " must sneeze into the 
sack," ^ternuer dans le sac : as they have done to 
others, so is it done to them. Sainte-Guillotine, 
meseems, is worse than the old Saints of Supersti- 
tion ; a man-devouring Saint? Clootz, still with an 
air of polished sarcasm, endekvors to jest, to offer 
cheering " arguments of Materialism :" he requested 
to be executed last, " in order to establish certain 
principles," — ^which hitherto, I think, Philosophy 
has got no good of. General Ronsin too, he fitiU 
looks forth with some air of defiance, eye of com- 
mand ; the rest are sunk in a stony paleness of de- 
spair. Momoro, poor Bibliopolist, no Agrarian Law 
yet realized, they might as well have hanged thee 
at Evreux, twenty months ago, when Girondin Buzot 
hindered them. Hubert Pdre Duchesne shall never 
in this world rise in sacred right of insurrection ; he 
sits there low enough, head sunk on breast ; Red 
Night-caps shouting round him, in frightml parody 
of his Newspaper Articles, " Grand choler of the 
P^re Duchesne !" Thus perish they : the sack re- 
ceives all their heads. Through some section of His- 
tory, Nineteen specter-chimeras shall flit, squeaking 
and gibbering ; till Oblivion swallow them. 

1738. In the course of a week, the Revolutionary 
Army itself is disbanded ; the General having be- 
come spectral. This Faction of Rabids, therefore, is 
also purged from the Republican soil ; here also the 
baited fall-traps of that Pitt have been wrenched up 


harmless j and anew there is joy over a Plot Discov- 
ered. The Kevolution, then, is verily devouring its 
own children ? All Anarchy, by the nature of it, is 
not only destructive but self-destructive. 



173d. Danton meanwhile has been pressingly sent 
for irom Arcis : he must return instantly, cried' Ca- 
mille, cried Phelippeaux and Friends, who scented 
danger in the wind. Danger enough ! A Danton, a 
Robespierre, chief products of a victorious Revolu- 
tion, are now arrived in immediate front of one an- 
other J must ascertain how they will live together, 
rule together. One conceives easily the deep mutual 
incompatibility that divided these two : with what 
terror of feminine hatred the poor sea-green For- 
mula looked at the monstrous colossal Reality, and 
grew greener to behold him; — the Reality, again 
struggling to think no ill of a chief-product of the 
Revolution; yet feeling at bottom that such chief- 
product was little other than a chief wind-bag, blown 
large by Popular air ; not a man, with the heart of a 
man, but a poor spasmodic incorruptible pedant, 
with a logic-formula instead of heart ; of Jesuit or 
Methodist-Parson nature ; full of sincere- cant, incor- 
ruptibility, of virulence, poltroonery ; barren as the 
east-wind ! Two such chief-products :are too much 
for one Revolution. 

1740. Friends, trembling at the results of a quar- 
rel on their part, brought them to meet. " It is 


right," said Danton, swallowing mnch indignation, 
^^to repress the Royalists: but we should not strike 
except where it is useful to the Republic; we should 
not confound the innocent and the guilty." — "And 
who told you," replied Robespierre with a poisonous 
look, "that one innocent person had perished?" — 
" Quoi," said Danton, turning round to Friend P4ris 
self-named Fabricius, juryman in the Revolutionary 
Tribunal' "Quoi, not one innocent? What sayest 
thou of it, Fabricius ?"* — Friends, Westermann; this 
P&ris and others urged him to show himself^ to 
ascend the Tribune and act. The man Danton was 
not prone to show himself; to act, or uproar for bis 
own safety. A man of careless, large, hoping nature ; 
a large nature that could rest: he would sit whole 
hours, they say, hearing Camille talk, and liked 
nothing so well. Friends urged him to fly; his 
Wife urged him: "Whither fly?" answered he: 
" if freed France cast me out, there are only dun- 
geons for me elsewhere. One carries not his countiy 
with him at the sole of his shoe !" The man Dantoh 
sat still. Not even the arrestment of Friend Hi^raulfc, 
a member of Salut, yet arrested by Salut, can rouse 
Danton.— On the night of the 30th of March Jury- 
man P^ris came rushing in; haste looking through 
his eyes : A clerk of the Salut Committee had told 
him Danton's warrant was made out, he is to be ar- 
rested this very night! Entreaties there are and 
trepidation, of poor Wife, of Pdris and Friends : Dan- 
ton sat silent for a while ; then answered, " lis n'ose- 
raient (They dare not) ;" and would take no meas- 
* '*Bio;7raphiedesMinlstre8/' § Danton. 


ures. Murmtiring " They dare not," he goes to sleep 
as Qsnal. 

1741. And yet, on the morrow nu>ming, strange 
rumor ^spreads over Paris City : Danton, Camille^ 
Ph^lipi)eaiix, Lacroix have been arrested over-night ! 
It is verily so : the corridors of the Luxembourg 
were all crowded, Prisoners crowding forth to see 
this giant of the Revolution enter among them. 
*' Messieurs," said Danton politely, " I hoped soon to 
have got you all out of this : but here I am myself; 
and one sees not where it will end." — Humor may 
spread over Paris : the Convention clusters itself into 
groups; wide-eyed, whispering '* Danton arrested!" 
Who, then, is safe ? Legendre, mounting the Trib- 
une, utters at his own peril, a feeble word for him ; 
moving that he be heard at that Bar before indict- 
ment ; but Robespierre frowns him down : " Did you 
hear Chabot or Bazire ? "Would you have two 
weights and measures ?" Legendre cowers low : Dan- 
ton, like the others, must take his doom. 

1742. Danton's Prison- thoughts were curious to 
have; but are not given in any quantity indeed 
few such remarkable men have been left so obscure to 
us as this Titan of the Revolution. He was heard to 
ejaculate: "This time twelvemonth, I was moving 
the creation of that same Revolutionary Tribunal. 
I crave pardon for it of God and man. They are all 
Brothers Cain ; Brissot would have had me guillo- 
tined as Robespierre now will. I leave the whole 
business in a frightfal welter (gdchis ^pouvantable) ; 
not one of them understands anything of govern- 
ment. Robespierre will follow me; I drag down 


Robespierre. 0, it w^re better to be a poor fisher- 
man than to meddle "with governing of men."— 
Camille's yonng beautiful Wife, who had made him 
rich not in money alone, hovers round the Luxem- 
bourg, like a disembodied spirit, day and night. 
Camille's stolen letters to her still exist; stained 
with the mark of his tears * " I carry my head like 
a Saint-Sacrament?" so Saint- Just was heard to mut- 
ter: " perhaps he will carrv his like a Saint-Denis." 

1743. Unhappy Danton, thou still unhappier light 
Camille, once light Procureur de la Lanterne, ye also 
have arrived, then, at the Bourn of Creation, where, 
like Ulysses Polytlas at the limit and utmost Cades 
of his voyage, gazing into that dim Waste beyond 
Creation, a man does see the Shade of hia Mother^ pale, 
ineffectual ; — and days when his Mother nursed and 
wrapped him are ail-too sternly contrasted with this 
day ! Danton, Camille, H^rault, Westermann, and 
the others, very strangely massed up with Bazires, 
Swindler Chabots, Fabre d'Eglantines, Bankers FreySj 
a most motley Batch, ** Fourn^e " as such things will 
be called, stand ranked at the Bar of Tinville. It is 
the 2d of April, 1794. Danton has had but three 
days to lie in Prison ; for the time presses. 

1744. What is your name ? place of abode ? and 
the like, Fouquier asks; according to formality. 
*' My name is Danton," answers he ; "a name toler- 
ably known in the Revolution ; my abode will soon be 
Annihilation (dans Ic Neant) ; but I shall live in the 
Pantheon of History." A man will endeavor to say 

• "Apercus 8«r Camille Desmoullns" (in **Vieux Oor- 
delier/^Paris, 18;J5), pp. 1-29. 


something forcible, be it by nature or not ! Herault 
mentions epigrammatically that he " sat in this Hall, 
and was detested of Parlementeers." Camille makes 
answer, " My age is that of the bon Sansculotte Jesus . 
an age fatal to Revolutionists." O Camille, Camille ! 
And yet in that Divine Transaction, let us say, there 
did lie, among other things, the fatalest Reproof ever 
uttered here below to Worldy Right-honorableness ; 
** the highest fact," so devout Novalis calls it, " in 
the Rights of Man." Camille^s real age, it would 
seem, is thirty- four. Ban ton is one year older. 

1745. Some five months ago, the Trial of the 
Twenty-two Girondins was the greatest that Fou- 
quier had then done. But here is a still greater to 
do ; a thing which tasks the whole faculty of Fou- 
quier ; which makes the very heart of him waver. 
For it is the voice of Dan ton that reverberates now 
from these domes; in passionate words, piercing 
with their wild sincerity, winged with wrath. Your 
best Witnesses he shivers into ruin at one stroke* 
He demands that the Committee-men themselves 
come as "Witnesses, as Accusers ; he " will cover them 
with ignominy." He raises his huge stature, he 
shakes his huge black head, fire flashes from the 
eyes of him, — piercing to all Republican hearts : so 
that the very Galleries, though we filled them by 
ticket, murmur sympathy; and are like to burst 
down and raise the People, and deliver him ! He 
complains loudly that he is classed with Chabots, 
with swindling Stock-jobbers ; that his Indictment 
is a list of platitudes and horrors. " Danton hidden 
on the 10th of August ?" reverberates he, with the 


roHT of a lion in the toils : " trhere ate the men that 
had to press Dan ton to show himself, that day? 
Where are these high-gifted souls of whom he bor- 
rowed energy ? Let them appear, these Accusers of 
mine : I have all the clearness of my self-poSsession 
when I demand them. I will iinmask the thtee 
shallow scoundrels " (les trois plats coqnins), Saiiit- 
Just, Couthon, Lehas, "who fawn on Robespierre, 
and lead him toward his destruction. Let them pro- 
duce themselves here ; I will plunge them into 
Nothingness, out of which they ought never to have 
risen." The agitated President agitates his bell; en- 
joins calmness, in a vehement manner: " What is it 
to thee how I defend myself?" cries the other: ** the 
right of dooming me is thine always. The voice Of a 
man speaking for his honor and his life may well 
drown the Jiiigling of thy bell!" Thus Danton^ 
higher and higher ; till the lion-voice of him " dies 
away in his throat :" speech will not utter what is in 
that man. The Galleries tnnrmtir ominously; the 
first day's Session is over. 

1746. O Tinville, President Hennafa, what will ye 
(lo ? They have two days more of it, by strictest 
Revolutionary Law. The Galleries already murmur. 
If this Danton were to burst your mesh-work! — 
Very curious indeed to consider. It turns on a hair : 
and what a hoity-toity were there, Justice and Cul- 
prit changing places ; and the whole History of 
France running changed ! For in France there is 
this Danton only that could still try to^overn France. 
He only, the wild amorphous Titan ; — ^and perhaps 
that other olive-complexioned individual, the Artil- 


lexj-OfiOLcer at Toulon, whom we left pushing his 
fbrtune in the 3outh ! 

1747. On the evening of the second day, matters 
looking not better but worse and worse, Fonquier 
and Herman, distraction in their aspect, rush over 
to Salut Public. What is to be done ? Salut pub- 
lic rapidly concocts a new Decree ; whereby if men 
" insult Justice," they may be " thrown out of the 
Debates." For indeed, withal, is there not " a Plot 
in the Luxembourg Prison ?" Ci-devant General 
Dillon, and others of the Suspect, plotting with 
Camille's Wife to distribute assignats ; to force the 
Prisons, overset the Republic ? Citizen Laflotte him- 
self Suspect but desiring enfranchisement, has re- 
ported said Plot for us : — ^a report that may bear 
fruit ! Enough, on the morrow morning, an obedijent 
Convention passes this Decree. Salut rushes off with 
it to the aid pf Tinville, reduced now almost to ex- 
tremities. And so, Hprs de D^bats (Out of the De- 
bates), ye insolents! Policemen, do your duty ! In 
such manner, with a dead-lift effort, Salut, Tinville, 
Herman, Leroi Dix-Aoftt, and all stanch jurymen 
setting heart and shoulder to it, the Jury becomes 
" sufficiently instructed ;" Sentence is passed, is sent 
by an Official, and torn and trampled on ; D^ath this 
day. It is the 6th of April, 1794. Camille's poor 
Wife may cease hovering about this Prison. Nay 
let her kiss her poor children j and prepare to enter 
it, and to follow ! — 

1748. Danton carried a high look in the Death- 
cart. Not so Camille : it is but one week, and all is 
so topsy-turvied ; angel Wife left weeping; love, 


riches, revolutionaxy fame, left all at the Prison-gate; 
carnivorous Rabble now howling round. Palpable, 
and yet incredible ; like a madman's dream ! Camille 
struggles and writhes; his shoulders shuffle the 
loose coat off them, which hangs knotted, the hands 
tied: "Calm, my friend," said Ban ton: "heed not 
that vile canaille (laissez la cette vile canaille)." At 
the foot of the Scaffold, Danton was heard to ejacu- 
late : " O my WifCj my well-beloved, I shall never 
see thee more, then !" — ^but, interrupting himself: 
"Danton, no weakness!" He said to H^rault-S^- • 
chelles stepping forward to embrace him : ** Ourheada 
will meet //lerc," in the Headsman's sack. His last 
words were to Samson the Headsman himself: ** Thou 
wilt show my head to the people; it is worth 

1849. So passes, like a gigantic mass of valor, os- 
tentation, fury, affection and wild revolutionary force 
and manhood, this Danton, to his unknown home. 
He was of Arcis-sur- Aube ; bom of " good farmer- 
people " there. He had many sins ; but one worst 
sin he had not, that of Cant. No hollow Formalist, 
deceptive and self-deceptive, ghastly to the natural 
sense, was this ; but a very Man : with all his dross 
he was a Man ; fiery-real, from the great fire-bosom 
of Nature herself. He saved France from Bruns- 
wick ; he walked straight his own wild road, whither 
it led him. 





1750. Next week, it is still but the lOth of April, 
there comes a new Nineteen; Chaumette, Gobel, 
Hebert's Widow, the Widow of Oamille ; these also 
roll their fated journey ; black Death devours them. 
Mean Hebert's W^idow was weeping, Camille's Widow 
tried to speak comfort to her. O yc kind HeaYcns, 
azure, beautiful, eternal behind your tempests and 
Time-clouds, is there not pity in store for all ! Gobel, 
it seems, was repentant ; he begged absolution of a 
Priest ; died as a Gobel best could. For Anaxagoras 
Chaumette, the sleek head now stripped of its bon- 
net rouge, what hope is there ? Unless Death were 
"an eternal sleep?" Wretched Anaxagoras, God 
shall judge thee, not I. 

1751. Hubert, therefore, is gone, and the H^bertists ; 
they that robbed Churches, and adored blue Reason 
in red night-cap. Great Danton, and the Dantonists ; 
they also are gone. Down to the catacombs : they 
are become silent men! Let no Paris Municipality 
no Sect or Party of this hue or that, resist the will 
of Robespierre and Salut. Mayor Pache, not prompt 
enough in denouncing these Pitt Plots, may congrat- 
ulate about them now. Never so heartily ; it skills 
not! His course likewise is to the Luxembourg. 
We appoint one Fleuriot-Lescot Interim-Mayor in 
his stead : an "architect from Belgium," they say, this 
Fleuriot; he is a man one can depend on. Our new 
Agent-National is Payan, lately Juryman; whose 
cynosure also is Robespierre. 


1752. Thus then, we perceive, this confusedlj elec- 
tric Erebns-dond of Revolutionary Government has 
altered its shape sotnewhat. Two masses, or wings, 
belonging to it ; an over-electric mass of Cordelier 
Kabids, and an nnder-electric of Dantonis^ Moderates 
and Ciemency-men,— -these two masses, shooting 
bolts at' one another, so to speak, have annihilated 
one another. For the Erebns-cloud, as we often re- 
mark, is of suieidal nature; and in jagged irregularity, 
darts its lightning withal into itself. But novir theiae 
two disi^repant masses being mutually annihilated, 
it is as if the Erebus-cloud had got to internal com- 
posure; and did only pouir its hell-fire lightning oh 
the World that lay under it. In plain words, Terror 
of the Guillotine was never terrible till now. Systole, 
diastole, swift and ever swifter goes the Axe of Sain- 
8on. Indictments cease by degrees to have so much 
a-j plausibility: Fouquier chooses from the Twelve 
Houses of Arrest what he calls Batches, ." Foum^es," 
a score or more at a time ; his Jurymen are charged 
to make feu de file, file-firing till the ground be 
clear. Citizen Laflotte's report of Plot in the Luxem- 
bourg is verily bearing fruit I If no speakable charge 
exist against a man, or Batch of men, Fouquiet has 
always this : a Plot in the Prison. Swift and ever 
swifter goes Samson ; up, finally, to three-score and 
more at a Batch. It is the high-day of Death : none 
but the Dead return not. 

1753. O dusky D'Espr^mi^nil, what a day is this 
the 22d of April, thy last day ! The Palais Hall here 
is the saiine stone Hall, where thou, ^^^^ years ago, 
stood est perorating, amid endless pathos of rebeUidttS 

THE TUMBfilLB. 491 

Parlemeut, in tlie gray of the morning ; bound to 
march with Df^Agoost to the Isles of Ci^es. The 
stones are the sapie stones I'btit the rest, Men, Re- 
bellion, Pathos, Peroration, see, it has ail fled, like a 
gibbering troop of ghosts, like the phantasii^s of a 
dying brain. With D^E^r^m^nil, in the same line 
of Tambrils, goes the moiimfulest medley. Chapelier 
goes' ci-devant popular President of the Constituent ; 
whom the Menads aud Mail]ard met in hia carriage 
on the Versailles Road. Thouret likewise, ci-deyant 
President, father of Constitutional Law-acts; he 
whom we heard saying long since, with a loud voice 
" The Constituent AssemWy has fulfilled itamissionl" 
And the noble old Malesherbes, who defended Louis 
and could not speak, like a gray old rock dissolving 
into sodden water : he journeys here now, with his 
kindred, daughters, sons, and grandsons, his Lamoig-- 
nons, Ch^teaubriauds; silent, toward Death. — One 
young Chateaubriand alone is wandering amid the 
Natchez, by the roar of Niagara Falls, the moan of 
endless forests : Welcome thou great Nature, savage, 
but not false, not unkind, unmotherly ; no Formula 
thon, or rabid jangle of Hypothesis, Parliamentary. 
Eloquence, Constitution-building and the Qaillotine; 
speak thou to me, O Mother, and sing my sick, heart 
thy mystic everlasting lullaby-song, and let all the 
rest be fer ! — 

1754. Another row of Tumbrils we must notice j 
that which holds Elizabeth, the Sister of Louis. Her 
Trial was like the rest ; for Plots, for Plots. She 
was among the kindliest, most innocent of women. 
There sat with her, amid four-and-twenty others, a 


once timorous Marchioness de Crussol; courageous 
now ; expressing toward her the liveliest loyaltj. At 
the foot of the Scaffold, Elizabeth with tears in her 
eyes thanked this Marchioness ; said she was grieved 
she could not reward her. ** Ah, Madame, would 
your Koyal Highness deign to embrace me, my wishes 
were complete ! " — *' Right willingly, Marquise de 
Crussol, and with my whole heart."* Thus they : at 
the foot of the Scaffold. The Hoyal FamUy is now 
reduced to two: a girl and a little boy. The boy, 
once named Dauphin, was taken from his Mother 
while she yet lived; and given to one Simon, by trade 
a Cordwainer, on service then about the Temple- 
prison, to bring him up in principles of Sanscu- 
lottism. Simon taught him to drink, to swear, to 
sing the carmagnole. Simon is now gone to the 
Municipality : and the poor boy, hidden in a tower 
of the Temple, from which in his fright and bewil- 
derment and early decrepitude he wishes not to stir 
out, lies perishing, " his shirt not changed for six 
months ; " amid squalor and darkness, lamentably,! 
— so as none but poor Factory Children and the like* 
are wont to perish, and not be lamented I 

1755. The Spring sends its green leaves and bright 
weather, bright May, brighter than ever: Death 
pauses not. Lavoisier, famed Chemist, shall die and 
not live: Chemist Lavoisier was Farmer-Creneral 
Lavoisier too, and now " all the Farmers-General are 
arrested ; *' all, and shall give an account of their 

moneys and incomings; and die for *' putting water 

 Montffaillard, Iv. 200. 

t Duchessse dAngoul€me» " Captivity a la Tour da 
Temp!e,"j)p. 87-71. 


in tbe tobacco " they sold * Lavoisier begged a fort- 
night more of Kfe, to finish some experiments: but 
" the Republic does not need such ; " the axe must 
do its work. Cynic Chamfort, reading these inscrip- 
tions of Brotherhood or Deaths says, " It is a Brother- 
hood of Cain ; " arrested, then liberated ; then about 
to be arrested again, this Chamfort cuts and slashes 
himself withfrantic uncertain hand ; gains, not with- 
out difficulty, the refuge of death. Condorcet has 
lurked deep, these many months; Argus-eyes watch- 
ing and searching for him. His concealment is be- 
come dangerous to others and himself ; he has to fly 
again, to skulk, round Paris, in thickets and stone- 
quarries. And so at the Village of Clamars, one 
bleared May morning, there enters a Figure, ragged, 
rough-bearded, hunger-stricken; asks breakfast in 
the tavern there. Suspect by the look of him ! "Ser- 
vant out of place, say est thou ? " Committee-Presi- 
dent of Forty-Sous finds a Latin Horace on him : 
" Art not thou one of those Ci-devants that were 
wont to keep servants? Suspect!" He is haled 
forthwith, breakfast unfinished, toward Bourg-la- 
Reine, on foot : he faints with exhaustion : is set on 
a peasant's horse; is flung into his damp prison-cell : 
on the morrow, recollecting him, you enter ; Condor- 
cet lies dead on the floor. They die fast, and disap- 
pear : the Notabilities of France disappear, one after 
one, like lights in a Theater, which you are snuffing 
1756. Under which circumstances, is it not singu- 

* "Tribunal R^volutlonnaire" du 8 Mai, 1794 (Moniteur, 
No. 231). 


lar, and almost tonching, to see Paris City drawn out, 
in the meek May nights, in civic ceremony, "which 
they call "Soaper Fraternel/* iBrotherly Snppert 
Spontaneous, or partially spontaneous, in the twelffch, 
thirteenth, fourteenth nights of this May month, it 
is seen. Along the Rue Saint-Honor^, atid main 
Streets and Spaces, each Citoyen brings forth what 
of supper the stingy Maximum has yielded him, 
to the open air; joins it to his neighbor's supper ; 
and with common table, cheerful light burning ftte- 
qnent, and what due modicum of cut-glass and other 
garnish and relish is convenient, they 6at frugally 
together, under the kind stars.* Sec it, O Night! 
With cheerfully pledged wine-cup, hob-nobbing to the 
Reign of Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood, with their 
wives in best ribbons, with their little ones romping 
round, the Citoyens, in frugal Love-feast, sit there. 
Night in her wide empire sees nothing similar. O my 
brothers, why is the reign of Brotherhood not come ! 
It is come, it shall have come, say the Citoyens fru- 
gally hob-nobbing. — Ah me ! these everlasting stars, 
do they not look down " like glistening eyes, bright 
with immortal pity, over the lot of man ! "— 

1757. One lamentable thing, however, is, that in- 
dividuals will attempt assassination— of Representa- 
tives of the People. Representative Collot, Member 
even of Salut, returning home, "about one in the 
morning," probably touched with liquor, as he is apt 
to be, meets on the stairs the cry " Sc^l^rat ! " and 
also the snap of a pistol : which latter flashes in the 

* "Tableaux de la Revolution.** 6 Soupers Fraternels; 
Mercier,ii.l60L ^ < . - . 


pan ; disclosing to him, momentarily, a pair of trucu- 
lent saucer-eyes, swart grim-clenched countenance : 
recognizable as that of our little fellow-lodger, Cito- 
yen Amiral, formerly ** a clerk in the Lotteries.'' 
Collot shouts Murder J with lungs fit to awaken all 
the Rue Favart. Amiral snaps a second time : a sec- 
ond time flashes in the pan ; then darts up into his 
apartment ; and, after there firing, still with inade- 
quate effect, one musket at himself and another at 
his captor, is clutched and locked in Prison* An 
indignimt little man this Amiral, of Southern temper 
and complexion, of " considerable muscular force." 
He denies hot that he meant to " purge France of a 
Tyrant ; •' nay avows that he had an eye to the In- 
corruptible himself, but took Collot as more conven- 
ient ! 

1758. Rumor enough hereupon ; heaven-high con- 
gratulation of Collot, fraternal embracing, at the 
Jacobins and elsewhere. And yet, it would seem, 
the assassin mood proves catching. Two days more, 
it is still but the 23d of May, and tow:ard nine in the 
evening, C^cile Renault, Paper-dealer's daughter, a 
young woman of soft blooming look, presents her- 
self at the Cabinet-maker's in the Rue Saint-Honor^, 
desires to see Robespierre. Robespierre cannot be 
seen : she grumbles irreverently. They lay hold of 
her. She has left a basket in a shop hard by ; in the 
basket are female change of raiment and two knives ! 
Poor C^eile : examined by Committee, declares she 
" wanted to see what a tyrant was like : " the change 
of raiment was " for my own use in the place I am 

* Riouffe. p. 73; '^Deux Amis," xil. 29a-3(», 


»urely going to. "—*' What plftee?*^— :t* PHsOn; aad 
then the Guillotine," answered she.-— Such things 
come of Charlotte. Corday; in a people prone to 
imitation, and monomania ! Swart choleric men try 
Charlotte's feat, and their pistols miss fire; soft 
blooming young women try it, and only half-reso- 
lute, leave their knives in a shop. 

1759. O Pitt, and ye Faction of the Stranger, shall 
the Republic never have rest ; but he torn continu- 
ally by baited springes, by wires of explosive spring- 
guns ? Swart Amiral, fair young C^cile, and all 
that knew them, and, many that did not know them, 
lie locked, waiting the scrutiny of Tinville. 



1760. But on the day they call D^cadi, Kew-Sab- 
bath, 20th Prairial, 8th June by old style, what 
thing is this going forward in the Jardin Nationals 
whilom Tuileries Garden ? 

1761. All the world is there, in holiday clothes :* 
foul linen went out with the H6bertists ; nay Robes- 
pierre, for one, would never countenance that ; but 
went always elegant and frizzled, not without vanity 
even, — and had his room hung round with sea-green 
Portraits and Busts. In holiday clothes, wesay, are the 
innumerable Ci toy ens and Citoyennes : the weather is 
of the brightest ; cheerful expectation lights all coun- 
tenances. Juryman Vilate gives breakfast to many a 
Deputy, in his official Apartment, in the Pavilion ci- 

* Vilate, '* Causes Secretes de la Revolution du 9 TUer- 


devantof Piora^rejoioesin the briglit-lookmg multi- 
tudes, in the brightness of leafy June, in' the auspi- 
cious D6cadi or New-Sabbath. This day, if it please 
Heaven, we are to have, on improved Anti-Chau- 
mette principles : a New Religion. 

1762. Catholicism being burned out, and Reason- 
worship guillotined, was there not need of one ? In- 
corrnptible Robespierre, not unlike the Ancients, as 
Legislator of a free people, will now also be Priest 
and Prophet. He has donned his sky-blue coat, 
made for the occasion ; white silk waistcoat broidered 
with silver, black silk breeches, white stockings, 
shoe-buckles of gold. He is President of the Con- 
vention ; he has made the Convention decree^ so they 
name it, decr^ter the " Existence of the Supreme 
Being," and likewise " ce principe consolateur of the 
Immortality of the Soul. " These consolatory prin- 
ciples, the basis of rational Republican Religion, are 
getting decreed ; and here, on the blessed D^cadi, by 
help of Heaven and Painter David, is to be our first 
act of worship. 

1763. See, accordingly, how after Decree passed, 
and what has been called " the scraggiest Prophetic 
Discourse ever uttered by man " — Mohammed Robes- 
pierre, in sky-blue coat and black breeches, frizzled 
and powdered to perfection, bearing in his hand a 
bouquet of flowers and wheat-ears, issues proudly 
from the Convention Hall ; Convention following 
him, yet, as is remarked, with an interval. Amphi- 
theater has been raised, or at least Monticule or Ele- 
vation; hideous Statues of Atheism, Anarchy and 
suchlike, thanks to Heaven and Painter David, strike 


abhorrence into the heart Unluckily^ however, our 
Monticule is too small. On the top of it not half of us 
can stand ; wherefore there arises indecent shoving, 
nay treasonous irreverent growling. Peace, thou 
Bourdon de I'Oise ; peace, or it may be worse for thee ! 

1764. The sea-green Pontiff takes a torch, Painter 
David handing it ; mouths some other frotli-rant of 
vocables which happily one cannot hear; strides 
resolutely forward, in sight of expectant France ; sets 
his torch to Atheism and Comjpany, which are but 
made of pasteboard steeped in turpentine. They 
burn up rapidly ; and, from within, there rises "by 
machinery," an incombustible Statue of Wisdom, 
which, by ill hap, gets besmoked a little ; but does 
stand there visible in as serene attitude as it can. 

1765. And then ? Why, then, there is other Pro- 
cessioning, scraggy Discoursing, and — this is out 
Feast of the Etre Suprtoe ; our new Keligion, better 
or worse, is come ! — Look at it one moment, O 
Reader, not two. The shabbiest page of Human 
Annals : or is there, that thou wottest of, one shab- 
bier? M umbo- Jumbo of the African woods tome 
seems venerable beside this new Deity of Robes- 
pierre; for this is di, conscious Mumbo- Jumbo, and 
knows that he is machinery. O sea-green Prophet, un- 
happiest of wind-bags blown nigh to bursting, what 
distracted Chimera among realities art thou growing 
to ! This then, this common pitch link for artificial 
fireworks of turpentine and paste-board ; this is the 
miraculous Aaron's Rod thou wilt stretch over a 
hag-ridden hell-ridden France, and bid her plagues 
CL^ase? Vanish, thou and it ! — "Avec ton Etre Su- 


pi^.me," said Billaud, "tn commences memb€ter 
(With tliy Etre Supreme thou beginnest to be a bore 

1T66. Cathenne Th^ot, on the other hand, **an 
ancient serving-maid seventy-nine years of age," in- 
ured to Prophecy and the Bastille from of old, sits 
in an upper room in the Rue de Contrescarpe, poring 
over the Book of Revelations, with an eye to Robeg- 
pierre; finds that this astonishing thrice-potent 
MaTimilien really is the Man ^oken of by Prophets, 
who is to make the Earth young again. With her 
sit devout old Marchionesses, ci-devant honorable 
women ; among whom Old-Constituent Dom Gerle, 
with his addle head, cannot be wanting. They sit 
there, in the Rue de Contrescarpe ; in mysterious 
adoration. Mumbo is Mumbo, and Robespierre is 
his prophet. A conspicuous man this Robespierre. 
He has his volunteer Body-guard of Tappe-durs, let 
us say Strike- sharps, fierce Patriots with feruled 
sticks ; and Jacobins kissing the hem of his gar- 
ment. He enjoys the admiration of many, the wor- 
ship of some; and is well worth the wonder of one 
and all. 

1767. The grand question and hope, however, is : 
Will not this Feast of the Tuileries Mumbo-Jumbo 
be a sign perhaps that the Guillotine is to abate? 
Far enough from that ! Precisely on the second day 
after it, Couthon, one of the " three shallow scoun- 
drels," gets himself lifted into the Tribune, produces 

* See Vilate. *• Pauses Seciretes.** (Vilate's Narrative la 
very curious: but Is not to be taken as true without sift- 
ing: being at bottom, in spite of its title, not a Narrative; 
but a Plead ingr ) 


a bundle of papers. Conthon proposes that, as iPlots 
still abound, the Law of the Suspect shall have ex- 
tension ; and Arrestment new vigor and facility. 
Farther, that as in such case business is like to be 
heavy, our Revolutionary Tribunal too shall have 
extension; be divided, say, into Four Tribunals, 
each with its President, each with its Fouquier or 
Substitute of Fouquier, all laboring at once, and any 
remnant of shackle or dilatory formality be struck 
off; in this way it may perhaps still overtake the 
work. Such is Couthon's Decree of the 22d Prairial, 
famed in those times. At hearing of which Decree, 
the very Mountain gasped, awe-struck; and one 
Huamps ventured to say that if it passed without ad- 
journment and discussion, he, as one Representative, 
*' would blow his brains out." Vain saying! The 
Incorruptible knit hfs brows; spoke a prophetic 
fateful word or two ; the Law of Prairial is Law ; 
Huamps glad to leave his rash brains where they are. 
Death then, and always Death ! Even so. Fouquier 
is enlarging his borders ; making room for Batches 
of a Hundred and fifty at once ; — getting a Guillo- 
tine set up of improved velocity, and to work under 
cover, in the apartment close by. So that Salut it- 
self has to intervene, and forbid him. "Wilt thou 
demoralize the Guillotine," asks Collot, reproach- 
fully, "d6moraliser le supplied" 

1768. There is indeed danger of that ; were not the 
Republican faith great, it were already done. See, 
for example, on the 17th of June, what a Batchy 
Fifty-four at once ! Swart Amiral is here, he of the 
pistol that missed fire ; young C^cile Renault, with 


her father, family, entire kith and kin ; the "Widow 
of D'Espr^m^nil,; old M. de Sombreuil of the Inval- 
ides, with hi& Son, — poor old Sombreuil, seventy- 
three years old, his Daughter saved him in Septem- 
ber, and it was but for this. Faction of the Stranger, 
fifty-four of them! In red shirts and smocks, as 
Assassins and Faction of the Stranger, they flit 
along there ; red baleful Phantasmagoria, toward the 
land of Phantoms. 

1769. Meanwhile, will not the people of the Place 
de la Revolution, the inhabitants along the Kue 
Saint-Honor^, as these continual Tumbrils pass, be- 
gin to look gloomy ? Kepublicans too have bowels. 
The Guillotine is shifted, then again shifted ; finally 
set up at the remote extremity of the South-east ; * 
Suburbs Saint- Antoine and Saint-Marceau, it is to be 
hoped, if they have bowels, have very tough ones. ^ 



1770. It is time now, however, to cast a glance 
into the Prisons. When Desmoulins moved for his 
Committee of Mercy, these Twelve Houses of Arrest 
held 5,000 persons. Continually arriving since then, 
there have now accumulated J 2,000. They are Ci- 
devants, Royalists; in far greater part, they are Re- 
publicans, of various Girondin, Fayettish, Un-Jaco- 
bin color. Perhaps no human habitation or Prison 
ever equaled in squalor, in noisome horror, these 
Twelve Houses of Arrest. There exist records of 

* Montaraillard, 1v. 237. 


personal experience in them, "M^nioires sur les 
Prisons ;" one of the strangest Chapters in the Biog- 
raphy of Man. 

1771. Very singular to look into it: how a kind of 
order rises up in all conditions of human existence; 
and wherever two or three are gathered 'together, 
there are formed modes of existing together, hab- 
itudes, observances, nay gracefulnesses, joys! Cito- 
yen Coittant will explain fully, iiovr our lean dinner, 
of herbs and carrion, was consumed not without po- 
liteness and place-aux^dames : how Seigneur and 
Shoeblack, Duchess and Doll-Tearsheet, flung pell- 
mell into a heap, ranked themselves according to 
method : at what hour ** the Citoyennes took to their 
needlework;" and we, yielding the chairs to them, 
endeavored to talk gallantly in a standing posture, 
or even to sing and harp more or less. Jealousies, 
enmities are not wanting; nor flirtations Of an eiOfect- 
ive character. 

1772. Alas, by degrees, even needlework inust 
cease: Plot in the Prison rises, by Citoyen Laflotte 
and Preternatural Suspicion. Suspicious Municipal- 
ity snatches from us all implements: all mouey and 
possession, of means or metal^ is ruthlessly searched 
for, in pocket, in pillow and paillasse, and snatched 
away ; red-capped Commissaries entering every cell. ' 
Indignation, temporary desperation, at robbeiy of its 
very thimble, fills the gentle heart. Old Nuns shriek 
shrill discord ; demand to be killed forthwith. No 
help from shrieking ! Better was that of the two 
shifty male Citizens, who^ eager to preserve an im- 
plement or two, were it but a pipe-picker, ox needle 


to darn hose with, determinecl to defend themselves: 
by tobacco. Swift then, as your fell Red Caps are 
heard in the Corridor ruinmaging and slamming, the 
two Citoyens light their pipes, and begin smoking. 
Thick darkness envelops them. The Red Night-caps, 
opening the cell, breathe but one mouthful ; burst 
forth into chorus of barking and coughing, " Quoi, 
Mejssieurs," cry the two Qitoyens, " you don't smoke ? 
Is th^ pipe disagreeable ? Est-ce que vous ne fumez 
pas ?" But the Red Night-cajjs have fled with slight 
search: "Vous n'aimez pas la pipe?" cry the Cito- 
yens, as their door slams-to again.* My poor brother 
Citoyens, O surely, in a reign of Brotherhood, you 
are not the two I would guillotine ! 

1773. Rigor grows, stiffens into horrid tyranny; 
Plot in the Prison getting ever rifer. This Plot in 
the Prison, as we said, is now the stereotype formula 
of Tinville: against whomsoever he knows no crime, 
this is a ready-made crime. His Judgment-bar has 
become unspeakable ; a recognized mockery ; known 
only as the wicket one passes through, toward 
Death. His Indictments are drawn out in blank ; 
you insert the Names after. He has his moutons, 
detestable traitor jackals, who report and bear wit- 
ness ; that they themselves may be allowed to live, 
— for a time. His Fourn^es, says the reproachful 
Collot, " shall in no case exceed three-score ; " that is 
his maximum. Nightly come his Tumbrils to the 
Luxembourg, with the fatal Roll-eall ; list of the 
Fourn^e of to-morrow. Men rush toward the Grate ; 

• "Maiflon dVAnp^t de Pn»t-Mbpe/* par Goittant, etc. 
("M§moires sur lea Prisons," li .). 

504 THERmDOB. 

listen, if their name be in it? One deep-drawn 
breath, when the name is not in : we live |^till one 
day ! And yet some score or scores of names were 
in. Quick these, they clasp their loved ones to their 
heart, one last time; with brief adieu, wet-eyed,. or 
dry-eyed, they mount, and are away. This night to 
the Conciergerie ; through the Palais misnamed of 
Justice^ to the Guillotine to-morrow. 

1774. Recklessness, defiant levity, the Stoicism if 
not of strength yet of weakness, has possessed all 
hearts. Weak* women and Ci-devants, their locks 
not yet made into blond perukes, their skins not yet 
tanned into breeches, are accustomed to "act the 
Guillotine " by way of pastime. In fantastic mum- 
mery, with towel- turbans, blanket-ermine, a mock 
Sanhedrim of Judges sits, a mock Tinville pleads j a 
culprit is doomed, is guillotined by the oversetting 
of two chairs. Sometimes we carry it farther : Tin- 
ville himself, in his turn, is doomed, and not to the 
Guillotine alone. With blackened face, hirsute, 
horned, a shaggy Satan snatches him not unshriek- 
ing ; shows him, with outstretched arm and voice, 
the fire that is not quenched, the worm that dies 
not ; the monotony of Hell-pain, and the What hour f 
answered by, It is Eternity* 

1775. And stUl the Prisons fill fuller, and still the 
Guillotine goes faster. On all high-roads march 
flights of Prisoners, wending toward Paris. Not Ci- 
devauts now ; they, the noisy of them, are mown 
down ; it is Republicans now. Chained two and 
two they march; lu exasperated moments singing. 

 Montgaillard, iv 318; Riouffe,p. 273. 


tiieir "Marseillaise." A hundred and thirty-two 
men of Nantes, for instance, march toward Paris, in 
tiiese same days ; Republicans, or say even Jacobins 
to the marrow of the bone ; but Jacobins who had 
not approved Noyading.* Vive la Republic rises 
from them in all streets of towns : they rest by night 
in unutterable noisome dens, crowded to choking; 
one or two dead on the morrow. They are wayworn, 
weary of heart ; can only shout : Live the Repyhlie ; 
we, as under horrid enchantment, dying in this way 
for it! 

1776. Some 400 Priests, of whom also there is rec- 
ord, ride at anchor " in the roads of the Isle of Aix,'* 
long months ; looking out on misery, vacuity, waste 
Sands of Oleron and the ever-moaning brine. Rag- 
ged, sordid, hungry; wasted to shadows: eating 
their unclean ration on deck, circularly, in parties 
of a dozen, with finger and thumb; beating their 
scandalous clothes between two stones ; choked in 
horrible miasmata, closed under hatches, seventy of 
them in a berth, through night; so that the "aged 
Priest is found lying dead in the morning, in the at- 
titude of prayer ! "f How long, O Lord ! 

Not forever; no. All Anarchy, all Evil, Injustice, 
is, by the nature of it, dragon's-teeth ; suicidal, and 
cannot endure. 

* " Voyag«c de CSeat Trente-deux Nantais ** (*' Prisons," 
ii. 288-335). 

t " Relation dece qu'ont aouflfert pour iaReligrion les 
Pfetr^s dtgportes en 1764, dans la rade de riie d'Alx." (lb., 
ii- 38T-4S6./ 




1777. It is very remarkable, indeed, that aance ^e 
£t re-Supreme Feast, aud the sublime continued ha* 
rangues on it, which Billaud feared would become a 
bore to him, Robespierre has gone little to Commit' 
tee ; but held himself apart, as if in a kind of pet. 
Nay they have made a Report on that old Catherine 
Th^ot, and her Regenerative Man spoken of bj the 
Prophets ; not in the best s{»rit. This Tfaeot mys- 
tery they affect to regard as a Plot ; but have evi- 
dently introduced a vein of satire, of irreverent hah- 
ter, not against the Spinster alone, but obliquely 
against her Regenerative Man ! Barr^re's ligbt pen 
was perhaps at the bottom of it: read through the 
solemn snufiiing organs of old Vadier of the Stkret^ 
Gi^n^rale, the Th^ot Report had its effect ; wrink* 
ling the general Republican visage into an iron grin. 
Ought these things to be ? 

1778. We note farther, that among the Prisoneis 
in the Twelve Houses of Arrest, there is one whom 
we have seen before. Senhora Fontenai, hvm Caba- 
rus, the fair Proserpine whom Representative Tallien 
Pluto-like did gather at Bourdeaux, not without 
effect on himself! Tallien is home, by recall, long 
since, from Bourdeaux ; and in the most alarming 
position. Vain that he sounded, louder even than 
ever, the note of Jacobinism, to hide past shortcom- 
ings : the Jacobins purged him out ; two times has 
Robespierre growled at him words of omen from the 
Convention Tribune. And now his fair Cabaru8,hit 


by denunciation, lies Arrested, Suspect, in spite of 
all he could do! — Shut in horrid pinfold of death, the 
Seaboca smuggles out to her red-gloomy Tallien the 
most pressing entreaties and conjurings: Save me; 
save thyself. Seest thou not thy own head is doomed ; 
thou with a too fiery audacity: a Bantonist withal ; 
against whom lie grudges? Are ye not all doomed, 
as in the Polyphemus Cavern : the fawningest slave 
of you will be but eaten last ! — Tallien feels with a 
shudder that it is true. Tallien has had words of 
omen, Bourdon has had words, Fr^ron is bated and 
Barras: each man ^' feels his head if it yet stick on 
his shoulders.'^ 

1779. Meanwhile Robespierre, we still observe, goes 
little to Convention, not at all to Committee ; speaks 
nothing except to his Jacobin House of Lords, amid 
his body-guard of Tappe-durs. These " forty-days," 
for we ar« now fiar in July, he has not showed face 
in Committee ; could only work there by his three 
shallow scoundrels, and the terror there was of him. 
The Incorruptible himself sits apart ; orif seen stalk- 
ing in solitary places in the fields, with an intensely 
meditative air ; some say, ** with eyes red-spotted,"* 
fruit of extreme bile: the lamentablest sea-green 
Chimera that walks the Earth that July ! O hap- 
less Chimera, — for thou t^o hadst a life, and heart of 
flesh, — what is this that the stern gods, seeming to 
smile all the way, have led and let thee to ! Art not 
thou he, who, few years ago, was a young Advocate 
of promise; and gave up the Arras Judgeship rather 
than sentence one man to die ?— ' 

• ** Deux Amis,** 347-373. 

508 fSEBMlDOR, 

1780. What his thoughts might be f His plans for 
finishing the Terror ? One knows not. Dim ves- 
tiges there flit of Agrarian Law ; a victorious Sans- 
calottism become Landed Proprietor ; old Soldiers 
sitting in National Mansions, in Hospital Palaces of 
Chambord and Chantilly ; peace bought by victory ; 
breaches healed by Feast of Etre Supreme ; — and so, 
through seas of blood, to Equality, Frugality, work- 
some Blessedness, Fratern'ty, and Republic of the 
virtues. Blessed shore, of such a sea of Aristocr.*t 
blood : but how to land on it ? Through one last 
wave : blood of corrupt Sansculottists ; traitorous or 
semi-traitorous Conventionals, rebellious Talliens, 
Billauds, to whom with my Etre Supreme I have be- 
come a bore, with my Apocalyptic Old Woman a 
laughing-stock ! — So stalks be, this poor liobespierre, 
like a sea-green ghost, through the blooming July. 
Vestiges of schemes flit dim. But what his schemes 
or his thoughts were will never be known to man. 

1781. New Catacombs, some say, are digging for a 
huge simultaneous butchery. Convention to be 
butchered, down to the right pitch, by Greneral Hen- 
riot and Company : Jacobin House of Lords made 
dominant; and Robespierre Dictator.* There is 
actually, or else there is not actually, a List made 
out; which the Hair-dresser has got eye on, as he friz- 
zled the Incorruptible locks. Each man asks himself, 
Is it I? 

1782. Nay, as Tradition and rumor of Anecdote 
still convey it, there was a remarkable bachelor's 
dinner, one hot day, at Barrere's. For doubt not, O 

* "Deux Ai^Js,'* xii. 330-358. 


Header, tfaia Barr^re and others of them gave din- 
ners ; had " country-house at Clichy ," with elegant 
enough sumptuosities, and pleasures high-rouged.* 
But at this dinner we speak of, the day heing so hot, 
it is said, the guests all stript their coats; and left 
them in the drawing-room: from the dinner-tahle 
Camot glided out/ driven by a necessity, needing of 
all things paper; groped in Robespierre's pocket; 
found a list of Forty, his own name among them ;— 
and tarried not at the wine-cup that day ! — Ye must 
bestir yourselves, O Friends : ye dull Frogs of the 
Marsh, mute ever since Girondism sank under, even 
you now must croak or die ! Councils are held, with 
word and beck ; nocturnal, mysterious as death. 
Does not a feline Maximilien stalk there ; voiceless 
as yet ; his green eyes red-spotted ; back bent, and 
hair up ? Eash Tallien, with his rash temper and 
audacity of tongue ; he shall bell the cat. Fix a day ; 
and be it soon, lest never ! 

1783. Lo, before the fixed day, on the day which 
they call 8th of Thermidor, 26th July, 1794, Robes- 
pierre himself reappears in Convention ; mounts to 
the Tribune ! The biliary face seems clouded with 
new gloom : judge whether your Talliens, Bourdons, 
listened with interest. It is a voice bodeful of death 
or of life. Long-winded, unmelodioua as the screech- 
owl's sounds that prophetic voice : Degenerate condi- 
tion of Republican spirit; corrupt Moderatisni ; Surety, 
Salut Committees themselves infected ; backsliding 
on this hand and on that; I, Maximilien, alone left 
incorruptible, ready to die at a moment's warning. 

* See Vllate. 

510 TlIERMIDOit. 

For all which what remedy is tihere? The Oailto- 
tine ; new vigor tx) the all-healing Guillotine ; death 
to traitors of every hue! So sings the prophetic 
voice ; into its Convention sounding-hoatd. The 
old song this : but to-day, O Heavens, has the sound- 
board ceased to act ? There is not resonance in this 
Convention : there is, so to speak, a gasp of silence : 
nay a certain grating of one knows not what ! — Le- 
cointrCj our old Draper of Versailles, in these ques- 
tionable circumstances, sees nothing he can do so safe 
as rise, " insidiously " or not insidiously, and move, 
according to established wont, that the Robespierre 
Speech, be "Printed and sent to the Departments." 
Hark: gratings, even of dissonance! Honorable 
Members hint dissonance ; Committee-Members, in- 
culpated in the Speech, utter dissonance, demand 
" delay in printing." Ever higher rises the note of 
dissonance; inquiry is even made by Editor Fr6ron: 
" What has become of the Liberty of Opinions in 
this Convention?" The Order to print and trans- 
mit, which had got passed, is rescinded. Bobespierre, 
greener than ever before, has to retire, foiled ; dis- 
cerning that it is mutiny, that evil is nigh \ 

1784. Mutiny is a thing of the fatalest nature in 
all enterprises whatsoever : a thing so incalculable, 
swift-frightful : not to be dealt with in fright. But 
mutiny in a Robespierre Convention, above all, — it 
is like fire seen sputtering in the ship's powder-room! 
One death-defiant plunge at it, this moment, and 
you may still tread it out : hesitate till next moment, 
— ship and ship's captain, crew and cargo are shivered 
far ; the ship's voyage has suddenly ended between 


sea and sky. If Robespierre can, to-night, produce ' 
his fienriot and Cotopapy, and get his work done hy 
them, he and Sansculottism may still subsist some 
time ; if not, probably not. Oliver Cromwell, when 
that Agitator Sergeant stept foTth from the ranks, 
with plea of grievances, and began gesticulating and 
demonstrating, as the mouth-piece of Thousands ex- 
pectant there, — discerned, with those truculent eyes 
of his, how the matter lay ; plucked a pistol from 
his holsters ; blew Agitator and Agitation instantly 
out. Noll was a man fit for such things. 

1785; Robespierre, for his part, glides over at even- 
ing to his Jacobin House of Lords ; unfolds there, in- 
stead of some adequate resolution, his woes, his un- 
common virtues, incorruptibilities ; then, secondly, 
his rejected screech-owl Oration; — reads this latter 
over again ; and declares that he is ready to die at a 
moment's warning. Thou shalt not die! shouts 
Jacobinism from its thousand throats. " Robes- 
pierre, I will drink the hemlock with thee, " cries 
Painter David, " Je boirai la eigne avec toi ; " — a 
thing not essential to do, but which, in the fire of the 
moment, can be said. 

1786. Our Jacobin sounding-board, therefore, does 
act ! Applauses heaven-high cover the rejected 
Oration ; fire-eyed fury lights all Jacobin features : 
Insurrection a sacred duty; the Convention to be 
purged ; Sovereign People under Henriot and Munici- 
pality ; we will make a new June-Second of it : To 
your tents, O Israel ! In this key pipes Jacobinism ; 
in sheer tumult of revolt. Let Tallien and all Op- 
position men make off. Collot d'Herbois, though of 


the supreme Salat, and so lately near shot, is 
elbowed, bullied ; is glad to escape alive. Entering 
Committee-room of Salut, all disheveled; he finds 
sleek somber Saint- Just there among the rest; who 
in his sleek way asks, " What is passing at the Jaco- 
bins?" — " What is passing?" repeats Collot, in the 
unhistrlonic Cambyses vein ; " What is passing ? 
Nothing but revolt and horrors are passing. Ye 
want our lives ; ye shall not have them. " Saint- 
Just stutters at such Caabyses oratory ; takes his 
hat to withdraw. That Report he had been speaking 
of, Report on Republican Things in General we may 
say, which is to be read in Convention on the mor- 
row, he cannot show it them, at this moment : a 
friend has it ; he, Saint- Just, will get it, and send it, 
were he once home. Once home, he sends not it, but 
an answer that he will not send it; that they will 
hear it from the Tribune to-morrow. 

1787. Let every man, therefore, according to a well- 
known good-advice, "pray to Heaven, and keep his 
powder dry ! " Paris, on the morrow, will see a 
thing. Swift scouts fly dim or invisible, all night» 
from Siiret^ and Salut; from conclave to conclave ; 
from Mother Society to Town-hall. Sleep, can it 
fall on the eyes of Talliens, Frdrons, Collots? Puis- 
sant Henriot, Mayor Fleuriot, Judge Coffinhal, Pro- 
cureur Payan, Robespierre and all the Jacobins are 
getting ready. 

GO DOWN TO, 613 



1788. TalUen's eyes beamed bright, od the morrow, 
9th of Thermidor, ^' about nine o'clock," to see that 
the Convention had actually met. Paris is in rumor : 
"but at least we are met, in Legal Convention here ; 
we have, not been snatched seriatim ; treated with a 
JPride^a Purge at the .door. "Aliens, brave men of 
the Plain^ " late Frogs of the Marsh I cried Tallien 
with a squeeze of the hand, as he passed in ; Saint- 
Just'^ sonorous voice being now audible from the 
Tribune, and the game of games begun. 

1789. Saint-Just is verily reading that Report of 
his : green Vengeance, in the shape of Robespierre, 
watching nigh. Behold, however, Saint-Just has 
read but few sentences, when interruption rises 
rapid crescendo ; when Tallien starts to his feet, and 
Billaud, and this man starts and that, — and Tallien, 
a second time, with his : " Citoyens, at the Jacobins 
last night, I trembled for the Republic. I said to 
myself, if the Convention dare not strike the Tyrant 
then I myself dare, and with this I will do it, if need 
be, " said he, whisking out a clear-gleaming Bagger, 
and brandishing it there ; the Steel of Brutus, as we 
call it. Whereat we all bellow, and brandish, im- 
petuous acclaim. " Tyranny ! Dictatorship ! Trium- 
virate ! " And the Saint Committee-men accuse, and 
all men accuse, and uproar, and impetuously acclaim. 
And Saint-Just is standing motionless, pale of face \ 
Couthon ejaculating, " Triumvir ? " with a look at 
his paralvtic legs. And Robespierre is struggling to 


514 THE&MmO'S^^ 

speak/ bat President Thuziot is^:jingl!n^itheikfi 
against him, bnt the Hail is sounding against hiim 
like an jEoIus^Hall ; and liobe&pierre is moonting 
the Tribtine-steps and descending again ;^ing and 
.comingf like to choke with rage, terror, desperation: 
—and mutiny is the order of the day!* 

1790. O Prcsident'Thuriot, thon that irert Elec- 
tor Thuriot^ and from the Bastille battlements «aiW- 
est Saint- Antoine rising like the Ocean-tide^ and hast 
0^en much since^ sawcst thon ever the like of this ? 
Jingle of bell, which thon jinglest' ag^dnst Hobeo- 
pierre, is hardly audible amid the Bedlani. stosan; 
and men rage for life. ^'Presid^it of Assassins,?' 
fthrieks Robespierre, '^ I demand speech of thee for 
the last time ! " It cannot be had. " To you, O vir- 
tuous men of the Plain," cries he, finding audience 
one moment, " I appeal to you ! " The virtuous men 
of the Plain sit silent as stones. And Thuriot's bell 
jingles, and the Hall sounds like JSoUis's Hall. 
Robespierre's frothing lips are grown "blue;" his 
tongue dry, cleaving to the roof of his mouth. 
^' The blood of Danton chokes him, "cry they. '* Ac- 
<jusation ! Decree of Accusation ! " Thuriot swiftly 
puts that question. Accusation passes; the inccar- 
ruptible'Mhximilien is^ecreed Accused. 

1791. " I demand to share my Brother's fate, as I 
have striven to share his virtues, " cries Augustin, 
the Younger Kobespierre : Augustin also is decreed. 
And Couthon, and Saint-Just, and Lebas, they are 
all decreed ; and packed forth, — not without diffi- 

• Monlteur, Nos. 311. 312; ** D^bats." iv. 421-443; "Deux 
Amis/* xii. 390-411. 

Qf> DQWK TO. 515 

cutty, tljfi Ushers alxooBttreinbUng to.ob^. Tciiiin- 
Tirftte a^d Compoaiy are packed forth, into Saint 
Committee«Toom; their tongue cleaving to the roof 
of their mouth. Yon have but to summon the Munic- 
ipality; to cashier Commandant Henriot, and 
launch Arrest at him ; to regulate formalities ; hand 
-Tinville his victims^ It is noon : the ^olu&*Hall 
has:delivered itself; blows now victoriouB, harmon- 
ious* as one irresistible wind. 

1792. And so the work is finished ? One thinks 
so: and yet it is not so. Alas, there is yet but the 
fist act finished ; three or four other acts still to 
come ; and an uneertain catastrophe i A huge City 
holds in it so many confusions: 700,000 human 
heads ; not one of which knows wliat its neighbor is 
doing, nay not what itst^lf is doing. — See, according- 
ly, about three in the afternoon, Commandant Hen- 
riot, how instead of <sitting cashiered, arrested, he 
gallops along the Quais, followed by Municipal Gen- 
darmes, ** trampling down several persons ! " For 
the Town-hall sits deliberating, openly insurgent: 
Barriers to be shut ; no Jailor to admit any prisoner 
this day ;— and Henriot is galloping toward the Tuil- 
eries, to deliver Robespierre. On the Quai de laFer- 
raillerie, a young Citoyen, walking with his wife, 
says aloud : " Gendarmes, that man is not your Com- 
mandant; he is under arrest." The Gendarmes 
Btvike down the young Citoyen with* the flat of their 

1793. Representatives themselves (as Merlin the 

* *' Pr€cls des Ev^nemens du Neuf Tfaermidor/' par C. 
A. Meda, anclen Gendarme (Paris, 1825). 



Thionviller), who accost him, this pnissant Heoitot 
flifigs into gii'ard-hoii66& He bitrsta toward the Tuil- 
eries Committee-room, " to sperfc with Robespierre :" 
with difficulty, the Ushers and Tuileries Gendarmes, 
earnestly pleading and drawing saber, seize this 
Henriot; get the Henriot Gendarmes persffiided not 
to fight ; get Bi^bespierre and Company packed into 
hackney-coaches, sent off under escort, to the Lnx- 
embourg and other Prisons. This, then, is the end ? 
May not an exhausted Conventioa adjourn now, for 
a little repose and sustenance, " at five o'clock ?" 

1794. An exhausted Convention did it; and re- 
pented it. The ^id was not come ; only the end of the 
aecond-act Hark, while exhausted Representatives 
sit at victuals, — tocsin bursting from all steeples, 
drums rolling in the summer evening : Judge Coffin- 
hal is galloping with new Gendarmes, to deliver 
Henriot fVom Tuileries Committee-room; and does 
deliver him ! Puissant Henriot vaults on horseback ; 
sets to haranguing the Tuileries Gendarmes: cor- 
rupts the Tuileries Gendarmes toe; trots off with 
them to Town-hall. Alas, and Robespierre is not iu 
Prison i the Jailor showed his Municipal order, durst 
not, on pain of his life, admit any Prisoner ; the Rob- 
espierre Hackney-coaches, in this confused jangle 
and whirl of uncertain Gendarmes, have floated safe, 
— into the Town-hall ! There sit Robespierre and 
Company, embraced by Municipals and Jacobins in 
sacred right of Insurrection; redacting Proclama- 
tions; sounding tocsins; corresponding with Sec- 
tions and Mother Society. Is not here a pretty 
enough third-act of a guttural Greek Drama ; catas- 
trophe more uncertain than ever ? 

OO DOWIf fO. 517 

1795. TfaftlttuitijrConnrentio&KTisfaeB together agid 
in tlieomiaioii& nightfall: President GoUo^t^ foi the 
chaix i& h^ eoteirs with loi^ strides, pftleness oa his 
lace; claps, on his hat; says wi^ soIi^qu toae: 
*' Cito:ii^eBa, aazi«d VillaiiBS iiiave beset the CosasEilttee 
rooms, and goi poaseaajott oC th«m» The hour is 
eozoe, ta die at oui post; ! 7' *^ Oni," answer one and 
all: *'We sweai: it!" It is no xcMlQwozxtade,. iliis 
time, but a sad &ct and neeessltj ; nstess we m at 
our posts, we most eerily die. Swift therefore, RoI>- 
espiene, Henriotr the Mnnielpa^y,. ace declared 
Bebds ; putt Hors la Lod,, (Out of Law.) Better still, 
we appoint Bazras CommaBdant of what Armed-focce 
is to be had ; sent MIssiesLarjr Be|«esentatives to all 
Sectioiiis and q-uarterSy. to preach, and raise force ; 
will die at least with harness on o»r hack. 

1796. What a distracted City ; men riding and 
running, reporting andheaxsaTing ; the Hour olearly 
ia txavaily^-tchild not to be named' till bom! The 
poor Prisoners, ia the Lnxemboiisg hfiar the nunor ; 
tremUefor a new September; They ase men mak- 
ing signals to them^ on. skylights and roo&, i^ppar- 
ently signals of h«pe: eannot in the lesi^ make out 
what it is."^ We observe, however,, in the eventide, 
as usual, the Death-^tumbrils &ring South-eastward, 
through Saiikt-AntoinQ, toward their Barrier du 
Trone. Saint- Antoine's tough bowels melt; Saint- 
Antoine surrounds the Tumbrils ; says, It shall not 
be. O Heavens, why should it \ Henriot and Gen- 
damiies, scouring the streela that way, bellow, with 
waved sabers, that it must. Quit hope,, ye poor 
Doomed I The Tun^rils move on. 

• •* M^moires sur les Prisons,' ' ii . 277. 


• - . . ^ . - , * j^ ^1 .^ 

1797. Bat in this set of Tumlirild tbeie ajre tvo 
other things notable: one notable penson; and/oiie 
want of a notable person. The notable petsonis 
Lleutenant-Creneral Loiseiolles, anoblemian by bsrth 
and by nature ; laying down his life here for hisson. 
In the Prison of Saint-Lazare, the night befbre lost, 
harrying to the Grate to hear the, J>eathrlist read, 
he caeght the name of his son. The son was asleep 
at the moment " I am Loiserolks^" eried the old 
man : at TinTiUe's bar, an error in the jOhristiafi 
name is little ; small objection wasmade.-^The wsott 
of the notable person, again, is that of Deputy Pakte! 
Paine basset in the Luxembourg sinee. January; 
and seemed forgotten; but Fouquiea: had pricked 
him at last. The Turnkey, List m hand, is marking 
with chalk 1bhe outer doors of to-morrow's Fourn^e. 
Paine's outer door happetied to be open, turned baek 
. on the wall ; the Turnkey mark^ it on the side 
next him, and hurried on ; another Turnkey came 
and shut it ; no chalk-mark noW visible, the Foum^e 
went without Paine. Paine's life lay not there. — 

1798. Our ftfiih-act, of this natural Greek Dramil, 
with its natural unities, «an only be painted in 
gross; somewhat as that antique Painter, driven 
desperate, did the foam. For through this blessed 
July night) there is clangor^u^onfusion very great, of 
marching troops ; of Sections going this way. Sec- 
tions going that* of Missionary Eepresentatives 
reading Proclamations by torch-light; Missionary 
Legendre, who has raised force somewhere^ empty- 
ing out the Jacobins, and flinging, their key on the 
Convention table; ^^I have locked their door: it 

QO DOWN TO. 519 

,1 ■« rfV 

shall be Virtue that reopens it." Paris, we say, is 
^setagftto^il^lf, rushing 6onfVtsed,.as Oceoui-currents 
do^, a huge Mahlstrom, sounding there, under cloud 
of inght. Convention sits permanent on this hand ; 
I Municipality most permanent on that. The poor 
prisoners hear tocsin and rumor; strive to bethink 
them of the signals apparently of hope. Meek con-i 
tinaal Twilight streaming up, which will be Dawn 
and a To-morrow, silv^s the Northern i»m of 
Night; it wends and wends there, that meek bright- 
ness, like a silent prophecy, along the great ring^ial 
of the Heaven. So st^ll, eternal ! jmd on Earth aU 
is confused shadow and conflict; dis^dence, tumult- 
uous gloom and glare; and "Destiny as yet sits' 
waverfcfg} and shakes her doubtful urn." 

1799. About three in the morning the dissident 
Armed- forces have meU Henriot's armed^force stood 
ranked in the Place de Ordve; and now Barras^s, 
which he has recruited, arrives there; and they front 
each other, cannon bristling against cannon. Cit- 
oyens! cries the voice of Discretion loudly enough, 
before coming to bloodshed, to endless civil'-war, 
hear the Convention Decree read. " Robespierre and 
all rebels Out of Law ?"— Out of Law ? There is ter- 
ror in the sound. Unarmed Citoyens disperse rap- 
idly home. Municipal Cannoneers, in sudden whirl, 
anxiously unanimous, range themselves on the Con- 
vention side, with shouting. At which shout. Hen- 
riot deficends from his upper room, far gone in drink, 
as some say; finds his Place de Gr^ve empty; the 
cannons' mouth turned toward him; and on the 
whole, — ^that it is now the catastrophe ! 

520 Tff£&MJDaM* 

1800. Stmnbiing in ugaiii, 4be wt>«tcli«d drmik-o 
sobered Henriot announces: ^*AU iB lost!'' ^VMis^ 
Arable, it is thoa that lias lost it!'' cry tbey^ and 
fling him, or else he flings himself, out of win<- 
dow: far enough down; into masoA-werk saaid 
horror of eess pool ; not into death bat 
Tv^orse. Augustin Robespierre fellows hun: with the 
like fate. Saint* Just, they say, called on Lebas to 
kill him ; who would not. Couthon «rept un- 
der a table ; attempting to kiU himself; not d«l^ 
it.— On entering that Sanhedrim of Insurrection, we 
And all as good as extinct ; undone, ready for «ddt- 
ure. Bobespierre was sitting <m a chair, with pistol- 
shot blown through not his h«ad but his under^aw; 
the suicidal hand had failed.^ With proi&pt seal, 
not without trouble, we gather these wrecked Con- 
spirators ; fish up eyen Henriot and Ai^guetin, bleedr 
ing and foul; pack them all, rudely enough, into 
carts; and shall, before sunrise, have them safe bin- 
der lock and key. Amid Routings and e&ibractngs. 

1601. Robespier]?e lay in an anteroom <»f theOoa- 
vention Hall, while his Prison-escort was getting 
ready; the mangled jaw bound up rudely with 
bloody linen: a spectacle to men. He lies^ stretched 
on a table, a deal-box his pillow; the sheath of the 
pistol is still clutched ccmvulsively in his hand. M&i 
bully him, insult him : his eyes still indicate intelli- 
gence ; he speaks no word. *^ He had en the sky-blue 

 Meda, p. 884. (Meda assserts that It was he who, with 
firflnite coura^ tboirgh in a laft-ttaad^d manner, sliot 
Bobespierre . Meda tf ot promoted for his services of this 
night, and died general and baron. Few credited Meda 
in what was otherwise inoredfbU.) 

QO BOWS TO. 5ia 

ci^t lie bad gol made lor the Feast of the.£tP»Sii- 
l^r^ie '^— O Header, can thjr bard heart liold out 
againstr that? His trousers were nankeen; the 
stockings bad fallen do^vn over the ankles. He 
bpake no word more in Ibis world. 

1802. And so, at six in the morning, a Tictorious 
Convention adjoorns. Report flies o^ver Paris as on 
golden wings; penetrates the Piisons : irradiates the 
faces of those that were ready to perish : turnkeys 
and montoQ% fallen from their high estate, look 
nmte and blua It is the 28tb day of Jaly, called 
lOtb of Thermidor, year 1794. 

180a Fouqnter bad bnt to identify ; his Prisoners 
being already Ont of Law. At four in the afternoon, 
lieTer before were the streets of Paris seen so 
crowded. From the Palais de Jnstice to the Place 
de )a R^ToIntioB, for thither again go the Tumbrils 
this time, it is one dense stirring mass : all windows 
crammed; the very rooi» and ridge-tiles budding 
forth fatiman Curiosity, in strange gladness. The 
Death-tumbrils, with their motley Batch of Outlaws, 
some Twenty-three or so, from Maximllien to Mayor 
Fleuriot and Simon the Cordwainer, roll on. All 
eyes are on Kobespierre^s Tambril, where he, his jaw 
bound in dirty linen, with his half-dead Brother and 
half dead Henriot, lie shattered; their ^^ seventeen 
hours" of agony about to end. The Gendarmes 
point their swords at him to show the people which 
is he. A woman springs on the Tumbril ; clutching 
the side of it with one hand, waving the other. Sibyl- 
like, and exclaims : '^ The death of tiiee. gladdens my 
veiry heart, m^enivre de joie ;" Robespierre openc£i 


^ .. 


his eyes; "Sc^Wrat, gcPdown to Hell, with the 
carses of all wives and mothers 1" At the foot of the 
scaffold, they stretched him on the ground till his 
turn came. Lifted aloft, his eyes again opened; 
caught the hloody. axe. Samson tyijtiidicd the coat 
off him ; wrenched the dirty linen I'roiu his jaw : the 
jaw fell powerless, there burst from him a cry; hide- 
ous to hear and see.^ Samson, thou canst not be too 
quick ! 

1804. Samson's work done, there bursts forth shont 
on shout of applause. Shout, which prolong, itself 
not only over Paris, but over Franee, bulj over Eu- 
rope, and down to this generation. Deservedly, and 
also undeservedly. O unhappiest Advocate ^f Axra^, 
wert thou worse than other Advocates? Stricter 
man, according to his Formula, to his Credo, and his 
Cant, of probities, benevolences, pleasares^of-virtue, 
and such like, lived not in that age. A man fitted, 
in some luckier settled age, to have become one of 
those incorruptible barren Pattern-Figures, and have 
had marble-tablets and funeral-sermons. His poor 
landlord, the Cabinet-maker in the Rue Saint-Hoja- 
or^, loved him ; his Brother died for him. May God 
be merciful to him and to us! 

1805. This is the end of the Reign of Terror ; new 
glorious Revolution named of Thermidwr; of Thermi- 
dor 9th, year 3; which, being interpreted into old 
slave-style means 27th of July, 1794. Terror is end- 
ed ; and death in the Place de la Revolution, were 
the " Tail of Robespierre " once executed ; which ser- 
vice Fouqaier, in large Batches, is swiftly managing. 


^> *^* • 




1806. How little did anyone suppose that here wxis 
the end not of Robespierre only, hat of the Bevolu- 
tion System ftself! Least of all did the mutinying 
Committee-men suppose it ; who had mutinied with 
no view whatever except to continue the National 
Regeneration with their own heads on their shoul- 
ders. And yet so it verily was. The insignificant 
stone they had struck out) so insignlfieant anywhere 
else, proved to be the Keystone; the whole arch- 
work and edifice of Sansculottism began to loosen, to 
crnck, to yawn ; and tumbled piecemeal, with con- 
siderable rapidity ) plunge after plunge; till the 
Abyiss had swallowed it all, and in this upper world 
SanscnlottiRm was no more. 

1 807^ " For despicable as Robespierre himself might 
be, the death of Robespierre was a signal at which 
gieat multitudes of men, struck dumb with terror 
heretofore, rose out of their hiding-places; and, as it 
were, saw one another, how multitudinous they were ; 
and began speaking and complaining. They are 
countable br^ the thousand and the mill ion ^ who 


have sufEered croel wrong. Ever louder rifiea tlieh 
plaint of such a multitade ; into a umvensal contijaa^ 
dus peal, of what they call Publio Ofonion^ Camille 
had demanded a ^'Committee of Mercy," and could 
not get it ; but now the whole nation resolves itself 
into a Committee of Merc^; the Nation has tried 
Sansculottism, and is weary of it. Force of Puhlie 
Opinion 1 What King pr Convention can withstand 
it? You in vain struggle ; the thing that is rejectr 
ed as. ^'calumnious" to-day must pass as veracious 
with triumph another day : gods and men have de- 
clared that Sansculottism caaaot be. Saasculottis&i, 
on that 9th night of Thexmidor suicidally "fractured 
its under-jaw;" and lies writhing, never to rise 

1808. Through the next fifteen mouths, it is what 
we may call the death Agony of Sansculottism. Sans- 
culottism, Aasrchy of the Jean-Jacques Evangel, 
having now got deep enough, is to perish in a new 
singular system of Culottism and Arrangement. 
For Arrangement is indispensable to man : Arrange- 
ment, were it grounded only on that old primary 
Evangel of Force, with Scepter in the shape of Ham- 
mer ! Be there method, be there order, cry all men ; 
were it that of the Drill-sergeant! More tolerable 
is the drilled Bayonet-rank, than that undrilled 
Guillotine, incalculable as the wind. — How Sanscu- 
lottism, writhing in death-throes, strove some twice, 
or even three times, to get on its feet again ; but fell 
always, and was flung resupine the next instant ; 
and finally breathed put the life of it, and stirred no 
miNre: this we are now, irom a due distance, with 

DECADENT. . fi25 

due Iwevity, to glance at* and then — O Reader!— 
Ccrarage, I see land J 

180&. Two of the first act« of the Convention, very 
nattoxal for it after this Thennidor, are to be specified 
here : the first is, renewal of the Governing Commit- 
tees. Both Sfiret^ Gen^rale and Salut Public, thinned 
by the GniUotine, need filling up : .we naturally fill 
them up with Tall lens, Fr^rons, victorious Ther- 
niidortan men: Still more to the purpose, we appoint 
that they shall, as Law directs, not in name only but 
in deed, be renewed and changed from period to 
period ; a fourth part of them going out monthly. 
The Convention will no more lie under bondage of 
Committees, under terror of death; but be a free 
Convention; free to follow its own judgment, and 
the Force of Public Opinion. Not less natural is it 
to enaet that Prisoners and Persons under Accusa- 
tion shall have right to demand some " Writ of Ac 
cusation," and see clearly what they are accused of. 
Yery natural acts ; the harbingers of hundreds not 
less so. 

1810. For now Fouquier's trade, shackled by "Writ 
of Accusation, and legal proo/, is as good as gone ; 
effectual only against Kobespierre's Tail. The 
Prisons give up their Suspect; emit them faster 
and faster. The Committees see themselves besieged 
with Prisoners* friends; complain that they are 
hindered in their work : it is as with men rushing 
out of a crowded place ; and obstructing one another 
Turned are the tables: Prisoners pouring out in 
floods ; Jailors, Moutons and the Tail of Robespierre 
going now ivhither they were tvont to send !-^The 


Hundred and thirty-two Nantese KepnblicftQS) whaiii 
we4saw marching in irons, have arrived ; shrunk to 
Ninety-four, the fifth man of them choked by the 
road. They arrive: and suddenly find, themselves 
not pleaders for life, but denouncers to death. Their 
Trial is for acquittal, and more. As the voice of a 
trumpet, their \estimony sounds iar and wide, mere 
atrocities of a Beign of Terror. For a space of nine- 
teen days; with all solemnity and publicity. Rep- 
resentative Carrier, Company of Marat ^ Noyadingi^, 
Loire Marriages, things done]in darkness, come forth 
into light : clear is the voice of these poor resusci- 
tated Nantese ; and Journals, and Speech, ^fls^L uni- 
versal Committee of Mercy reverberate it loud enough, 
into all ears and hearts. Deputation arrives, fjrom 
Arras ; denouncing the atrocities of Hepresentatiye 
Lebon. A tamed Convention love& its own life : yet 
what help? Bepresentative Lebon, Representative 
Carrier must wend toward the Revolutionary Tri- 
bunal ; struggle and delay as we will, the cry of a 
Nation pursues them louder and louder. Them al$o 
Tinville must abolish ;— if indeed Tinville himself 
be not abolished. 

1811. We must note, moreover, the decrepit condi- 
tioc into which a once omnipotent Mother Society 
lir.a fcillen. Iiegendre flung her keys on the Conven- 
tion table, that Thermidor night ; her President was 
guillotined with Robespierre. The once mighty 
Mother came, som« time after, with a subdued coun- 
tenance, begging. back her keys: the keys were re- 
stored her; but the strength could not be restored 
her ; the strength had departed forever. Alae^ one's 

. DECADENT, 627 

day is done. Vain that the Tribune in mid-air sounds 
as of old : to the general ear it has become a horror, 
and even a weariness. By and by, Affiliation is pro- 
hibited : the mighty Mother sees herself suddenly 
childless ; mourns as so hoarse a Rachel may. 

1812. The Revolutionary Committees, without Sus- 
pects to prey upon, perish fast ; as it were, of famine. 
In Paris the old Forty-eight of them are reduced to 
twelve; their Forty soiui ate abolished: yet a little 
while, and Revolutionary Committees are no more. 
Maximum will be abolished : let Sansculottism find 
food where it can.* Neither is there now any Mnnie- 
Ipality ; any center at the Town-hall. Mayor Fleu- 
riot and Company perished ; whom we shall not be 
in haste to replace. The Town-hall remains in a 
broken Submissive state; knows not well what it is 
growing to; knows only that it is grown weak, and 
must obey. What if we should split Paris into, say, 
a Dozen separate Municipalities; incapable of con- 
cert! The Sections were thus rendered safe to act 
with : — or indeed might not the Sections themselves 
be abolished? You had then merely your Twelve 
manageable pacific Townships, without center or 
subdivision if and sacred right of Insurrection fell 
into abeyance ! 

1813. So much is getting abolished; fleeting 
swiftly into the Inane. For the Press speaks, and 
the human tongue; Journals, heavy and light, in 
Philippic and Burlesque : a renegade Fr^ron, a rene- 
gade Prudhomme, loud they as ever, only the con- 

• 24th Decerabre, 1794 (Moniteur, No. 97). 
t Octpber. I7»5 (Dulaure, viii. 464-46e). 


traiy way. And Ci-deTftiits3liowthemsel9ite,ftlin0Bi 
parade themselves; resuscitated as A:om deatb-iiieep; 
publish what death-pains they have had. The very 
Frogs of the Marsh croak with emphasis. Your pro- 
testing^Seventy-three shall with a struggle, be emitted 
ottt.of Prison, back to their seats ; your LouvetS, Is- 
uards, Lanjninais, and wrecks of Girondism recalled 
IVom their hay-lofts, and caves in Switzerland, will 
resume theiig[)lace in the Convention i* natural ices 

1814. Thermidorian Talliens, and mere foes of 
Terror, Tule in this Convention, and out of it. The 
compressed Mountain shrinks silent more and more. 
Moderatism rises louder and louder : not as a tern* 
pest, with threatenings ; say rather, as the rushing 
of a mighty organ-blast, and melodious deafening 
Force of Public Opinion, from the 25,000,000 wind- 
pipes of a Nation all in Committee of Mercy : which 
how shall any detached body of individuals with- 



1815. How, above all, shall a poor National Con> 
vention withstand it ? In this poor National Conven- 
tion, broken, bewildered by long terror, pertur- 
bations and guillotinemeut, there is no PUot,. there is 
not now even a Danton, who could undertake to 
steer you any whither, in such press of weather. The 
utmost a bewildered Convention can do, is tO-veer, 

*'* Deux Amis/* Xlll. 3-39. 

^ Q4MiiBUSL: " b^ 

axid ^im^fuid ti7 ta keep, iiiself steady; and nti^^ 
uBdiownedy before the vind. Needless to struggle; 
tafllztg lielm a-lee, and make '&<m^«fttp / A bewildered 
ConventioH sails not m the teeth of the "wind ; but is 
rabidly blown roand again. So strong is the ^iud 
Ave say; and so changed; blowing fresher and fresher 
as from the sweet South-west; your def?astatiug 
North-eastera, wild Tornado-gusts of Tenor, blown 
utiterly out! Ail Sansculottic things are passing 
away ; all things are becoming Cnlottic. 

1816. Do bat look at the cat of clothes; that light 
visible Result, significant of a thousand things -which 
are not so visible. In winter, 17S>3, men went in red 
night-es^; Municipals iiiemaelyes in sabots ^ the very 
Citoyenues h^vl to petition against such head-gear. 
Btrt now in this winter, 1794, where is the red night- 
cap? With the things beyond the Flood. Your 
moneyed Citoyen ponders in mrhat most elegant style 
hesliall dress himself; whether he shall not even 
dress himself as the Free Peoples of Antiquity. The 
more adventurous Citoyenne has already done it. 
Behold her, that beautiful adventurous Citoyenne: 
in costume of the Ancient Greeks, such Greek as 
Painter David could teach ; her sweeping tresses 
snooded by glittering antique fillet ; bilght-dyed 
tunic of the Greek women ^ hex little feet naked, as 
in Antique Statues, with mere sandals, and winding* 
strings of ribbon,— defying the frost ! 

1817. There is such an effervescence of Luxury. 
For your Emigrant Oi-devants carried not their man- 
sions a&d fomitares out of the country with them f 
but left them standing here : and in the swift changes 

.^ /■. 

630 vE'j^ifrmAiBm 

of property, what with money coined:^ on ^e Tht^^ 
de la Revolution, what with Array fandsbingii, -^l$a 
of Emigrant Domains and ChnrehLanda and King's. 
Lands, and then with the Aladdin's^-lamp: of Agio ia 
a time of Paper-money, snch mansions hart^ fQund 
new occupants. Old wine, drawn from! Ct-davant 
bottles, descends new throats. Paris has flw^ her*: 
self, relighted herself; Salons^ Soupers not FFaitornal» 
beam once more with Suitable effulgence, very sin- 
gular in color. The fair Gabarus is come oat o£^ 
Prison ; wedded to her red-bloomy Dis,. whom they 
say she treats too loA^ily: fair €abarufi gives thei 
most brilliant soireesi Round her is.gathered a. new 
Republican Army, of Citoyeunes in sandals; €>• 
devant or other: what remnants soever of thi)ol^ 
grace survive are rallied there. At her right^luinir^ 
in this cause, labors fair Josephine the Widow Beaar* 
harnais, though in straitened circumstances ;.iiit«Dl^ 
both of them, to blandish down the grinmess oi' M^ 
publican austerity, and recivilizc mankind. 

1818. Rccivilize, even as iaf old they were civilised t 
by witchery of the Orphic fiddle-bow, and Enterpeaa 
rhythm; by the Graces, by the Smiles! . Thcrmi- 
dorian Deputies are there in those soirees : Editor 
Frferon, Orateur du Peuple ; Barras, who has known 
other dances than the Carmagnole, Grim Generals 
of the Republic are there; in enormous horse^cob 
lar neck-cloth, good against saber-cuts: the hair 
gathered all into one knot, '* flowing down behind, 
fixed with, a comb." Among which latter do we not 
recognize, once more, that little bronze-complexioned 
Artillery-Officer-of Toulon, home from thtt-UBBaa 

WadTst 'Giiiii ounigh^ of I&tn, akao^t cruel aspect: 
for he has trouble, in ill-beaHh; also mill* 
f&TiH'f'aa a man promoted, disaervinglj or not, by the 
Tert^oriats and Robespierre Junior, But does not 
Barrasknow him? Will not Barras speak a word 
fovhrm? Yes, — if at any time it will serve 3arras 
so to do. Somewhat forlorn of fortune, for the pres- 
ent, stands that Artillery-Officer ; looks, with those 
deep earnest eyes of his, into a future as waste as the 
most. Taciturn ; yet with tJie strangest utterances 
in him, if you awaken him; which smite homCi like 
lighter lightxting ;-— on the Vhole, rather dangerous ? 
A ''dissocial" man? Dissocial enoY:^h; a natural 
terror and horror to all Phantasms, being hims^f of 
ihe genus Beality ! He stands here, without work 
ct outlook, in this forsaken manner ;— glances, never- 
theless, it would seem, at- the kind glance of Josephine 
Bettuhamais ; and, for the rest, with severe counte* 
nance, with open eyes, and closed lips, waits what 
will betide. 

1819. That the Balls^ therefore, have a new figure 
this winter, we can see. Not Carmagnoles, rude 
" whirl-blasts of rags,'* as Mercier called them, " pre- 
cursons of storm and destruction :'- no, soft Ionic 
motions, fit for the light sandal and antique Grecian 
tunic ! Efflorescence of Luxury has come out : for 
men have wealth ; nay new-got wealth ; and under 
the Terror you durst not dance, except in rags. 
Among the innumerable kinds of Balls, let the hasty 
reader mark only this single one : the kind they call 
Victim Balls (Bals 4 Victime). The dancers, in 
choice costumOy have.i^l ci^^pe round the left ar^n 

632 VSNDimilBK 

to be admitted, it needs tbat you be a Yictime*^ tbat 
you have lost a relative under the Terror. : Pexice Uy 
the Dead ; let us dance to their memory ! For m jslU 
ways one must dance. 

1820. It Is very remarkable, according to M^cier, 
tinder what varieties of figure this great business of 
dancing goes on. "The women," says he, are "Nymphs, 
Sultanas; sometimes Miner vas,', JutK>s, azid even 
Dianas. In lightly-unerring gyrations they swim 
there ; with such earnestness of purpose; with per- 
fect silence, so absorbed are they. What is singular," 
continues he, " the onlookers are as it were mingled 
with the dancers -y form, as it were, a circutnambient 
element rOUnd the diiFerenl contra-dances, yet with- 
out deranging them. It is rare, in fact, that a Sul- 
tana in such circumstances experiences the smallest 
collision. Her pretty foot darts down, an inch from 
mine; she is o€f again ; she is as a flash of light: but 
soon the measure recalls her to the point she set out 
from. Like a glittering comet she travels her ellipse ; 
revolving on herself, as by a double effect of gravita- 
tion and attraction."* Looking forward a little way, 
into Time, the same Mercier discerns Merveilleuses 
in " flesh-colored drawers" with gold circlets ; mere 
dancing Houris of an artificial Mohammed's-Para- 
dise : much too Mohammedan. Montgaillard, with 
his splenetic eye, notes a no less strange thing ; that 
every fashionable Citoyenne you meet is in an inter^ 
esting situation. Good Heavens, every ? Mere pil- 
lows and stuffing! adds the acrid man ; — such m a 
tiiiae of depopulation by war and guillotine, being 

* Meroier, "Nouveau Paris," HI. 138, 168. 


L4 C4BABU8, 533 

tbe fashion.* No farther seek its merits to disclose. 

1821. f>ehold also, instead of the old grini Tappe- . 
dtirs of Eobespierre, what new street-groups are 
these? Yomig men habited not in black-shag Car- 
magnole speni*er, but in superfine habit carrd, or 
spencer with rectangular tail appended toit ; "square- 
tailed coa,t,"' with elegant anti-guillotinish specialty 
of collar ;" the hair plaited at the temples," and 
knotted bade, long- flowing, in military wise; young 
men of what they call the Muscadin or Dandy 
species ! Fr^ron, in his fondness, names them Jeun- 
esse Dor^e, Golden or Gilt Youth. They have come 
ont, these Gilt Youths, in a kind of resuscitated 
state; they wear crape round the left arm, such of 
them as were Victims, More, they carry clubs loaded 
with lead ; in an angry manner: any Tappe-dur, or 
remnant of Jacobinism they may fall in with, shall 
fare the worse. They have suffered much: their 
friends guillotined ; their pleasures, frolics, super- 
fine collars ruthlessly repressed : 'w^^ ^^^w the base 
Red Night-caps who did it ! Fair Cabarus and the 
Army of Greek sandals smile approval. In the 
Th^&tre Feydeau, young Valor in square-tailed coat 
eyes Beauty in Greek sandals, and kindles by her 
glances: Down with Jacobinism! No Jacobin 
hymn or demonstration, only Thermidorian ones, 
shall be permitted here : we beat down Jacobinism 
with clubs loaded with lead. 

1822. But let any one who has examined the Dandy 
nature, how petulant it is, especially in the grega- 
rious state, think what an element, in sacred right 

« Moatgailiard, iv. 4aMi2. 


td ii^soTrectioir, this Gilt Youth was! ^joilsi^jpnd 
battery ; vnx mtfaont tmce or m^iidure { Hateful .is 
Sanscalottism, as Death and Night* For indeed is 
not the Dandy eiUotUc^ habilatory, by IgfW of exist- 
ence ; " a cloth-animal \ one that liTes, moyes and 
has bis being in cloth ?" 

1823^ So goes it, waltzing, bickerings; fairCatoroB, 
by Orphic witchery, strnggUng to reciviU^se fiftan- 
kind. Not ansaccessfuliy, we hear. What utmost 
Repnblican grimness can resist Grieek sandads^ln 
Ionic motion, the very toes covered with gold rings ?^ 
By degrees the indispntablest new-politeness rises ; 
grows, with vigor. And yet, whether, even to^is 
day, that inexpressible tone of society known under 
the old Kings, when Sin had *' lost all its defofmil^" 
(with or without advantage to us), and airy Nbtbidg 
had obtained such a local habitation and establish- 
ment as she never had, — ^be recovered? Or even, 
whether it be not lost beyond recovery If — ^Eiljier 
way, the world must contrive to struggle on. 



1824. But, indeed, do not these long-flowing hair- 
queues of a Jeunesse Dor€e in semi-military costume 
betoken, unconsciously, another still more impor- 
tant tendency? The Republic, abhorrent of her 
Guillotine, loves her Army. 

• Montirafllard, Mercfer (uW 8upr&). • 

f I>e Btaei, 'lOonsj^d&rations^'' iU o . ]/(»« eto. 


.18^: And Wifli oattse^ For, sarel^, if :goQ4-£glLt- 
ing be in Isind of honor, as it is iaits sesisoii ; aud be 
witli the vulgar of men, even the chief kind of 
honor , then here is good fightiDg, in gooci reason, if 
"there ever was. These Sous of the Republic, they 
rose, in mad wrath, to deliver her from Slavery and 
Ciinmeria. And have they not done it? Through 
Maritime Alps, through ^rges of Pyrenees, thronjgh 
Low Countries, Northward along the Rhine- valley, 
IjEir IS Cimmeria hurled back from the sae^ Mother- 
land. Fierce as fiie, thev have carried her Tricolor 
over the faces of all her enemies ; — over scarpsed 
heightd; over cannon^batteries, it has flown -victorious, 
wing^ with rage. She has 'M,100,000 fighters on 
foot," this Republic : '' at one itartionlar moment she 
had," or supposed she had, "1,700,000."* Like a 
ring of lightning, thejr, volleying Tmd ^a-ira-ing, be- 
girdle her from shore to shore. Cimmerian Coalition 
<i^f Despots recoils, smitten with astonishment and 
strange pangs. . . . ^ : 

1826. Such a fire is in these Gaelic Republican 
men; high-blazing; which no Coalition can with- 
stand ! Not scutcheons, with four degrees of nobil- 
ity ; but ci-devant Sergeants, who have had to clutch 
Generalship out of the cannon's throat, a Pichegm, 
a Jourdsin, a Hoche lead them on. They liave bread, 
they have iron ; ^ with bread and iron yon can get to 
China." — See Pichegru's soldiers, this hard winter, 
in their looped and windowed destitution, in their 
" straw-rope shoes and cloaks of baist-mat," how they 
overrun Holland, like a demon host, the ice hajing 

 Tonlontfeon, ill. c. 7;. v. o. 10, (p. UBi). .  . 


53a VEimrMlAlSK 

bridged all watets; and msh slioutjiig ihwn yi^torf 
to victory I Ships in the TeXei are taken by boSBaiS 
on horseback : fled is York ; fled is the StadthoMer* 
glad to escape to England, aiod leave HoUand to &sr 
temize.* Such a Gaelic fire, we say, blazes in this 
People, like the conflagration of grass and dry* 
jangle; which no mortal can withstand, — for the 

1627. And even so it will blaze and ran, scorching 
all things; and, from Cadiz to Archangel, mad Sans* 
cnlottism, drilled now into Soldiership^ led on by 
some ** armed Soldier of Democracy'^ (say, that 
monosyllabic Artillery-Officer), will set its foot 
crnelly on the necks of its enemies ; and itsshontin^ 
and thmr shrieking shall fill the world ! — Rash Co- 
alesced Kings, Bac];L a fire have ye kindled ; your- 
selves fireless, your fighters animated only by drill* 
sergeants, mess-room moralities and the drommer's 
cat! However, it is began, and will not end: not 
for a matter of twenty years. So long, this Gaelic 
fire« through its successive changes of color and 
character, will blaze over the face of Europe, and. 
affiict and scorch all men : — ^till it provoke all men ; 
tin it kindle another kind of fire, the Teutonic kind^ 
namely ; and be swallowed up, so to speak, in a day! 
For there is a fire comparable to the burning of dry- 
jungle and grass ; most sudden, high-blazing * and 
another fire which we liken to the bumiug of coal, 
or even of anthracite coal ; difficult to kiudle, but 
then which, no known thing will put out. The ready 
Gaelic fire, we can remark farther, — and remark not 
* 19th January, 1795 (MontgaiUard, iv. 287-311). 

in Pidi€igrd8'<nily, fmt ifi immmerable Yoitakes, 
Bacifics, LxpUnceByJMt leal; for ai&an, Trfaether he 
.fight, or Binfs^ or t^ink, will remain the same nnity of 
a mao, — is admirable for roasting egg^, in every con- 
ceivable ^nse. The Teattntic anthracite again, as 
wo see la Lathera, Letbaitzes, Sfaakespeares, is pref- 
erable ibr. ameltix^ metals. How happy is our 
Europe that has both kinds ! — 

1828* But be this as it may, the Re{»i]d)Iic is clearly 
triumphiag. In the spring of the year, Mentz Town 
again sees itseif besieged^ will agaiai change master : 
did not Merlin ^e Thionviller, *' with wild beard 
and look,^ say it was not for the last time they saw 
^m thero? The Elector of Mentz circulates among 
fads brother Potentates this pertinent query, Were it 
not advisable to treat of Peace ? Yes ! answers many 
an Elector from the bottom of his heart. But, 
on the other hand, Austria hesitates; &ially refuses, 
being sabsidied by Pitt. As to Pitt, whoever hesi- 
tate, he, saspeading his Habeae-corpos, scspending 
hisCashrpaym^itSfStands inflexible,-~«pite of foreign 
reverses : ^te of domestic obstacles, of Scotch Na- 
tional Oonventiims and English Friends a£ the Peo- 
ple, whom he is obliged to arraign, to hang, or even 
to see acquitted with jubilee : a lean inj^exible man. 
Tlie Majesty of Spain, as we predicted, makes Peace: 
also the Majesty of Prussia : and there is a Treaty 
of B41e.^ Treaty with Uack Anarchists and Regi- 
cides! Alas, what help? You cannot hang this 
Anarchy.; it is like to liang yon: jou. must'needs 
treat with it. 

• fith April. 3^6 (3fio« 80V 


1829. Likewise, General Hocbe ha3 even sncceeded 
in pacificating La Vendue. Rogne Rossignol arid liis 
" Infemal Columns " have vanished : by firmness and 
justice, by sagacity and industry, General Hocbe has 
done it. Talking " Movable Columns," not infernal ; 
girdjing-in the Country ; pardoning the submissive, 
cutting down the resistive, limb after limb of the 
Revolt ia brought under. La Rochejacquelin,last of 
our Nobles, fell in battle ; Stofflet himself makest 
terms ; Georges-Cadoudalis back to Brittany, among 
his Chouans : the frightful gangrene of La Yend^ 
seems veritably extirpated. It has cost, as they 
reckon in round numbers, the lives of 100,000 fellow- 
mortals; with noyadings, confiagratiugs. by infernal 
column, which defy arithmetic. This isfhe LS 
Vendue War.* 

1830. Nay in few months, it does burst-up once 
more, but once only;^blown upon by Pitt, by our 
Ci-devant Puisaye of Calvados, and others., In. the 
mouth of July, 1795, English Ships will ride in 
Quiberon r(^s. There will be debarkation of chiv- 
alrous Ci-devants, of volunteer Prisoners-of-war-r- 
eager to desert ; of fire-arms, Proclamations, clothes- 
chests, Ro3ralists and specie. Whereupon also, on 
the Republican side, there will be rapid stand-to- 
arms; with ambuscade marchings by Quiberoii 
beach, at midnight; storming of Fort Perithievre; 
war-tbunder mingling with the roar of the nightly 
main; and such a morning light as has seldom 
dawned : debarkation hurled back into its boats^ or 

 "Histolre de la Guerre de la Vendue," par M. leComte 
de Vaubaa; ^*M6iiioir8s de Mndame de la Bocbejucpeltn." 



into the devouring billows, Triti wredc and wail; — 
in one word/a Ci-devant Puisaye as totally ineffect- 
ual here as he was in Calvados, when he rode from 
Vernon Castle without boots.* 

1831. Again, therefore, it has cost the lives of 
many a brave man. Among whom the whole world 
laments the brave Son of Sombreuil. Ill-fated 
family! The father and younger son went to thd 
guillotine ; the heroic daughter languishes, reduced 
to want, hides her woes from History : the elder son 
perishes here; shot by military tribunal as an Emi* 
grant ; Hoche himself cannot save him. If all wars, 
civil and other, are misunderstandings, what a thing 
xnust xight'understanding be ! 



1832. The Convention, borne on the tide of For- 
tune toward foreign Victory, and driven by the 
strong wind of Public Opinion toward Clemency and 
Luxury, is rushing fast ; all skill of pilotage is need- 
ed, and more than all, in such a velocity. 

1833. Curious to see, how we veer and whirl, yet 
must ever whirl round again, and scud before the 
wind. If, on the one hand, we re admit the Protest- 
ing Seventy-three, we, on the other hand, agree to 
consummate the Apotheosis of Marat ; lift his body 
from the Cordeliers Church, and transport it to the 
Pantheon of Great Men — flinging out Mirabeau to 

^ «'Deuz Amis," xiv. M>106: Puisaye. "^ M^moire^/' ill.- 

540 rk^DEMIAIS:^ 

mak^ room fbr him. To no porpoee: so stipxig 
blows Public Opinion I A Gilt Yonthbood, in plait- 
ed b air-tresses, tears down bis Bnsts from tbe 
Th^dter Fey dean , tramples tbem under foot ; scat- 
ters tbem, with vociferation, into the Cess-pool of 
Montmartre * Swept is his Chapel from tbe Place 
dn Carrousel ; the Cess-pool of Montmartre will re- 
«eiTe his very dust. Shorter godhood bad no divine 
man. Some fonr months in this Pantheon, Temple 
of All the Immortals; then to tbe Cess-pool," grand 
Cloaca of Paris and the World ! "His Busts at one 
time amounted to 4,000.** Between Temple of All 
the Immortals and Cloaca of tbe World, bow are 
poor human creatures Whirled ! 

1834. Furthermore the question arises, When will 
tbe Constitution of NineiyThreej of 1793, come into 
action ? Considerate heads surmise, in all privacy 
that the Constitution of Ninety-three will never 
eome into action. Let tbem busy themselves to get 
ready a better. 

1835. Or, again, where now are the Jacobins? 
Childless, most decrepit, as we saw, sat tbe mighty 
Mother ; gnashing not teeth, but empty gums, against 
a traitorous Thermidorian Convention and tbe cur- 
rent of things. Twice were Billaud, Collotand Com* 
pany accused in Convention, by a Lecointre, by a 
Legendre; and the second time, it was not voted* 
calumnious. Billaud from the Jacobin tribune says, 
"The lion is not dead ; be is only sleeping." They 
ask him in Convention, What be means by tbe 
awakening of tbe lion ? And bickerings, of an exten- 

* Moniteur, du 25 Septembre« 1794; du 4 FSvrier, 1706. 


slTe Best J arose in tlu^ Palais-ISgalit^ I>etwe0n Tappe- 
dar& and the Gilt Youthhood; cries of ''Down with 
the Jacobins, Jacoquins," coquin meaning scoundrel ! 
The Tribune in mid-air gave battle-sound; an- 
swered only by silen<» and uncertain gasps. Talk 
was in Government Committees, of "suspending" the 
Jacobin Sessions. Hark, there 1 — it is in AJl-hallow- 
time, or on the Hallow-eve itself, month ci-devant 
November, year once named of Grace 1794, sad eve 
for Jacobinism, — volley of stones dashing thrqogh 
our windows, with jingle and execration ! The fe- 
male Jacobins, famed Tricoteuses with knitting- 
needles, take flight ; are met at the doors by a Gilt 
Youthhood and '^mob of 4,000 persons ;" are hooted, 
floutedf hustled ; fustigated in a scandalous manner, 
cotillons retrouss^s ; — and vanish ia mere hysterics. 
' Sally out, ye male Jacobins ! The male Jacobins 
sally out; but only to battle, disaster and confusion. 
So that armed Authority has to intervene ; aud 
again on the morrow to intervene ; and suspend the 
Jacobin Sessions forever and a day.* — Gone are the 
Jacobins; into invisibility; in a storm of la^nghter 
and howls. Their Place is made a Normal School, 
the first of the kind ^een ; it then vanishes into a 
''Market of Thermidor Ninth ;" into a Market of 
Saint-Honor^, where is now peaceable chaffering for 
poultry and greens. The solemn temples, the great 
globe itself; the baseless fabric ! Are not we such 
stuff, we and this world of ours, as Dreams are made 

* Moniteur. Stances du 10-12 Novembre> 1794; *'Deux 

1836. Maximum being atnrogated, Tnide ^vras to 
take its own free conrse. Alas, Trade, shackled, 
topsy-tuTvied in the way we saw, and now suddenly 
let-go again, can for thepvesent take no course at all ; 
but only reel and stagger. There is, so to speak, -no 
Trade whatever for the time being. Assignats, long 
sinking, emitted in sueh quantities, sink now with 
an alacrity beyond parallel. "Combien T* said one 
to a Hackney-coachman, "What Ihre? "Six thou- 
sand livres," answered he: some 300 pounds sterling, 
in Paper-money.* Pressure of Maximum withdrawn 
the things it compressed likewise withdraw. **Two 
ounces of bread per day" is the- modicum allotted : 
wide waving, doleful are the Bakers^ Queues : Vvcrm- 
ers' houses are become pawnbrokers' shops. 

1837. One can imagine, in these circumstances, 
with what humor Sanscnlottism growled in its 
throat "La Cabarus ;" beheld Ci»devants return danc- 
ing, the Thermidor effulgence of re-civilization, and 
Balls in flesh-colored drawers. Greek tunics and 
sandals; hosts of Muscadins parading, with their 
clubs loaded with lead ; — and we here, cast out, ab- 
horred, "picking offals from the street ,*"t agitating 
in Bakers' Queue for our two ounces of bread ! 
Will the Jacobin lion, which they say is meeting 
secretly "at the Aichev^ch^, in bonnet rouge with 
loaded pistols," not awaken ? Seemingly, not. Our 
Col lot, our Billaud, Barr^re, Vadier, in these last 

* Merder, li . 94. (*• 1 fit February, 1796. at the Bourse of 
Paris, the gold loui8,"of 20 francs In silver, ^* costs 5,900 
francs in assignats/' Montgalllard, iv. 419.) 

t Fantin Desodoarda, ^^Ilistoire de la B^volution." \i^ 
c. 4. 

daysoptocb, 1795; axe found wortjbij of B^rtatiipn, 
of Baoisbment beyond seas; and sball, fox the 
present, be trundled off to tbe Castle of Ham, The 
lion is dead; — or writhing in death-tbroes! 

1838. Bebold, accordingly, on the day they call 
12tb of Germinal (which is also called 1st of April, 
not a lucky day)^ how lively are these streets of 
Paris once more ! Floods of hungry women, of 
squalid hungry men; ejaculating, *'Bread, bread, 
and the Constitution of Ninety-three !" Paris has 
risen j once again like the Ocean-tide; is flowing 
toward the Tuileries, for Bread and a Constitution. 
Tuileries Sentries do their best ; but it serves not : 
the Ocean-tide sweeps them away ; inundates tbe 
Convention Hall itself; bowling, Bread and the Con- 

1839. Unhappy Senators, unhappy People, there is 
yet, after all toils and broils, no Bread, no Constitu- 
tion. ^' Du pain, pas tant de longs discours (Bread, 
not bursts of Parliamentary eloquence) !" so wailed 
the Menads of Maillard five years ago and more: so 
wail ye to this hour. The Convention, with unal- 
terable countenance, with what thought one knows 
not, keeps its seat in this waste howling chaos ; rings 
its storm-bell from the- Pavilion of Unity. Section 
Lepelletier, old Filles Saint-Thomas, who are of the 
money-changing species ; these and Gilt Yonthbood 
fly to the rescue : sweep chaos forth again, with lev- 
eled bayonets. Paris is declared " in a state of siege." 
Pichegru, Conqueror of Holland, who happens to be 
here, is named Commandant, till the disturbance 
end. He, in one day, so to speak, ends it. He ac- 


complishes the transfer of Billaad) Collot a&d Com- 
pany, dissipating all exposition ^' by two cannon* 
shots," blank cannon*shot8, and terror of his name; 
and thereupon, announcing, with a Laconicism which 
should be imitated, " Representattves, your decrees 
are executed," * lays down his Commandantship. 

1840. This Revolt of Germinal, therefore, has 
passed, like a rain cry* The Prisoners rest safe in 
Ham, waiting for ships ; some 900 ^^ chief Terrorists 
of Paris " are disarmed. Sansculottism, swept torih. 
with bayonets, has vanished, with its misery, to the 
bottom of Saint-Antoine and Saint-Marcean. — Time 
was when Usher Maillard with Menads could alter 
the course of Legislation; but that time is not. 
Legislation seems to have got bayonets ; Section L^ 
pelletier takes its firelock, not for us! We retire to 
our dark dens ; our cry of hunger is called a plot of 
Pitt ; the Saloons glitter, the flesh^colored Drawers 
gyrate as before. It was for " The Cabarus," then, 
and her Muscadins and Money-changers that we 
fought? It was for Balls in flesh-colored drawers 
that we took Feudalism by the beard, and did and 
dared, shedding our blood like water ? Expressiyo 
Silence, muse thou their praise ! — 



1841. Representative Carrier went to the Guillo* 
line, in December last; i>rotesting that he acted by 
orders. The Riivolutionaiy Tribunal, after all it has 

• Monlteur, Stance du IS^erminal (2d April}41M< 


devoured, lui8 now <mly., as Aaarcbie thiags do, to 
devour itseJLf. In the early days of May, men see a 
remarkable thing : Fonquier^Tinville pleading at the 
Bar once his own. He and his chief Jurymen, Leroi 
Atigust^Ibnthf Juryman Yilate, a Batch of Sixteen ; 
pleading hard, protesting that they acted by ordei-s t 
but pleading in vain. Thus men break the axe 
with which they have done hateful things ; the axe 
itself having grown hateful. For the rest, Fonquier 
died hard enough. "Where are thy Batches?" 
howled the people. — " Hungry canaille," asked Fou- 
quier, '^ is thy Bread cheaper, wanting them ?" 

1842. Bemarkable Fonquier; once but as other 
Attorneys and Ltaw-beagles, which hunt ravenous on 
this Earth, a well known phasls of human nature ; 
and now thou art and remainest the most remarka- 
ble Attorney that ever lived and hunted in the Up- 
pa: Air ! For, in this terrestrial Course of Time, 
there was to be an Avater of Attomeyism; the 
Heavens had said. Let there be an Incarnation, not 
divine, of the venatory Attorney-spirit which keeps 
its eye on the bond only ; — and lo, thi& was it ; and 
they have attomeyed it in its turn. Vanish, then, 
thou rat-eyed Incarnation of Attomeyism ; who at 
bottom wert but as other Attorneys, and too hungry 
sons of Adam ! Juryman Vilate had striven hard for 
life, and published, from his Prison, an ingenious 
Book, not unknown to us ; but it would not stead : 
he also had to vanish ; and this his Book of the 
" Secret Causes of Thermidor'' full of lies, with par- 
ticles of truth in it undiscoverable otherwise, is all 

that remains of him. 



1843. Revolutionary Tribunal has <1 one; but venge- 
ance has not done. Representative Leb<ni, after 
long struggling, is handed over to the ordinary Law 
Courts, and by them guillotined. Nay at Lyons and 
elsewhere, resuscitated Moderatism, in its venge- 
ance, will not wait the slow process of Law ; bat 
bursts into the Prisons, sets fire to the Pnsons; 
bums some three-score imprisoned Jacobins to dire 
death, or chokes them " with the smoke of straw." 
There go vengeful truculent "Companies of Jesus,*' 
" Companies of the Sun;" slaying Jacobinism wher- 
ever they meet with it ; flinging it into the Rhone- 
stream ; which once more bears seaward a horrid 
cargo.* Whereupon, at Toulon, Jacobinism rises in 
revolt; and is like to hang the National Repree^t^ 
tives. — With such action and reaction, is not a poor 
National Convention hard bested? It is like the 
settlement of winds and waters, of seas long tornado- 
beaten; and goes on with jumble and with jtmgle. 
Now flung aloft, now sunk in trough of the sea, your 
Vessel of the Republic has need of all pilotage and 

1844. What Parliament that ever sat under the 
Moon had such a series of destinies as this National 
Convention of France ? It came together to make the 
Constitution, and instead of that, it has had to 
make nothing but destruction and confusion; to 
bum-up Catholicisms, Aristocratisms ; to worship 
Reason and dig Saltpeter ; to fight Titanieally with 
itself and with the whole world. A Convention 

• Moniteur du 27 Juln, du 31 Aout, 1795; *• Deux Amis," 
xiii. 121-129. 


deeimated by the Guillotine ; above the tenth man 
has bowed his neck to the axe. Which has seen 
Carmagnoles danced before it, and patriotic strophes 
sung ajnid Church-spoils ; the wounded of the 10th 
ot August defile- in hand-barrows; and, in the Pan- 
demonial Midnight, Egalit^'s dames in tricolor 
drink lemonade, and spectrum of Sieyes mount, say- 
ing, Death sans phrase, A Convention which has 
effervesced, and which has congealed; which has 
been red with rage, and also pale with rage ; sitting 
with pistols in its pocket, drawing sword (in a mo- 
ment of eflfervescence) : now storming to the four 
winds, through a Danton-voice, Awake, O France, 
and smite the tyrants ; now frozen mute under its 
Sobespierre, and answering his dirge-voice by a du- 
bious gasp. Assassinated, decimated; stabbed at, 
shot at, in baths, on streets and staircases ; which 
has be^i the nucleus of Chaos. Has it not heard the 
chimes at midnight ? It has deliberated, beset by 
100,000 armed men with artillery furnaces and pro- 
vision-carts. It has been betocsined, bestormed; 
overflooded by black deluges of Sanscnlottism ; and 
has heard the shrill cry, Bread and Soap. For, as we 
say, it was the nucleus of Chaos : it sat as the center 
of Sansculottism ; and had spread its pavilion on the 
waste Deep, where is neither path nor landmark, 
neither bottom nor shore. In intrinsic valor, inge- 
nuity, fidelity, and general force and manhood, it 
has perhaps not far surpassed the average of Parlia- 
ments ; but in frankness of purpose, in singularity 
of position, it seeks its fellow. One other Sansculot- 
tic submersion, or at most two, and this wearied ves- 
sel of a Convention reaches land. 


1845. ReToIt of Germinal 12th ended as a vain 
cry ; moribund Sanscalottism was swept back into 
invisibility. There it has lain moaning these six 
weeks : moaning, and also scheming. Jacobins dis- 
armed, flung fbrth from their Tribune in mid-air, 
must needs try to help themselves, in secret cofnclaye 
under ground. Lo therefore, on the First day of the 
month Prairial, 20th of May, 1795, sound of the g€n€- 
rale once more ; beating sharp ran-tan, To arms, to 

1846. Sanscnlottism has risen, yet again, ftom. 
its death -lair ; waste, wild-flowing, as the unfruitf^ 
Sea. Saint- Antoine is afoot : *' Bread and Constitu* 
tion of Ninety-three, " so sounds it ; so stands it 
written with chalk on the hats of men. They have 
their pikes, their firelocks; Paper of Grievances; 
standards ; printed Proclamation, drawn-up in quite 
of&cial manner, — considering this, and also consider- 
ing that, they, a much-enduring Sovereign People, 
are in Insurrection ; will have Bread and the Con- 
stitution of Ninetj -three. And so the Barriers are 
seized, and the g^n<^rale beats, and tocsins discourse 
discord. Black deluges overflow the Tuileries ; spite 
of sentries, the Sanctuary itself is invaded : enter, to 
our Order of the Day, a torrent of disheveled women, 
wailing, "Bread! Bread!*' President may well 
cover himself; and have his own tocsin rung in " the 
Pavilion of Unity ;" the ship of the State again 
labors and leaks; overwashed, near to swuuping, 
with unfruitfhl brine. 

1847. What a day, once more ! Women are driven 
out; men storm irresistibly in ; choke all corridozSi 


thunder -at all gates. Deputies, putting forth head^ 
obtest, conjure; Saint- Antoine rages, "Brfead and 
Constitution. " Report has risen that the " Conven- 
tion is assassinating the women : "^ crushing and 
rushing, clangor and furor! The oak doors have 
become as oak tambourines, sounding under the axe 
of Saint- Antoine ; plaster^work crackles, wood-work 
booms and jingles; door starts up; — bursts-in Saint- 
Antoine with frenzy and vociferation, with Rag- 
standards, printed Proclamation, drum-music : as- 
tonishment to eye and ear. Gendarmes, loyal Sec^ 
tionera charge through the other door ; they are re- 
charged : musketry exploding: Saint- Antoine cannot 
be expelled. Obtesting Deputies obtest vainly : Re- 
spect the President; approach not the President? 
Deputy F^raud, stretching out his hands, baring his 
bosom scarred in the Spanish wars, obtests vainly ; 
threatens and resists vainly. Rebellious Deputy of 
the Sovereign, if thou have fought, have not we too ? 
We have no Bread, no Constitution I They wrench 
poor F^raud ; they tumble him, trample him, wrath 
waxing to see itself work : they drag him into the 
corridor, dead or near it ; sever his head, and &x it 
on a pike. Ah, did an unexampled Convention want 
this variety of destiny, too, then ? F^raud's bloody 
head goes on a pike. Such a game has begun; Paris 
and the Earth may wait how it will end. 

1848. And so it billows free through all Corridors; 
within and without, far as the eye reaches, nothing but 
Bedlam, and the great Deep broken loose I Presi- 
dent Boissy d'Anglas sits like a rock : the rest of the 
Convention is floated " to the upper benches;" Sec» 


tioners and Gendarmes still rankiHs there to form a 
kind of wall for them. And Insurrection rages ; rolls 
its drums ; will read its Paper of Grievances, will 
have this decreed, will have that. Covered sits Pres- 
ident Boissy ; unyielding ; like a rock in the beating 
of seas. They menace him, level musk^is at him, he, 
yields not ; they hold up F^raud's bloody head to 
him, with grave stem air he bows to it, and yields 

1849. And the Paper of Grievances cannot get 
itself read for uproar; and the drums roll, and the 
throats hawl ; and Insurrection, like sphere-musicy is 
inaudible for very noise : Decree ua this, Decree us 
that. One man we discern bawling "for the space 
of an hour at all intervals. " " Je demande I'arrestar 
tion des coquins et des laches. " Really one of the 
most conprehensive Petitions ever put up; which 
indeed, to this hour, includes all that you can rea- 
sonably ask Constitution of the Year One, Rotten- 
Borough, Ballot-Box, or other miraeuloufl Political 
Ark of the Covenant to do for you to the end of the 
world ! I also demand arre8tvn£7U of the Knasoea and 
Dastards, and nothing more whatever. — National 
Representation, deluged with black Sansculottism, 
glides out, for help elsewhere, for safety elsewhere ; 
here is no help. 

1850. About four in the afternoon, there remain 
hardly more than some Sixty Members: mere 
friends, or even secret leaders ; a remnant of the 
Mountain-crest, held in silence by Thermidorian 
thrall dom. Now is the time for them ; now or neVer 
let them descend, and speak ! They descend, these 


Sixty, invited by Sansculottism : Romme of the New 
Caleiidar, Ruhl of the Sacred Phial, Goujon, Duques- 
noy, Soubrany, and the rest. Glad Sansculottism 
forms a ring for them ; Romme takes the President's 
chair; they begin resolving and decreeing. Fast 
enough now comes Decree after Decree, in alternate 
brief strains, or strophe and antistrophe, — what will 
cheapen bread, what will awaken the dormant lion. 
And at every new decree, Sanscnlottism shouts '* De- 
creed, decreed ! " and rolls its drums. 

1851. Fast enough ; the work of months in hours, 
— when see, a Figure enters, whom in the lamp- 
light we recognize to be Legendre : and utters words: 
fit to be hissed out ! And then see. Section Lepelle- 
tier or other Muscadin Section enters, and Gilt 
Youth, with leveled bayonets, countenances screwed 
to the sticking place ! Tramp, tramp, with bayonets 
gleaming in the lamp-light : what can one do, worn 
down with long riot, grown heartless, dark, hungry, 
but roll back, but rush back, and escape who can ? 
The very windows need to be thrown up, that Sans- 
cnlottism may escape fast enough. Money-changer 
Sections and Gilt Youth sweep them forth, with steel 
besom, far into the depths of Saint- Antoine. Tri- 
umph once more ! The Decrees of that Sixty are 
not so much as rescinded; they are declared null 
and non-extant. Romme, Ruhl, Goujon and the 
ringleaders, some thirt-een in all, are decreed Accused. 
Permanent-session ends at three in the morning.* 
Sanscnlottism, once more flung resupine, lies sprawl- 
ing ; sprawling its last. 

 •• Deux Amis," xlll. 129-146. 


1652. Sticl WMth^lst of Pndrial^^Otliof Mayv 
1795. Second and 3d Of Prairial, dUTing which 8an£h 
culottism still sprawled^ and tinexpectedly rang ita 
tocsin, and assembled in arms, availed Sanscnlottism 
nothing. What though with our Kommes and 
Ruhls, accused but not yet arrested, we make a new. 
" True National Convention " of our own, over in 
the East ; and put the others Out of Law ? What 
though we rank in arms and march ? Armed Force 
and Muscadin Sections, some 30,000 men, environ 
that old False Convention : we can but bully one 
another; bandying nicknames, ^ Muscadins," against 
"Blood-drinkers (Buveurs de Bang)." F^raud'B 
Assassin, taken with the red hand, and sentenced, 
and now near to Guillotine and Place de Ot^ve, is 
retaken ; is carried back into Saint-Antoine :— *to no 
purpose. Convention Sectioniaries and Gilt Youth 
come, according to Decree, to seek him ; nay to dis- 
arm Saint-Antoine! And they do disarm it: by 
rolling of cannon, by springing upon en-^my's can- 
non ; by military audacity, and terror of the Law. 
Saint-Antoine surrenders its arms; Santenre even 
advising it, anxious for life and brew-honse. 
F^raud's Assassin flings himself from a high roof : 
and all is lost.* 

1853. Discerning which things, old Ruhl shot a 
pistol through his old white head ; dashed his Ufo 
in pieces, as he had done the Sacred Phial of Eheims. 
Bomme, Goujon and the others stand ranked before 
a swiftly-appointed, swift Military Tribunal. Hear- 
ing the sentence, Goujon drew a knife, struck it into 

 Toulongeon, v. 297; Moniteur, Nos. 844, 245, 246* 


hi» breast^ passed it to his nejghbox Bonune; and 
Ml dead. Komme did the lik^ ; and axiother all but 
did it; Boman-death rushing on there,, as in electric- 
Ghain, beibre your Bailifgi eould intervene 1 The 
Guillotine had the rest. 

They were the tUtimiJRomanorum. Billaud, Collot 
and Company are now ordered to be tried for life ; 
but are found to be already off, shipped for Sina- 
marri, and the hot mud of Surinam. There let Bil- 
laud surround himself with flocks of tame parrots: 
Collot take the yellow fever^ and drinking a whole 
bottle of bxandy, bum up his entrails,* Sansculot- 
tismi^rawls no more» The dormant lion has be- 
come a dead one ; asid now» as we see, ^my hoof may 
smite hisn. 


1854. So dies Sansculottism) the body of Sanscnlot- 
tism ; or is changed. Its ragged Pythian Carmag- 
nole*danee has transformed itself into a Pyrrhic, 
into a dance of Cabarus Balls. Sansculottism is 
dead ; extinguished by new isms of that kind, which 
were its own natural progeny; and is buried, we 
may say, with such deafening jubilation and dishar- 
mony of fttneral-kneU on their part, that only after 
some half>centuiy or so does one begin to learn 
clearly why it ever wa« alive. 

1855. And yet a meaning lay in it: Sansculottism 

* *'Diotionnalre des Hommes Marquans," 69 Billaudi 


verUy was alive, a New-Birth of TlME ; nay it still 
lives, and is not dead but changed. The soul of it 
still lives ; still works te and wide, thtongh one 
bodily shape into another less amorphous, as is the 
way of cunning Time with his New-Births t — ^till, in 
some perfected shape, it embrace the whole circuit 
of the world ! For the wise man may now every- 
where discern that he must found on his manhood, 
not on the garnitures of his manhood. He who, in 
these Epochs of our Europe, founds on garnitures, 
formulas, culottisms of what sort soever, is founding 
on old cloth and sheepskin, and cannot endure, ^t 
as for the body of Sansculottism, that is dead and 
buried, — and, one hopes, need not reappear, in pri-« 
mary amorphous shape, for another thousand years. 
1856. It was the frightfulest thing ever born of 
Time? One of the frightfulest. This Convention, 
now grown Anti-jacobin, did, with an eye to justify 
and fortify itself, publish Lists of what the Reign of 
Terror had perpetrated : Lists of Persons guillotined. 
The Lists, cries splenetic Abb6 Montgaillard, were 
not complete. They contain tlie names of, How 
many persons thinks the Reader ? — Two thousand 
all but a few. There were above 4,000, cries Mont* 
gaillard : so many were guillotined, flisilladed, noy- 
aded, done to dire death ; of whom 900 were 
women.* It is a horrible sum of humah lives, M. 
r Abb6 : — some ten times as many shot rightly on a 
field of battle, and one might have had his Glorious- 
Victory with Te-Deum. It is not far from the two- 
hundredth part of what perished in the entire Seven- 
* Montgraillard.iv. 241. 

QMILLED ffEMim^. 655 

Ym^St War. By which Seven-Years War, did not 
the great Fritz wrench Silesia from the great The* 
teaa; and a Pompadonr^ stung bj epigrams, satisQ^ 
herself that she cioald not be an Agn^ Sorel ? The 
head of man is a strange vacant soanding-shell) M« 
PAbb^ ; and studies Crocker to small purpose. 

1357* But what if History somewhere on this 
Planet were to heat of a KatioH) the third soul of 
Whom had not, for thirty weeks each year, as many 
third-rate potatoes as would sustain him ?* History, 
in that case, feels bound to consider that starvation 
is starvation; that starvation from age to age pre-* 
supposes much ; History ventures to assert that the 
J'rench Sansculotte of Nilicty-three, who, roused 
from long death-sleep, could rush at once to the 
frontiers, and die fighting for an immortal Hope and 
f'aith of Deliverance for him and his, Was but the 
aecon<2-miserablest of men I The Irish Sans-potato, 
had he not senses, then, nay a soul ? In his frozen 
darkness, it was bitter for him to die famishing ; bit- 
ter to see his children famish. It was bitter for him 
to be a beggar, a liar, and a knave. Kay, if that 
dreary Greenland-wind of benighted Want, perennial 
from sire to son, had frozen him into a ^kind of tor- 
por and numb callosity, so that he saw not, felt not, 
-—was this, for a creature with a soul in it, some as- 
suagement ; or the crudest wretchedness of all ? 

1858. Such things were ; such things are ; and they 
go on in silence peaceably ; — and Sansculottisms fol- 
low them. History, looking bswjk over this France 
through long times, back to Turgors time for in- 

 "Report of the Irish Poor-Law Commission," 1836. 


^talioe) when dtimb Drudgery staggered up to itj9 
King's Pala<C6) And in wide expaofie of sallow i^es, 
squalor and winged raggedneasi presented hieroglyph' 
ically its Petiti«»i of Grievances; and for answer 
got hanged on "a new gallows forty feet high," — con- 
fesses mour&fully that there is no period to be met 
With, in which the general 25,000,000 of Fra&oe suf- 
fered /esa than in this period whidi they name Eeign 
of Terror 1 Bat it was not the 2>ttmb Millions that 
suffered here ; it was the Speaking ThousmidS) and 
Hundreds, ftnd Units ; who Bhiieked and published, 
aiMl made the world ring with their wail, as they 
could and should : that is the grand peculiarity. The 
tVightfulest Births of Time are never the loudH^»eak- 
lug ones, for these soon die, they are the silent ones, 
which can live from century to century ! Anarchy, 
hateful as Death, is abhorrent to the wh(de nature of 
man ; and so must itself soon die. 

1859. Wherefore let all men know what of depth 
and of height is still revealed in man ; ajtid with fear 
and wonder, with Just sympathy and Justantipai^y, 
with clear eye and open heart, contemplate it and ap- 
propriate it; and draw innumerable inferences from 
it. This inference, for example, among the first: That 
'^ if the gods of this lower world will sit on their glit- 
tering thrones, indolent as Epicurus's gods, with the 
living Chaos of Ignorance and Hunger weltering un- 
cared-for at their feet, and smooth Parasites preaching, 
Peace, peace, when there is no peace, " then the dark 
Chaos, it would seem, will rise ; — has risen, and, O 
Heavens, has it not tanned their skins into breeches 
for itself ? That there be no secoud Sansculottism 


itl OUT l^t\ih for a thousand yteatS) let us understand 
well what the first was j and let RitJh aiid Poor of ns 
go and do oMcfwide, — But to our tale» 

1860. The Musca^in Sections greatly rejoice ; Oaba- 
rus Balls gyrate; the Well-nigh insoluble problem, 
JRtpuMic njUhovA Anarch^^ have not we solved it ?— 
Law of Fraternity or jDeatli is gone: chimerical Ob* 
tain-whO'»eed has become practical Bidd^ko-Juwe^ 
To anarchic Republic of the Poverties there has suc- 
ceeded orderly Republic of the Luxuries ; which will 
continue as long as it can. 

1861. On the Pont au Change, on the Placode 
Gr^ve, in long sheds, Mercier, in these summer even- 
ings, saw working-men at their repast, One's allot- 
ment of daily bread has sunk to an ounce and a half, 
*VPlates containing each thtee grilled herrings* 
sprinkled with shorn onions, wetted with a little 
vinegar ; to this add some morsel of boiled prunes, 
and lentils swimming in a clear sauce: at these fru* 
gal tables, the cook's gridiron hissing near by, and the 
pot simmering on a fire between two stones, I have 
seen them ranged by the hundred; consuming with- 
out bread, their scant messes, far too moderate for 
the keenness of their appetite and the extent of their 
stomach. '** Seine water, rushing plenteous by, will 
supply the deficiency. 

1862. O Man of Toil, thy struggling and thy daring 
these six long years of insurrection and tribulation 
thou hast profited nothing by it, then ? Thou con- 
sumest thy herring and water, in the blessed gold-red 
evening. O why was the Earth so beautiful, becrim* 

* "Nouveau Paris," Iv. 118. 


Boned with dawn and twilight, if man*s dealings 
with man were to make it a vale of scarcity, of tears, 
not even soft tears ? Destroying of Bastilles, discom- 
fiting of Brunswicks, fronting of Principalities and 
Powers, of Earth and Tophet, all that thou hast 
daied and endured, — it was for a repuhlic of the Ca- 
barus Saloons? Patience^ thou must have patience: 
thQ ei\d is not yet. 



1863. In fact, what can be more natural, one may 
say inevitable, as a Post-Sansculottic transitionary 
state, than even this? Confused wreck of a Eepub- 
lic of the Poverties, which ended in Reign of Terror, 
is arranging itself into such composure as it can. 
Evangel of Jean-Jacques, and most other Evangels, 
becoming incredible, what is there for it but return 
to the old Evangel of Mammon? Contrat-Social is 
true or untrue. Brotherhood is Brotherhood or Death: 
but money always will buy money's worth : in the 
wreck of human dubitations, this remains indubita- 
ble, that Pleasure is pleasant. Aristocracgr of Feudal 
Parchment has passed away with a mighty rushing ; 
and now, by a natural course, we arrive at Aristoc- 
racy of the Money-bag. It is the course through 
which all European Societies are, at this hour, trav- 
eling. Apparently a still baser sort of Aristocracy? 
An infinitely baser ; the basest yet known. 

1864. In which, however, there is this advantage, 
that, like Anarchy itself, it cannot continue. Hast 


thoni considered how Thought is stronger than Ar- 
tillery-parks, and (were it fifty years after death and 
martyrdom, or were it 2,000 years) writes and nn- 
writes Acts of Parliament, removes mountains; 
models the World like soft clay ? Also how the be- 
ginning of all Thought, worth the name, is Love ; 
and the wise head never yet was without first the 
generous heart? The Heavens cease not their ' 
bounty ; they send us generous hearts into every 
generation. And now what generous heart can pre- 
tend to itself, or be hoodwinked into believing, that 
Loyalty to the Money-bag is a noble Loyalty? 
Mammon, cries the generous heart out of all ages 
and countries, is the basest of known Gods, even of 
known Devils. In him what glory is there, that ye 
should worship him? No glory discernible; not 
even terror : at best, detestabilifcy, Hi-matched with 
dcspicabiiity ! — Generous hearts, discerning, on this 
hand, widespread Wretchedness, dark without and 
within, moistening its ounce-and-half of bread with 
tears ; and, on that hand, mere Balls in flesh-colored 
drawers, and inane or foul glitter of such sort, — can- 
not but ejaculate, cannot but announce: Too much, 
O divine Mammon ; somewhat too much ! — The voice 
of these, once announcing itself, carries fiat and 
pereat in it, for all things here below. 

1865. Meanwhile we will hate Anarchy as Death, 
which it is; and the things worse than Anarchy 
shall be hated more. Surely Peace alone is fruitful. 
Anarchy is destruction ; a burning up, say, of Shams 
and Insupportabilities ; but which leaves Vacancy 
behind. Know this also, that out of a world of Un- 


wise nothing but an Unwisdom ^»n be made. Ar- 
range it, constitution-bnild it, sift it tlironi^ ballot- 
boxes as thou wilt, it is and remains an Unwisdom, 
— ^the new prey of new quacks and unclean tMngs, 
the latter end of it slightly better than the b^in- 
ning. Who can bring a wise thing ont of men nn- 
wise ? Not one. And so Vacancy and general Abo- 
lition having come for this France, what can Anarchy 
do more? Let there be Order, were it under the 
Soldier's Sword; let there be Peace, that the bounty 
of the Heavens be not spilt ; that what of Wisdom 
they do send us bring fruit in its season ! — It re- 
mains to be seen how the quellers of Sanseulottism 
were themselves quelledi and sacred right of In^u- 
rection was blown away by gunpowder ; wherevdth 
this singular eventful History called ** French Bevo- 
lution'^ ends* 

1866. The Convention, driven such a course by wild 
wind, wild tide, and steerage and non-steerage, these 
three years, has become weary of itsown existence, sees 
all men weary of it ; and wishes heartily to finish. To 
the last it has to strive with contradictions ; it is now 
getting fast ready with a Constitution^ yet knows no 
peace. Sieyes, we say, is making the Constitution 
once more ; has ias good as made itp Warned by ex- 
perience, the great Architect alters much, admits 
much. Distinction of Active and Passive Citizen, 
that is. Money-qualification for Electors : nay Two 
Chambers, " Council of Ancients," as well as "Coun- 
cil of Five-hundred :" to that conclusion have we 
come ! In a like spirit, eschewing that fatal self- 
denying ordinance of your Old Constituents, we en- 


aet Bot only i^aat actual OonTention Members are 
re-«ligible,lmt - tkat Two-thii^s of them, mtist be 
re-elected. The Active Citizen Electors ahall for 
this time have free choice of only One-third of their 
National Assembly. Buch enactment, of Two-thiids 
to be re-elected, we append to our Constitution ; we 
submit OUT Constitution to the Townships of France, 
and say, Accept hcth^ or reject both. Unsavory as 
this appendix may be, the Townships, by overwhelm- 
ing mjyority, accept and ratify. With Directory of 
Five ; with Two good Chambers, double-msgority of 
them nominated by ourselves, one hopes this Consti- 
tution may prove final. March it will ; for the legs 
of it, the re-elected Two-thirds, are already here, 
able to march. Sieyes looks at his paper-fabric with 
just pride. 

1867. But now see how the contumacious Sections, 
Lepelletier foremost, kick against the pricks. Is it 
not manifest infraction of one's Elective Franchise, 
Bights of Man, and Sovereignty of the People, this 
appendix ^of re-electing y(mr Two- thirds ? Greedy 
tyrants, who would perpetuate yourselves 1 — For the 
truth is, victory over Saint- Antoine, and long right 
of Insurrection, has spoiled these men. Nay spoiled 
all men. Consider, too, how each man was free to 
hope what he liked ; and now there is to be nohoi)e, 
there is to be fruition, fruition of this* 

1868. In men spoiled by long right of Insurrec- 
tion, what confused ferments will rise, tongues once 
begun wagging ! Journalists declaim, your Lacre- 
telles, Laharpes ; Orators spout. There is Royalism 
traceable in it, and Jacobinism. On the "West Fron* 


tier, in deep secrecy^ Piehegra, darst he trost his 
Army, is treating with Gond^ : in these Section?, 
there spout wolves in sheep's clothing, masked £mi* 
grants and Eoyalists.* All men, as we say, had 
hoped, each that the Election would do something 
for his own side : and now there is no Blection, or 
only the third of (me. Black is united with white 
against this clause of the Two^thirds ; all the Unruly 
of France, who see their trade thereby near ending. 

1869. Section Lepelletier, after Addresses enough, 
finds that such clause is a manifest infraction; that 
it, Lepelletier for one, will simply not confbrm 
thereto ; and invites all other firee Secti<ms to join it, 
"in central Committee," in resistance to eppresson.t 
The Sections join it, nearly {dl ; strong with their 
40,000 fighting men. The Convention therefore may 
look to itself! Lepelletier, on this 12th day of Ven- 
d^miaire, 4th of October, 1795, is sitting in open con- 
travention, in its Convent of Pilles Saint-Thomas, 
Rue Vivienne, with guns primed. The Convention 
has some 5,000 regular troops at hand. Generals i]i 
abundance ; and a Fifteen-hundred of miscellaneous 
persecuted Ultra- Jacobins, whom in this crisis it has 
hastily got together and armed, under the title of 
Fatriota of Eightu^ine, Strong in Law, it sends its 
General Menou to disarm Lepelletier. 

1870. General Menou marches accordingly, with 
due summons and demonstration; with no result. 
General Menou, about eight in the eveidng, finds 

* Napoleon, Las Cases {*• Choix des Rapport8,*vxvii. 


 "Deux Amis,". xiii. 376-406. 


thtit lie is standing tanked in the Rue yivieiine 
emifling vain summonses ; with primed gnns pointed 
out of erety window at hiM j and that he cannot 
disarm Lepelletier. He has to return, with whole 
skin, but without success ; and he thrown into arrest 
as **a traitor/' Whereupon the whole 40,000 join 
this Lepelletier which cannot he vanquished : to 
what hand shall a quaking Conyention now turn ? 
Our poor Convention, after such voyaging, just enter- 
ing harbor, so to speak, has struck on the Jmr; — and 
labors there fiightfully, with breakers roaring round 
it, 40,000 of i^em, like to wa^ it, and its Sieyes 
Cargo, and the whole future of France into the deep ! 
Yet one last time, it struggles, ready to perish. 

1871. Some call for Barras to be made Comman- 
dant ; he conquered in Thermidor. Some, what is 
more to the purpose, bethink them of the Citizen 
Bonaparte, unemployed Artillery-Officer, who took 
Toulon. A man of head, a man of action : Barras 
is named Commandant's-Cloak ; this young Artilleiy- 
Officer is named Commandant. He was in the Gal- 
lery at the moment, and heard it; he withdrew, 
some half-hour, to consider with himself; after a 
half-hour of grim compressed considering, to be or 
not to be, he answers Yea, 

1872. And now, a man of head being at the center 
of it, the whole matter gets vital. Swift, to Camp of 
Sablons ; to secure the Artillery, there are not twenty 
men guarding it! A swift Adjutant, Murat is the 
name of him, gallops; gets thither some minutes 
within time, for Lepelletier was also on march that 
way: the Cannon are ours. And now beset this 

§84 VElfDEMlAlBE. 

post, and beset that ; ir^id and flrin j at Wicket ©f 
the Louvre, in GuMesac Dauphin, in Bad Baiatr 
Honorg, from Pont-Nenf all along the north Qaaor^ 
Boathward to Pont- ci-devant Roy al^— rank totind the- 
Sanctuary of the Tuileries, a ring of ste^l discipline ; 
let every gunner have his match bnmingt and all 
men stand to their arms I 

1873. Thus there is PetniattentiMssion IJirongh 
the night ; and thus at sunrise of the morrow there 
is seen sacred Insnrreetion once i^ain{ vessel of 
State laboring on the hoi^; and tvUnoltuouA sea all 
round her, beating g^n^rale, arming and soundiAgi — 
not ringing tocsin, for we have left no tocsin but our 
ow 1 in the Pavilion of Unity, It is an imminence of 
siiip wreck, for the Whole world to gaze at. Fright- 
fully she labors, that poor ship, within cable. length 
of port ; huge peril for hef . However, she has a 
man at the helm : Insui^ent messages,r6cdlved and 
not received ; messenger admitted blindfolded ; coun- 
sel and counter-couDselt the poor ship labors! — Ven- 
dJiuiaire 13th, year 4: curious enough, of all days, it 
is the 5th day of October, anniversary of that Menad- 
march six years ago ; by sacred right of Insurrection 
we are got thus fan 

1874. Lepelletier has seised the Chuteh ©f Saint- 
Roch 5 has seized the Pont-Neuf, our picket there 
retreating without fire. Stray shots fall from Lepel- 
letier; rattle down on the very Tuileries Staircase. 
On the other hand, women advance disheveled, 
shrieking, Peace ; Lepelletier behind them waving 
his hat in sign that we shall fraternize. Steady ! 
The Artillery-Officer is steady as bronze; cau, if 


need Wete^ be quick as lightning. He sends 800 
muskets With ball-cartridges to the Convention 
itself ; honotable Members shall act ivith these in 
case of extremity t whereat they look^rave enough. 
Four of the afternoon is struck.* Lepelletier, mak- 
ing nothing by messengers, by fraternity or hat-wav- 
ing, bursts out, along the Southern Quai Voltaire, 
along streets and passages, treble-quick, in huge 
veritable onslaught ! Whereupon, thou bronae Ar- 
tillery-Officer— ? " Fire i" say the bronste lips. And 
roar and thunder, roar and again roar, continual, 
voloano-like, goes his great gun, in the Cul-de-sac 
Dauphin against tlie Church of Saint-Hoch ; go his 
great guns on the Font-Boyal \ go all his great guns ; 
— blow to air some 200 men, mainly about the Church 
of Saint-Roch I Lepelletier cannot stand such horse- 
play ; no Sectioner can stand it; the 40,000 yield on 
all sides, scour toward covert* ** Some hundred or 
so of them gathered about the Th^&tre de la R^pub« 
liqne ; but/^ says he, "a few sheila dislodged them* 
It was all finished at six.'* 

1875. The Ship is f^ver the bar, then; ftee she 
bounds shoreward, — amid shouting and vivats! Cit- 
oyen Bonaparte is " named General of the Interior, 
by acclamation f quelled Sections have to disarm in 
such humor as they may ; sacred right of Insurrec 
tion Is gone forever I The Sieyes Constitution can 
disembark itself, and begin marching. The miracu- 
lous Convention Ship has got to land ; — and is there, 
shall we figuratively say, changed, as Epic Ships are 

 Moniteur, Seance du 6 Octobre,1795. 



wont, into A kind of Sea Kymph, ner^ tb ^if mOf d $ 
to roam the wasta A2iii*e, a Miracle in Histdty ! 

1876. "Ifcisiklse/' sa^s Napdleon, " that We fired 
first with blank charge; it had been a wastd of life 
to do that.** Most false! the firing Wad With shai'p 
and sharpest shot, to all men it wa;^ plain that here 
was no sport ; the rabbets and pliuths of Salnt-Roch 
Church show Splintered by it to this hortf.— Singular' : 
in old Broglie*8 time, six years ago, this Whiflf of 
Grape-shot was promised ; but it conld not be given 
then ; could not have profited then. Kow, however^ 
the time is come for it, and the man ; and behold, 
you have it ; and the thing we specifically call Ii^renek 
BevoltUion is blown into space by it, and become a 
thing that was !— • 


ISry. Horner^ Epos, it is remarked, is liko a Bas- 
"Eelief sculpture : it does not conclude, but merely 
ceases. Such, indeed, is the Epos of tfniversal His- 
tory itself. Oirectorates, Consulates, Emperorships, 
Restorations, Oitizen-^Lingships succeed this Bubiness 
indue series, in due genesis one out of the other. 
Nevertheless the First-parent of ail these may be 
said to have gone to air in the way we se6. A Ba- 
boBuf Insurrection, neit year, will die in ih© birth; 
Btified by the Soldiery. A Senate, if tinged with 
Eoyalism, can be purged by the Soldiery; and an 
18th of Fructidor transacted by the mere show of 

FINI8. 567 

ba^ooeta*^ Kiv^F Soldiers* bayoxiets can be tised ^ 
posteriori on a Senate, and make it leap out of win- 
dow^—fttiU bloodless; and produce an 18tli of Bru- 
uiaire.t Sucb cbanges must hapi>en : but they are 
managed by intriguings, caballings, and then by 
orderly word of command; almost like mere changes 
of Ministry. Not in general by sacred right of In- 
surrection, but by milder methods growing ever 
milder, shall the events of French History be hence* 
forth brought to passr 

1878. It is admitted that this- Directorate, which 
owned, at its starting, these three things, an " old 
table, a sheet of paper, and an ink-bottle," and no 
visible mon<;y or arrangement whatever,! did w(m- 
ders : that France, since the Reign of Terror hushed 
itself, has been a new France, awakened like a giant 
out of torpor ; and has gone on, in the Internal Life 
of it, with continual progress. As for the External 
form and forms of Life, what can we say, except that 
out of the Eater there comes Strength ; out of the 
Unwise there comes not Wisdom I — Shams are burnt 
up ; nay, what as yet is the peculiarity of France, the 
very Cant of them is burned up. The new Realities 
are not yet come : ah no, only Phantasms, Paper 
models, tenative Preflgurementa of such ! In France 
there are now 4,000,000 Landed Properties; that 
black portent of an Agrarian Law is, as it were, real' 

* Moniteur, du 4 Septembre, VtVJ. 

t 9th November, 1799 (**Cholx des Rapports/* xvil. l-fl6)j 

t BallleuU *^ Examen critique des Considerations de 
Mad.deSto^l" 275. 



i»ed. What is still stranger, ^e ttnderstand all 
Frenchmen have ** the right of duel :'* the Hackney- 
coachman with the Peer, if insult be given : snch is 
the law of Public Opinion. Equality at least in 
death 1 The Form of Government h by Citizen 
King, frequently shot at, not yet shot. 

1879. On the whole, therefore, has it not been ful- 
filled what was proph^ied, ex post facto indeed, by 
the Arch-quack Cagliostro, or another ? He., as he 
looked in rapt vision and amazement into these 
things, thus spake :* " Ha ! What is this f Angels, 
Uriel, Anachiel, and ye other Five: Pentagon of 
Rejuvenescence; Power that destroyedst Original 
Sin : Earth, Heaven, and thou Outer Limbo, which 
men name Hell I Does the Empire of Imposture 
waver? Burst there, in starry sheen, updarting, 
Light-rays from out of its dark foundations; as it 
rocks and heaves, not in travail-throes but in death- 
throes ? Yea, Light-rays, piercing, clear, that salute 
the Heavens, — lo, they kindle it ; their starry clear- 
ness becomes as red Hell -fire ! 

1880. " Imposture is in flames, Imposture is burnt 
up: one red sea of Fire, wild-billowing, enwraps the 
World ; with its fire-tongue licks at the very Stars. 
Thrones are hurled into it, and Dubois Miters, Mid 
Prebendal Stalls that drop fatness, and — ^ha! what 
see I ? — all the Gigs of Creation : all, all 1 Woe is 
me! Never since Pharaoh's Chariots, in the Red Sea 
of water, was there wreck of Wheel- vehicles like this 
in the Sea of Fire. Desolate, as ashes, as gases, shall 
they wander in the wind. 

* "Diamond Necklace " (Carlyle's Miscellanies). 

FINIS. 66& 

1881. " Higher, higher yet flames the Fire-Sea ; 
crackling with new dislocated timber : hissing with 
leather ai^ d prunella. The metal Images are molten ; 
the marble Images become mortar-lime ; the stone 
Mountains sulkily explode. Respectability, with 
all her collected Gigs inflamed for funeral pyre, wail- 
ing, leaves the Earth : not to return save under new 
Avatar. Imposture how it burns, through fenera- 
tions : how it is burnt up ; for a time. The World 
is black ashes; — which, ah, when will they grow 
green ? The Images all run into amorphous Corin- 
thian brass: all Dwellings of men destroyed; the 
very mountains peeled and riven, the valleys black 
and dead ; it is an empty World ! Woe to them that 

shall be bom then! A King, a Queen (ah me!) 

were hurled in; did rustle once ; flew aloft, crackling, 
like paper-scroll. Iscariot j^galitt^ was hurled in; 
thou grim De Launay, with thy grim Bastile ; whole 
kindreds and peoples ; five millions of mutually de- 
stroying Men. For it is the End of the dominion of 
Impostuee (which is darkness and opaque Fire- 
damp) ; and the burning up, with unquenchable flre, 
of all the Gigs that are in the Earth." This prophecy, 
we say, has it not been fulfilled, is it not fulfilling ? 

1882. And so here, O Reader, has the time come 
for us two to part. Toilsome was our journeying 
together; not without ofiense; but it is done. To 
me thou wert as a beloved shade, the disembodied 
or not yet embodied spirit of a Brother. To thee I 
was but as a Voice. Yet was our relation a kind of 
sacred one; doubt not that! For whatsoever once 



sacred things become hollow jargons, yet while the 
Voice of Man speaks with Man, hast thoa not there 
the living fountain out of which all sacrednesses 
sprang, and will yet spring ? Man, by the nature of 
him, is definable as "an incarnated Word." Ill stands 
it with me if I have spoken falsely \ thine al^q it 
waa to hear truly. Farewell. 


[Dbawn itp bt " Philo," fob Editiobi 1867.] 

{Uav 10, 1774-October 5, 1789.) 


Louis XV . dies, at Versailles, May 10, 1774; of small-pox, 
after a short Illness; Great-grrandson of Louis XIV. ; age 
then 64; In the 59th year of his nominal *'reiffn." Retro- 
spect to 1774: sad decay of " Realized Ideals,'* secular and 
sacred. Scenesabout Louis XV.' s death-bed. Scene of 
the Noblesse enterinsri '* with a noise lilce thunder," to do 
homage tothe New Klngr and Queen. New King, Louis 
XVI., was his Predecessor's Grandson; age then near^ 
—born August 23, 1764 . New Queen was Marie- Antoinette, 
Daughter (8th daughter, l^th child) of the great Empress 
Maria-Theresa and her Emperor Francis (originally '* Duke ^ 

of Lorraine," but with no territory there) ; her age at this j 

time was under 19 (born November 2, 1756). Louis and J 

she were wedded four years ago (May 16, 1770) ; but had as 
yet no children;— none till 1778, when their first was bom; 
a Daughter known long afterward as Duchess d'Angou- 
Idme. Two Sons followed, who were successively called 
** Dauphin;" but died both, the second in very miserable 
Circumstances, while still in boyhood. Their fourth and 
last child, a Daughter (1786), lived only 11 months. These 
two were now King and Queen, piously reckoning them- 
selves " too young to reign." 

December 16, 1773, Tea, a celebrated cargo of it, had 
been flung out in the harbor of Boston, Massachusetts: 
June 7, 1775, Battle of Bunker's Hill, first of the Ameri- 
can War, is fought in the same neignborhood,— far over 



Change of Administration. Maurepas, a man now T3 
years old and of great levity, is appointed Prime-Mfnia- 
ter; Vergennes favorably known for his correct habits, 
for his embassies in Turkey, In Sweden, gets the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs. Old Parlement is reinstated; 
"Parlement Maupeou," which had been invented forget- 
ting edicts, particularly tax-edicts, *' registered," and 
made available in law, Is dismissed. Turgot^ made Con- 
troller-General of Finances (''Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer '• and something more), August 24, 1774, gives 
rise to high hopes, being already known as a man of much 
Intelligence speculative and practical, of noble patriotic 
Intentions, and of a probity beyond question. 

There are many changes; but one steady fact of su- 
preme Significance, continued Deficit of Kevenue,— that 
IS the only History of the Period. Nobiesse and Clergy 
are exempt from direct imposts; no tax that can be de- 
vised, on such principle, will yield due ways and means. 
Meanings of that fact: little surmised by the then popu- 
lations of France. Turgot aiming at juster principles, 
cannot: ** Corn-trade " (domestic) ** made free, '^and many 
improvements and high intentions :— much discontent at 
Court in consequence; famine-riots withal, and "gallows 
forty feet high." Turgot will tax Noblesse and Clergy 
like the other ranks; tempest of astonishment and Indig- 
nation in consequence: Turgot dismissed. Hay. 1776. Flat 
snuff-boxes come out, this summer, under the name of 
Turgotines, as being '"pLaiitvaei*' (in the notion of a 
fashionable suviflBng public), like the Plans of this Con- 
troller. Necker, a Genevese become rich by Banking in 
Paris, and well seen by the Philosophe party, is appointed 
Controller In his stead (1776);— and there is continued Defi- 
cit of Revenue. 

For the rest, Benevolence, Tolerance, Doctrine of uni- 
versal Love and Charity to good and bad. Skepticism, 
Philosophism, Sensualism: portentous "Electuary," of 
sweet taste, into which *' Good and Evil," the distinctions 
of them lost, have been mashed up. Jean-Jacques, Con- 
trat-Social; universal Millennium, of Liberty, Brother- 
hood, and whatever is desirable, expected to be rapidly 
approaching on those terms. Balloons, Horse-races, An- 
glomania. Continued Deficit of Revenue. Necker's plans 
for ' ' filling up the Deficit " are not approved of, and are 
only partially gone into: Frugality is of slow operation; 
curtailment of expenses occasions numerous dismissals, 
numerous discontents at Court : from Noblesse and Clergy, 
if their privilege of exemption be touched, what is to be 

American-English War (since April, 1755); Franklin, 
and Agents of the Revolted Colonies, at Paris (177ft and 
afterward), where their Cause is in high favor. French 


Treaty with Revolted Colonies, February 6, 1778; exten- 
sive Official smugrsrlingrs of supplies to them (in which 
Beaum&rchals is much concerned) for some time before. 
Departure of French " volunteer" Auxiliaries, under La- 
fayette, 177». *' Volunteers" these, not sanctioned, only 
countenanced and furthered, the public clamor being 
Btrongr that way. War from Enj^j^land, in consequence; 
Rochambeau to America, with public Auxiliaries, in 1780: 
—War not notable, except by the Siege of Gibraltar, and 
by the general result arrived at shortly after. 

Continued Deficit of Revenue : Neoker's ulterior plans 
still less approved of; by Noblesse and Clergy, least of 
all January, 1781, he publis&esa Compte Rendu <" Ao- 
count tendered," of himself and them), *' Two hundred 
thousand copies of it sold;''— and Is dismissed in the May 
following. Returns to Switzerland; and there writes 
New Books, on the same interesting subject or pair of 
subjects. Maurepas dies, November 21, 1781 : the e^sen- 
tial '* Prime Minister " is henceforth the Controller-Gen- 
eral, if any such could be found; there being an eveMn- 
creasing Deficit of Revenue,-^a Millennium thought to 
be just coming on, and evidently no money in its pocket. 

Siege of Gibraltar (September 13, to middle of Novem- 
ber, 1782): Siege futile on the part of France and Spain; 
hopeless since that day (Septemberl3) of the red-hot balls. 
General result arrived at is. important: American Inde- 
pendence recognized (Peace of Versailles, January 20 
1783) . Lafayette returns in illustrious condition ; named 
Scipio Americanus by some able-editors of the time. 


Bver-inoreaalng Deficit of Revenue. Worse, not better, 
since Neoker's dismissal. After one or two transient 
Controllers, who can do nothing, Calonne. a memorable 
one, is nominated, November, 1783. Whocontiuues, with 
lavish expenditure raised by loans, contenting all the 
world by his liberality, " quenching fire by oil thrown on 
it;" for three years and more. ** All the world was hold- 
ing out its hand. I held out my hat." Ominous scandalous 
Affair called of the Diamond NecJdcwe (Cardinal de Rohan, 
Dame de Lamotte, Arch-Quack Cagliostro the principal 
actors), tragically compromising the Queen's name who 
bad no vestige of concern with it, becomes public as 
Criminal-Trial, 1785^ penal sentence on the above active 
parties and others, May 31, 1788 : with immense rumor and 
conjecture from all mankind. Calonne, his borrowing 
resources being out. convokes the Notables (First Con- 
vocation of the Notables) February 23, 1787. to sanction 
his new Plans of Taxing; who will not hear of them or 
of him: so that he is dismissed, and "exiled, ' April 8, 
1V87. First Coavocation of Notables,— who treat not of 


this thiner only, but of all manner of publie things, and 
mention States-General among others.— sat from Feb- 
ruary 22 to May 26. 1787. 


Cardinal Lom^nie de Brienne, who had long been ambi- 
tious of the post, succeeds Calonne. A man now of sixty; 
dissolute, worthless;— devises lax-Edicts, Stamp-tax (fidit 
du Timbre, July 6, 1787) and others, with *' successive 
loans," and the like; which the Parlement, greatly to the 
Joy of the Public, will not register. Ominous condition 
of the Public, all virtually in opposition; Parlements, at 
Paris and elsewhere, have a cheap method of becoming 
glorious. Contests of LomSnie and Parlement. Beds- 
of -Justice (first of them, August 6, 1787); Lettresnle- 
Cachet, and the like methods; general '* Bxile** of Parle- 
ment (August 15, 1787), who return upon conditions. Sep- 
tember 20. Increasing ferment of the Public. Lom4nie 
helps himself by temporary shifts till he can, privately, 
get ready for wrestling down the rebellious Parlement. 

1788. Januaby— September. 

spring of 1788, grand scheme of dismissing the Parle- 
ment altogether, and nominating instead a '* Plenary 
Court (Cour P16nt6re}," which shall be obedient in " regis- 
tering" and in other points. Scheme detected before 
quite ripe: Parlement in permanent session thereupon; 
haranguing all night (May 8) ; applausive idle crowds In- 
undating the Outer Courts: lyBspr^m^nil and Goeslard 
de Monsabert seized by military in the gray of the morn- 
ing (May 4). and whirled off to distai t places of imprison- 
ment: Parlement itself dismissed lu exile. Attempt to 
govern (that is, to raise supplies) by Royal Edict simply »— 
*' Plenary Court " having expired in the birth. Bebellion 
of ail the Provincial Parlements; idle Public more and 
more n<»isily approvinsr and applauding. I>estructive 
Hail-Gtorm, July 13> which was remembered next year. 
Boyal Edict (August 8) , That States-Genera , often vaguely 
promised before, shall actually assemble in May next. 
Proclamation lAugust 16), That '^Treasury Payments be 
herceforth three-fifths in cash, two-flfths in paper,*'— in 
other words, that the Treasury is fallen insolvent. Lo- 
in^nie thereupon immediately dismissed: with immense 
explosion of popular rejoicing, more riotous than usual. 
Necker. favorite of all the world, is immediately (August 
20 recalled from Switzerland to succeed him, and be •* Sa- 
viour of France." 


1788. NOVEMBEB— Decembeb. 

Second Convocation of the Notables (November 6— De- 
cember 12), by Necker. for the purpose of settlinj? how, in 
various essendal particulars, the JStutes-General shall be 
held . For i nstance. Are the Three Estates to meet as one 
Deliberative Body? Or as Three, or « wo? Above ail, 
what is to be the relative force, in deciding^, of the Third 
E-^tateorrommonalty? Notables, as other less formal 
Assembtag-es had done and do, depart without settliog: 
any of the points in question; most points remain un- 
Bettled.-^especlaily that of the Third Estate and its rela^ 
live force. Elections begin every where, January, 1789. 
Troubles of France seem now to be about beoomlnjr Kev- 
olution in France. Ck^mmencement of the ''French 
Bevoiution,"— henceforth a phenomenon, absorbing all 
others for mankind,— is commonly dated here. 

1789. May— June. 

Assembling of States-General at Versailles; Procession 
to the Church of St. Louis there, May 4- Third Estate 
has the Nation behind it; wishes to be a main element in 
the business. Hopes, and (led by Mirabeau and other 
able heads) decides, that it must be the main element of 
all.— and will continue** inert," and do nothing, till that 
come about: namely, till the other Two Estates, Noblesse 
and Clergy, be joined with it; in which conjunct state it 
can outvote them, and may become wh-t it wishes. 
*' Inertia," or the scheme of doing only harangues and 
adroit formalities, is adopted by it; adroitly persevered 
In. for seven weeks: much to the hope of France; to the 
alarm of Necker and the Court. 

Court decides to intervene . Hall of Assembly is found 
shut (Satuixiay June 30) : Third-Estate Deputies take Oath, 
celebrated * Oath of the Tennis-Court,"in that emergency. 
Emotion of French mankind. Monday June 22, Court 
does intervene, but with reverse effect: O^ance Hoyale, 
Koyal Speech, giving open intimation of much signifi- 
cance, *' If you Three Estates cannot agree, I the King 
willmysef achieve the happiness of my People." No- 
blosse and Clergy leave the Hall along with King; Third 
Estate remains pondering this intimation. i nter Su- 

Ereme Usher de Brez6. to command departure; Mira- 
eau's fulminant words to him: exit De Br6z6, fruitless 
and worse, '* amid seas of angry people." A 11 France on 
the edge of blazing out: Court recoils: Third Estate, 
other I wo now joining it on order, triumphs, successful 
in every particular. The States-General are henceforth 
•• National Assembly ; " ca led in Bouks distinctively 'Coiu 



stituent Assembly; " that Is, Assembly met "to make the 
Constitution."— perfect Constitution, under whioh the 
French People might realize their Millennium. 

1789. Junk — July. 

Greathope, great excitement, great suspicion. Court 
terrors and plans: oldMar^chal Broglie,— this is the Brog- 
lie who was young in the Seven- Years War; son ot a 
Marshal Broglle» and grandson of another, who much 
filled the Newspapers in their time. Gardes Franyaises 
at Paris need to be confined to their quarters; and cannot 
(Juue2b). Sunday, July 12, News that Necker is dismissed, 
and gone homeward overnight; panic terror of Paris, 
kindling into hot frenzy:— ends in besieging the Bastille; 
and in taking it, chiefly by infinite noise, the Gardes 
Frangaises at length mutely assisting in the rear. Bas- 
tille falls, " like tho City of Jericho, by sound," Tuesday, 
July It, 1789. Kind of " fire-baptism " to the Revolution; 
which continues insupprcssible thenceforth, and be- 
yond hope of suppression. Ail France, *'a8 National 
Guards, to suppress Brigands and enemies to the wmkiynf 
of theConstitution«" takes arms. 

1789. August— OcTOBEB. 

Sdpio Americanus, Mayor Bailly and '*PatroUoti8m 
versus Patriotism" (August, September). Hope, terrpr, 
suspicion, excitement, rising over more, towani the tran- 
scendental pitch :— continued scarcity of grain . Progress 
toward 5th of October, called here "Insurrection of 
Women." Regiment do Flandre has come to Versailles 
(September 23); Officers have had a dinner (Octobers), 
with much demonstration and gesticulative foolery, of an 
anti-constitutional and monarchic character. Paris, semi- 
delirious, hears of it (Sunday, October 4). with endless emo- 
tion;— next day, some '* 10,000 women " (men being under 
awe of " PatroUotism") march upon Versailles; followed 
by endless miscellaneous multitudes, and finally by La- 
fayette and National Guards. Phenomena and procedure 
there. Result is, they bring the Royal Family and Na- 
tional Assembly home with them to Paris; Paris there- 
after Center of the Revolution, and October 5 a memora- 
ble day 

1789. October— December. 

" First Emigration," of certain higher Noblesse and 
Princes of the Blood; which more or less continues 
4,hrough the ensuing years, and at length on an altogether 


profuse scale. Much legral inquiring and procedure as to 
Philippe d' Orleans and his (imaginary) concern in this 5th 
of October; who reti»-es to England for a while, and is ill 
seen by the polite classes there. 


(January, 1700—Augitat 12, 1792.) 

Constitution-building, and its diflBcultfes and accompani- 
ments. Clubs, Journalisms; advent of anarchic souls 
from every quarter of the world. February 4, King's visit 
to Constituent Assembly; emotion thereupon and Na- 
tional Oath, which flies over France. Progress of swear- 
ing it, detailed. General " Federation," or mutual Oath of 
all Frenchmen, otherwise called "Feast of Pikes " (Ju y 
14, Anniversary of Bastille-day), Which also is a memora- 
ble Day. Its effects oathe Military, in Lieutenant Na- 
poleon Bonaparte's experience. 

General disorganization of the Army, and attempts to 
mend it. Affair of Nanci (catastrophe is August 31); 
called*' Massacre of Nanci: " irritation thereupon. Mu- 
tineer Swiss sent to the Galleys; solemn Funeral-service 
for the Slain at Nanci (September 20), and riotous menaces 
and mobs in consequence. Steady progress of disorgani- 
zation, of anarchy spiritual and practical. Mlrabeau, 
desperate of Constitution-building under such accom- 
paniments, has interviews with the Queen, and contem- 
plates great things. 

1791. April — ^July. 

Death of Mirabeau (April 2): last chance of guiding or 
controlling this t\ evolution gone thereby. Royal Family, 
still hopeful to control it, means to get away from Paris 
as the first step. Suspected of such intention ; visitto St. 
Cloud violently prevented by the Populace (April 19). 
Actual Flight to Varennes (June 20) ; and misadventures 
there: return captive to Paris, in a frightfully worsened 
position, the fifth evening after (June 25). *• Republic" 
mentioned in Placards, during King's Flight; generally 
reprobated. Queen and Barnave. A Throne held up; as 
if "set on its vertex," to be held there by hand. Should 
not this runaway King be deposed? Immense assemblage 



petitioninir at Altar of Fatherland to that effect (Sunday^ 
July 17), is dispersed by musketry, from Lafayette and 
Mayor Bailly, with extensive shrieks following, and leav- 
ing remembrances of a very bitter kind. 

1791. August. 

Foreign Governments, who had long looked with dis- 
approval on the French Revolution, now set about pre- 
paring for actual Interference. Convention of Pilnitz 
(August 25-27): Emperor Leopold II., Friedrich Wilhelm, 
II. King of Prussia, with certain less important Poten- 
tates, and Emigrant Princes of the Blood, assembling at 
this Pilnitz (Electoral Country-house near Dresden), ex- 
press their sorrow and concern at the impossible posture 
of his now French Majesty, which they think calls upon 
regular Governments to interfere and mend it: they 
themselves, prepared at present to '* resist French aggres- 
sion •* on their own territories, will co-operate with said 
Government! in "interfering by effectual methods." 
This Document, of date August 27, 1791, rouses violent 
indignations in France ; which blaze up higher and higher, 
and are not (Quenched for twenty-five years after. Con- 
stitution finished; accepted by the King (September li). 
Constituent Assembly proclaims ** in a sonorous voice '* 
(September 30), that its Sessions are all ended;— and goes 
its ways amid "illuminations." 

1791. October — December. 

Legislative Assembly, elected according to the Constitu- 
tion, the first and also the last Assembly of that character, 
meets October 1, 1791: sat till September 21,1792; a Twelve- 
month all but nine days. More republican than its pred- 
ecessor: inferior in talent: destitute, like it, of parlia- 
mentary experience. Its debates, futilities, staggering 
parliamentary procedure (Book V. cc. 1-3) Court *'pro- 
tending to be dead,"— not *• aiding the Constitution to 
march." Sunday, October 16, L'Escuyer, at Avignon, 
murdered in a Church; Massacres in the Ice-Tower fol- 
low. Suspicions of their King, and of each other; anx- 
ieties about foreign attack, and whether they are in a 
right condition to meet it; painful questionings of Min- 
isters, continual changes of Ministry,— occupy France 
and its Legislative with sad debates, growing ever more 
desperate and stormy in the coming months. Narbonne 
(Madame de Stall's friend) made War-Minister, Decembf r 
7; continues for nearly half a year; then Servan, who 
lasts three months; then Dumouriez, who, in that capac- 


ity, lasts only five days (had, with Roland as Home-Min- 
ister, been otherwise in place for a year or more); mere 
" Ghosts of Ministries." 


Terror of rural Prance (February, March); Camp of 
Jaids; copious Emigration. February 7, Emperor Leo- 
pold and the King of Prussia, mending their Pilnitz 
offer, make public Treaty, That they specially will en- 
deavor to keep down disturbance, and if attacked will 
assist one another. Sardinia, Naples, Spain, and even 
Russia and the Pope, understood to be in the rear of these 
two. April 20, French Assembly, after violent debates, 
decrees War against Emperor Jueopold. This is the first 
Declaration of War; which the others followed, pro and 
contra, all round, like pieces of a great Firework blazing 
out now here now there. The Prussian Declaration 
which followed first, some months after, is the immedi- 
ately important one. 

1792. June. 

In presence of these alarming phenomena. Govern- 
ment cannot act; will not, say the People. Clubs, Joup- 
nalists. Sections (organized population of Paris) growing 
ever more violent and desperate. Issue forth (June 20) in 
vast Procession, the combined Sections and leaders, with 
banners, with demonstrations; marching through the 
streets of Paris, *• To quicken the Executive," and give 
*t*S!^^P,*^ ^^ ^^^ time of day. Called •♦Procession of 
the Black Breeches " in this Book. Immense Procession 
peaceable but dangerous; finds the Tuilerles gates closed, 
and no wjcess to his Majesty; squeezes, crushes, and Is 
squeezed, crushed against the Tuileries gates and doors 
till thev give way; and the admission to his Majesty, and 
the dialogue with him, and behaviour in his House, are of 
fljQ utterly chaotic kind, dangerous and scandalous, 
though not otherwise than peaceable. Giving rise to 
much angry commentary in France and over Europe. 
June 20 henceforth a memorable Day.* General Lafayette 
suddenly appears in the Assembly; without leave, as is 
splenetically observed: makes fruitless attempt to rein- 
state authority in Paris (June 28); withdraws as an extinct 

1792. July. 


united into some Nucleus of Force near Paris? Co jrt 
answers. No; not without reason of its own. Barbaroux 
writes to Marseilles for '^SOO men that know how to die; ** 
who accordingly get under "way, though like to be too 
late for the Federation . Sunday, July 22, Solemn Proc- 
lamation that the "Country is in Danger." 

July 24, Prussian Declaration of War; and' Duke of 
Brunswick's celebrated Manifesto, threatening France 
•*with military execution" If Royalty were meddled 
with; the latter bears date, Coblentz, July 27, 1792, in the 
name of both Emperor and King of Prussia. Duke of 
Brunswick commands in chief: Nephew (sister's son) of 
Frederick the Great; and Father of our unlucky *' Queen 
Caroline;" had served, very young, in the Seven-Years 
War, under his Father's Brother, Prince Ferdinand; often 
In command of detachments bigger or smaller; and had 

gained distinction by his swift marches, audacity and 
attle-spirit : never hitherto commanded any wide system 
of operations: nor ever again till 1806, when he suddenly 
encountered ruin and death at the very starting {Battle 
of Jena, October 14 of that year). This Proclamation, 
which awoke endless indignation in France and much 
criticism in the world elsewhere, is understood to have 
been prepared by other hands (French-Emigrant chiefly, 
who were along with him in force), and to have been 
signed by the I uke much against his will. '^Insigne 
vengeance,* *' military execution," and other terms of 
overbearing menace ; Prussian Army, and Austrians from 
Netherlands, are advancing in that humor. Marseillese, 
" who know how to die," arrive in Paris (July 29); dinner- 
scene In the Champs £lys6es. 

1792. August. 

Indignation waxing desperate at Paris: Prance, boiling 
with ability and will, tied up from defending itself by "an 
inactive Government" (fatally unable to act). Secret con- 
claves, consultations of Municipality and Clubs; Danton 
understood to be the presiding genius there. Legislative 
Assembly is itself plotting and participant; no other 
course for it. August iO, Universal Insurrection of the 
Armed Population of Paris ; Tuileries forced, Swiss Guards 
cut to pieces. King, when once violence was imminent, 
and before any act of violence, had with Queen and Dau- 
phin sought shelter in the Legislative-Assembly Hall. 
They continue there till August 13 (Friday-Monday), listen- 
ing to the debates, in a reporter's box. Are conducted 
thence to the Temple "as Hostages," — do not get out 
agcln except to die. Legislative Assembly has its Decree 
ready, That In terms of me Constitution in such alarming 


crisis a National Convention (Parliaraeat with absolute 
powers) shall be elected; Decree issued that same day, 
August 10, 1792. After which the Legislative only waits 
In existence till it be fulfilled. 

iAu^st 10, 1792— October 4, 1795.) 

1792, August — September. 

Legislative continues its sittings till Election be com- 
pleted. Enemy advancing, with [armed Emigrants, enter 
France,Luxembourg region ; take Longwy, almost without 
resistance (August 23); prepare to take Verdun. Austrians 
besieging Thionville; cannot take it. Dumouriez seizes the 
Passes of Argonne, August 29. Great agitation in Paris. 
Sunday, September 3 and onward till Thursday 6, Septem- 
ber Massacres : described Book I. cc. 4-6. Prussians have 
taken Verdun, September 2 (Sunday, while the Massacres 
are beginning): except on the score of provisions and of 
weather, little or no hindrance. Dumouriez waiting in 
the Passes of Argonne. Prussians detained three weeks 
forcing these. Famine, and torrents of rain. Battle or 
Cannonade of Valmy (September 20) : French do not fly, 
as expected. Convention meets, September 22, 1792; Leg^ 
islative had sat till the day before, and now gives place to 
it: Republic decreed, same day. Austrians, renouncing 
Thionville, besiege Lille(September 28— October 8) ; cannot : 
"fashionable shaving-dish," the splinter of a Lille bomb- 
shell. Prussians, drenched deep in mud, in dysentery and 
famine, are obliged to retreat: Goethe's account of it. 
Total failure of that Brunswick Enterprise. 

1792. Dec EMBEE— 1793. January. 

Revolutionary activities in Paris and over France; 
King shall be brought to "trial." Trial of the King (Tues- 
day, December 11— Sunday, 16). Three Votes (January 
15-17, 1793); Sentence, Death without respite. Executed, 
Monday, January 21, 1793, morning about 10 o'clock. Eng- 
lish Ambassador quits Paris ; French Ambassador ordered 
to quit England (January 24). War between the two 
countries imminent. 

1793. February. 

Dumouriez, in rear of the reti*eating Austrians, has 
seized the whole Austrian Netherlands, in a month or 
less (November 4 — 2d of December last) ; and now holds 
that territorv. February 1, France declares War against 
England and Holland; England declares in return, Feb- 


ruaryll: Dumouriez immediately invades Holland; Eng^ 
lish, under Duke of York, go to the rescue: rather suc- 
cessful at first. Committee of Salut Public (Instituted 
January 21, day of the King's .Execution) the supreme 
Administrative Body at Paris. 

1793. Mabch— July. 

Mutual quarrel of Parties once the Klnor was struok 
down: Girondins or Limited ^'legal" Bepubncans versus 
Mountain or Unlimited: their strifes detailed, Book IH. 
CO. 3, 7-0. War to Spain, March 7. Three Epochs in tho 
wrestle of Girondins and Mountain: first, March 10, when 
the Girondins fancy they are to be "Septembered" by the 
anarchic population : anarchic population does demand 
"Arrestment of Twenty-two" by name, in return. Revo- 
lutionary Tribunal instituted, Danton's contrivance, that 
same day (March 10). Battle of Neerwinden in Holland 
(March 18); Dumouriez, quite beaten, obliared to withdraw 
homeward faster and faster. Second Girondin Epoch, 
April 1, when they broke with Danton. General Dumou- 
riez, a kind of Girondin in his way, goes over to the Enemy 
(April 3). Famine, or scarcity in all kinds; Law of Majcir 
mum (fixing a price on commodities). May 20. Third Gi- 
rondin Epoch, ^* ilia suprema dies," Convention begirt by 
Armed Sections under Henriot (Sunday June 2); Giron- 
dins, the Twenty-two and some more, put "under arrest 
In their own houses;"— never got out again, but the re- 
verse, as it proved. 

1793. July. 

Bevolt of the Departments in consequence, who are of 
Girondin temper;, their attempt at civil war. Comes to 
nothing; ends in "a mutual shriek" (at Vernon in Nor- 
mandy, July 13). CJharlotte Corday has assassinated Marat 
at Paris two days before (Saturday, July 13). Great He- 
publican vengeances In consequence: Girondin Deputies, 
Barbaroux, P6tion, Louvet, Gaudet, etc., wander ruined, 
disguised over France; the Twenty-two, Brissot, Verg- 
niaud, etc., now imprisoned, await trial; Lyons and other 
Girondin Cities to be signally punished. Valenciennes, 
besieged by Duke of York since May, surrenders July 26. 

1793. August— October. 

Mountain, victorious, resting on the "Forty-four thou- 
sand Jacobin Clubs and Municipalities;" its severe sum- 
mary procedure rapidly developing itself into a "Reign 
of Terror." Law of the Forty Sous (Sectioners to be paid 
for attending meetings), Danton's Contrivance, August 5. 
Austrians force the Lines of Weissembourg, penetrate 
into France on the East side: Dunkirk besieged by Duke 
of York (August 22) : Lyons bombarded by Dubois-Cranc6 


of the Mouafain, Powder-Magazine explodes; Barrdro's 
Proclamation of Levy in Mass, "France risen against 
Tyrants" (August 33). "Revolutionary Army" (anarphic 
Police-force of the Mountain), September 5-11. Law of 
the Suspect, September 17. Lyons, after frightful suffer^ 
ings, surrenders to Dubois-Crance (October 9): "To be 
razed from the Earth." Same day Gorsas at Paris, a Gi- 
rondin Deputy, captured in a state of outlawry, is "imme- 
diately guillotined^' (October 9): first Deputy who died in 
that manner. Execution of Queen Marie-Antoinette, 
Wednesday, October 16. Execution of the Twenty-two, 
after trial of some length, " 'Marseillaise * sung in chorus" 
at the scaffold (October 31).— General Jourdan has driven 
Cobourg and the Austrians over the Sambre again, Octo- 
ber 16 (Day of the Queen's death); Duke of York repulsed 
from Dunkirk, " like to be swallowed by the tide," a month 


Reign of Terror, and Terror the Order of the Day. Ex- 
ecution of D'Orl^ans Egalit^, November 6; of Madame 
Roland, November 8; of Mayor Bailly, November 10. 
Goddess of Reason (First of them, at Paris) sails into the 
Convention, same day (November 10): Plunder of 
Churches; " Carmagnole complete." Convention " Kcpre- 
Untatives on Mission:" St. Just and Lebon, at Strasburg, 
"Strip off your shoes; 10,000 pairs wanted; likewise 1000 
beds,— under way in twenty-four hours" (November 27). 
Spanish War, neglected hitherto, and not successful ; may 
become important? Toulon, dangerously Girondin in 
dangerous vicinity, Hood and the English and even "Louis 
XVIII." there; is besieged. Napoleon serving in the Ai^ 
tillery ; Is captured, December 19 : "To be razed from the 
Earth." Carrier at Nantes: Noyadings by night, second 
of them December U; become "Marriages of the Loire," 
and other horrors. Lebon at Arras. Maignet at Orange. 
"Death poured out in great floods (vomie k grands flots)." 
Lines of Weissenbourg "retaken by St. Just charging 
with Peasants" {ends the Year). 


"Revolution eating its own children:" the H^bertists 

Siillotined, Anacharsis Clootz among them, March 24; 
anton himself and the Dantonists (April 3), which is the 
acme of the process. Armies successful : Pichegru in the 
Netherlands; defeat of Austrians at Moneron, April 29; 
of Austrian Emperor at Turcoing, May 18: successes of 
Dugommier against Spain (May 23), which continue in 
brilliant series, till the business ends, and he ends "killed 
by a cannon-shot," six months hence. June 1, Howe's 
Sea-victory ; and Fable of the Ven geur. General Jourdan : 
Battle of Fleurus, sore stroke against the Austrian Neth- 
erlands (June 26). 


Conspiracy of Mountain against Robespierre: Tallien 
»nd others desirous not to be "eaten." Last scenes of 
Hobespierre: July 28 (to Thermidor, Year 0), g-uillotined 
with his Consorts;— which, unexpectedly, ends the Reign 
of Terror. Victorious French Armies: enter Cologne, 
October 6; masters of Spani^ bulwarks (Dugommier 
shot), October 17: Duke of York and Dutch Stadtholder in 
a ruinous condition. Reaction against Robespierre: 
**whole Nation a Committee of Mercy." Jacobins Club 
assaulted by mob; shut up, November 10-12. Law of 
Maximum abolished, December 24. Duke of York gone 
home; Pichegru and 70,000 overrun Holland; frost so 
hard, " hussars can take ships." 


Stadtholder quits Holland, January 19; glad to get across 
to England; Spanish Cities "opening to the petard*' 
(Rosas first, January 5, and rapidly thereafter, till almost 
Madrid come in view). Continued downfall of Sansculot- 
tism. Effervescence of luxury; La Cabarus; Greek Cos- 
tumes; Jeunesse Dor6e; balls in flesh-colored drawers. 
Sansculottism rises twice in Insurrection; both times in 
vain. Insurrection of Germinal (*' 13 Germinal," Year 3, 
April 1, 1795); ends by "two blank cannon-shot" from 

1795. April — October. 

Prussia makes Peace of B§.le (Basel), April 5; Spain, 
Peace of Bale a three-months later. Armies everywhere 
successful : Catalogue of Victories and Conquests hung up 
in the Convention Hall. Famine of the lower classes. 
Fouquier Tinville guillotined (May 8). Insurrection of 
Prairial, the Second attempt of Sansculottism to recover 
power ("1 Prairial," May 20); Deputy F^raud massacred: 
issues in the Disarming and Finishing of Sansculottism. 
Emigrant Invasion, in English ships, lands atQuiberon, 
and is blown to pieces (July 15-20): La Vendue, which had 
before been three years in Revolt, is hereby kindled into 
a "Second" less important "Revolt of La Vendue," which 
lasts some eight months. Reactionary "Companies of 
Jesus," "Companies of the Sun," assassinating Jacobins 
In the Rhone Countries (July, August). New Constitution : 
l)irectory and Consuls,— Two-thirds of the Convention to 
be re-elected. Objections to that clause. Section Lepelle- 
tier, and miscellaneous Discontented, revolt against it: 
Insurrection of Vend6miaire, Last of the Insurrectinib 
(".13 Vend6mairie, Year 4," October 5.1795); quelled by 
Napoleon. On which " The Revolution,*' as defined here, 
ends.— Anarchic Government, if still anarchic, proceeding 
by softer methods than that of continued insurrection.